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Full-Text Articles in Education

A Quantitative Analysis Of Whether Elementary Teachers’ Science Kit Usage And Beliefs Can Predict State Science Assessment Scores, Tony E. Rice Aug 2016

A Quantitative Analysis Of Whether Elementary Teachers’ Science Kit Usage And Beliefs Can Predict State Science Assessment Scores, Tony E. Rice

Dissertations

The purpose of this survey was to describe and analyze the perceptions of elementary school teachers’ in a Midwestern state concerning their use of a science kit program, including to what extent a school’s state science assessment scores can be predicated from the level of science kit usage.

Prior research indicates that elementary school teachers lack the confidence in teaching science primarily because of their weak undergraduate training in inquiry-based instruction and the lack of a strong science background. Authors such as Dickerson et al. (2006) and Riggs and Enochs (2006) argued that science kits and the materials included ...


Principal Leadership: Communication, Support, Management, And Evaluation In Literacy Education In Michigan Elementary Reward Schools Beating The Odds, Jason Michael Surian Jun 2015

Principal Leadership: Communication, Support, Management, And Evaluation In Literacy Education In Michigan Elementary Reward Schools Beating The Odds, Jason Michael Surian

Dissertations

This instrumental case study investigated the instructional leadership role that elementary school principals play in shaping literacy instruction in schools designated as “Reward Schools” through the Michigan Department of Education (MDE) accountability system, explicitly those schools noted as, Beating the Odds; i.e. outperforming predicted student achievement based on school and student demographic variables. The study looks specifically at the principal’s knowledge and application of literacy instruction, his/her mental model for the school’s literacy program, and his or her leadership of the school’s literacy program. The study examined these characteristics of principal leadership in literacy instruction ...


The Lived Experiences Of Veteran Elementary Urban School Teachers: Why And How They Stay, Cynthia A. Anthony Dec 2014

The Lived Experiences Of Veteran Elementary Urban School Teachers: Why And How They Stay, Cynthia A. Anthony

Dissertations

Longevity in teaching careers depends on many things, including job satisfaction, the work environment, career stages, and strategies to manage stress and avoid burnout. Teachers who have high levels of job satisfaction are more likely to stay in the profession. Job satisfaction is dependent on the motivators in a job: administrative support, collegiality, recognition, advancement, and growth. The work environment, job demands, career development, empowerment, and bureaucracy, plays an important role in retaining teachers.

The purpose of this phenomenological study was to examine factors that enabled and encouraged a sample of 12 veteran elementary school teachers in a small urban ...


Evaluating The Use Of The Math Reasoning Inventory For Improvement In Fraction Instruction, Kathy Huffman Boyer Aug 2014

Evaluating The Use Of The Math Reasoning Inventory For Improvement In Fraction Instruction, Kathy Huffman Boyer

Dissertations

In an attempt to close the mathematic achievement gap between students from the United States and students from other countries, a new national set of standards, the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics, was developed and adopted by the state of Michigan in 2010. These standards emphasize mathematical reasoning and application, rather than the previous emphasis on performing calculations. Unfortunately, teachers generally have had little training in how to assess students’ mathematical reasoning, how to teach mathematical reasoning, or how to provide remediation to those students who show need. The purpose of this study was to see if use of ...


Eliciting Elementary School Students’ Informal Inferential Reasoning Through Storytelling, Dustin Owen Smith Aug 2014

Eliciting Elementary School Students’ Informal Inferential Reasoning Through Storytelling, Dustin Owen Smith

Dissertations

One growing area of research on statistical learning is Informal Inferential Reasoning (IIR). Makar and Rubin (2009) describe IIR as having three components: making and evaluating inferential claims, supporting claims explicitly with data, and attending to the inherent uncertainty present in statistical inference-making. This dissertation study was built around developing a method for providing opportunities for elementary school students (Grades K, 2, and 4) to engage with IIR within the context of stories and storytelling through a method called Storytelling-Questioning. After interacting with and discussing two separate stories, it was found that students of each grade level were able to ...


Elementary Principals’ Perspectives On Newly Graduated General Education Teachers’ Abilities To Teach Students With Disabilities In Inclusion Classrooms, Darla Jane England Jun 2014

Elementary Principals’ Perspectives On Newly Graduated General Education Teachers’ Abilities To Teach Students With Disabilities In Inclusion Classrooms, Darla Jane England

Dissertations

Increasing numbers of students with disabilities are being educated in inclusive settings within elementary public schools across the United States. General education teachers are being hired to fill these positions, yet the characteristics principals view as necessary for them to be effective in such classrooms had yet to be explored. This study captured data on the knowledge, skills, and experiences candidates, coming directly out of college, should and do possess in order to be effective inclusion teachers. Principals’ perspectives on inclusion, as well as possible predictors for such perspectives, were also examined.

An online survey was used to collect the ...


Elementary School Teachers’ Use Of Curricular Resources For Lesson Design And Enactment, Napthalin Achubang Atanga Apr 2014

Elementary School Teachers’ Use Of Curricular Resources For Lesson Design And Enactment, Napthalin Achubang Atanga

Dissertations

This study investigated how teachers used curricular resources to teach mathematics with two different curriculum programs, a commercially developed program (Scott Foresman Addison Wesley-Mathematics) and an NSF-funded reform program (Investigations in Number, Data, and Space). This research examines the kinds of curricular resources available to six teachers (three per program), those resources they planned to use, those actually used, ways teachers used curricular resources in association with each other, and types of adaptations made. As a result, I developed insights into capacities teachers need to use curricular resources in a connected way toward the mathematical points of the lesson.

The ...


Differences In Elementary School Team Communication And Practices For Students Of Varied Educational Status, Kathleen Kroll Apr 2014

Differences In Elementary School Team Communication And Practices For Students Of Varied Educational Status, Kathleen Kroll

Dissertations

This dissertation focuses on interdisciplinary problem-solving teams used to address the academic needs of elementary students struggling with reading. Use of teams has a strong theoretical base and wide endorsement by educational leaders, but limited empirical base. Three studies explore teams that convene students of differing academic status: typical learners (TL), literacy-learning risk (LLR), or language-learning disability (LLD).

The first, a survey study of 183 elementary school personnel in 8 professional categories, examines perceptions of teams convened for students with identified learning disabilities in the area of reading, compared with students struggling but unidentified. Results indicate principals, general education teachers ...


Principal Leardership Behaviors Which Teachers At Different Career Stages Perceive As Affecting Job Satisfaction, Valari Hill Apr 2013

Principal Leardership Behaviors Which Teachers At Different Career Stages Perceive As Affecting Job Satisfaction, Valari Hill

Dissertations

The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the perceptions of teachers as to how the leadership of their principal affects their job satisfaction. This study collected the view of teachers at different career stages and examined their perceptions and needs. The participants consisted of 12 elementary school teachers at three different career stages (beginning, middle, and late).

Qualitative analysis of the interview data revealed three major themes and nine subthemes.

The first theme reveals that principal leadership style is not consistent and includes the subthemes: (1.1) principals are not successfully sharing their vision with teachers, (1.2 ...


Establishment And Maintenance Of Academic Optimism In Michigan Elementary Schools: Academic Emphasis, Faculty Trust Of Students And Parents, Collective Efficacy, Jill Van Hof Apr 2012

Establishment And Maintenance Of Academic Optimism In Michigan Elementary Schools: Academic Emphasis, Faculty Trust Of Students And Parents, Collective Efficacy, Jill Van Hof

Dissertations

In response to heightened standards and calls for accountability, schools have dramatically intensified their work to meet the growing challenges. Schools require strategies for improvement that will transcend demographic factors such as SES. Research has shown the construct of academic optimism as contributing to student achievement despite a school’s socio-economic status (Goddard, LoGerfo, & Hoy, 2004; Goddard, Sweetland, & Hoy, 2000; Hoy, 2002; Hoy & Miskel, 2005; Hoy & Sabo, 1998; Hoy & Tarter, 1997; Hoy, Tarter, & Kottkamp, 1991; Hoy, Tarter, & Woolfolk, 2006; McGuigan & Hoy, 2006; Smith & Hoy, 2001; Tschannen-Moran, Hoy, & Hoy, 2000).

There exists, at the elementary level, a lack of research that describes conditions contributing to academic optimism. This research helps to fill that void by identifying, describing, and categorizing the norms, behaviors, strategies, and other pertinent characteristics that exist in a low-SES school that has established and is maintaining an academically optimistic environment.

Via two illustrative and critical-instance case studies in Michigan low-SES, and high-achieving elementary schools, this research describes the work and characteristics of an academically optimistic environment. Study results identify, describe, and categorize elementary school level norms, behaviors, strategies, and building characteristics that may have contributed to the development of one or more of the properties of academic optimism: academic emphasis, collective efficacy, and faculty trust.

Analysis of field-notes from observations, interviews, focus groups; and document reviews revealed two sets of deductive and inductive themes: five primary themes and three secondary themes. Primary themes include: expectations/goals, alignment, collaboration, communication, and a needs awareness/care ...


A Qualitative Study Of Instructional Strategies Used By Elementary General Education Teachers In Inclusive Classrooms, Kristen Peterson Jan 2011

A Qualitative Study Of Instructional Strategies Used By Elementary General Education Teachers In Inclusive Classrooms, Kristen Peterson

Dissertations

It has become evident in recent years that it is not the placement in the general education classroom that makes the difference for the education of students with disabilities, but it is the instructional strategies used by general education teachers (King- Sears, 1997; Vaughn & Schumm, 1995; Zigmond, 2003; Zigmond & Baker, 1995). In the last two decades, considerable progress has been made in designing, implementing, and evaluating effective interventions for students with learning disabilities. Although the research on effective instruction is abundant, studies continue to reveal general education teachers minimally change their instruction when students with learning disabilities are present (Baker & Zigmond, 1990; McIntosh et al., 1993; Schumm et al., 1995).

This qualitative phenomenological study collected data through fifteen in-depth interviews with elementary general education teachers from across Michigan’s Upper Peninsula to better understand general education teachers’ deeper perspectives, thoughts, feelings, and beliefs about their instructional strategies.

This study found general education teachers perceive their ...


Highly Qualified Public School Teacher: Its Status, Distribution, Determinants, And Relationship With Job Commitment And Job Satisfaction, Samuel Striker Jan 2011

Highly Qualified Public School Teacher: Its Status, Distribution, Determinants, And Relationship With Job Commitment And Job Satisfaction, Samuel Striker

Dissertations

Highly qualified teacher (HQT) has been promoted as a policy instrument to improve our public education. In this study, I investigated the quality of public school teachers by examining the distribution pattern of highly qualified teachers across school level, urbanicity, minority student population, and core academic fields. I also investigated what teacher characteristics (age, gender, ethnicity, total years of teaching, certification, bachelor's degree in mathematics and sciences vs. in other areas, teaching level) predict highly qualified teacher status after controlling for school characteristics (% of minority students, % of free and reduced-price lunch, school size, and school location). Finally, I investigated ...


Curriculum Coherence: A Comparative Analysis Of Elementary Science Content Standards In People's Republic Of China And The Usa, Fang Huang May 2010

Curriculum Coherence: A Comparative Analysis Of Elementary Science Content Standards In People's Republic Of China And The Usa, Fang Huang

Dissertations

This study examines elementary science content standards curriculum coherence between the People's Republic of China and the United States of America. Three aspects of curriculum coherence are examined in this study: topic inclusion, topic duration, and curriculum structure. Specifically this study centers on the following research questions: 1) What science knowledge is intended for elementary students in each country? 2) How long each topic stays in the curriculum? 3) How these topics sequence and connect with each other? 4) And finally, what is the implication for elementary science curriculum development?

Four intended science curriculum frameworks were selected respectively for ...


The Effects Of An Inquiry-Based Earth Science Course On The Spatial Thinking Of Pre-Service Elementary Teacher Education Students, Kevin Douglas Weakley May 2010

The Effects Of An Inquiry-Based Earth Science Course On The Spatial Thinking Of Pre-Service Elementary Teacher Education Students, Kevin Douglas Weakley

Dissertations

This study examined the effectiveness of two geography courses at improving student spatial thinking skills. Spatial thinking is an important cognitive skill in the sciences and everyday life. A taxonomy of spatial thinking was constructed by Gersmehl (2008) in geography education which included core modes assessed in this study: comparison, region, transition, analogy, pattern, and association. Two additional modes related to space over time, change and movement, were also assessed. The central research question in this study is: What are the effects of a pre-service teacher education earth science content course (Geography 1900) that is conceptually designed and inquirybased on ...


A Look At The Beginning: Strengths, Weaknesses, And The Support Structures For New Teachers From The Perspectives Of Elementary School Principals, Scott Merkel Apr 2009

A Look At The Beginning: Strengths, Weaknesses, And The Support Structures For New Teachers From The Perspectives Of Elementary School Principals, Scott Merkel

Dissertations

This research examined the perceptions of elementary school principals regarding their beliefs of the strengths and weaknesses of new teachers. The overall research goal was to examine ways that principals evaluate new teachers, their beliefs of strengths and weaknesses related to effective instruction and the effectiveness of structures established to support new teachers. Participants for this study came from 12 different school districts, four from each of the defined and identified categories of rural, urban, and suburban districts. As a secondary focus, a comparison was examined between each of these categories.

A phenomenological approach was used to guide this qualitative ...


Critical Components To Improve Literacy Learning For All Students, Marcia Harriet Kaye Apr 2008

Critical Components To Improve Literacy Learning For All Students, Marcia Harriet Kaye

Dissertations

The purpose of this multiple case study was to understand the critical components to improve literacy learning for all students. The central focus of the study involved looking at principles for classroom instruction in reading and writing that are essential for students to become good readers and writers. According to Allington and Cunningham, the following principles are critical: (a) the amount of time students spend on reading and writing each day, (b) the explicit teaching of comprehension strategies, (c) modeling writing and reading daily, (d) student engagement in thoughtful literacy learning, and (e) literate rich classroom environments.

Six classrooms were ...


Leadership-Influenced Practices That Impact Classroom Instruction Related To Writing: A Case Study Of A Successful Elementary School, Barb Johnson Dec 2007

Leadership-Influenced Practices That Impact Classroom Instruction Related To Writing: A Case Study Of A Successful Elementary School, Barb Johnson

Dissertations

This research studied the practices of educators at an ethnically diverse suburban elementary school which had demonstrated success in the area of student writing, even among at-risk students. The overall research goal was to examine to what extent and how leadership-related practices impacted classroom instruction in a manner that helped produce successful writing scores. A case study approach was used to explore four key leadership-related practices (supervision, curriculum, professional development, and knowledgeable leaders) and their impact on classroom literacy-based instructional strategies.

The study participants included two leaders and fourteen teachers from a single elementary school located in a metropolitan Michigan ...


Resilient Teachers: A Qualitative Study Of Six Thriving Educators In Urban Elementary Schools, Paul Giroux Dec 2007

Resilient Teachers: A Qualitative Study Of Six Thriving Educators In Urban Elementary Schools, Paul Giroux

Dissertations

This qualitative research study used elements of phenomenological and narrative research methodology to explore the common characteristics and experiences of a sample of resilient elementary teachers working in urban schools. The six research subjects in this study’s sample each had at least eight years of teaching experience, and each participated in a cycle of three in-depth interviews designed to determine their degree of resilience and to develop a portrait of their personal and professional characteristics, experiences, attitudes and beliefs. Once the data collection phase was complete, data was coded and then analyzed to identify which of the characteristics and ...


Michigan Elementary School Facility Quality And Its Impact On Student Achievement, Brett A. Geier Dec 2007

Michigan Elementary School Facility Quality And Its Impact On Student Achievement, Brett A. Geier

Dissertations

Studies on school facility quality and its impact on student achievement have been conducted throughout the nation with varying results. Some studies conclude a significant relationship exists between facility condition and student achievement, while others refute this potential phenomenon. Much of the research concludes that not enough analyses have been conducted to make appropriate generalizations. This research study focused on the condition ofelementary schools in Michigan and utilized the Michigan Educational Assessment Program (M.E.A.P.) examinations in reading and mathematics at the third, fourth and fifth grade levels as the dependent variable to assess the relationship between building ...


Experiences Of Michigan Elementary National Board Certification Candidates, Kristen L. Dewitt Jun 2007

Experiences Of Michigan Elementary National Board Certification Candidates, Kristen L. Dewitt

Dissertations

Since 1987, over 55,000 teachers have achieved National Board Certification (NBC), which is claimed to be the highest symbol of teaching excellence and an identifier of accomplished teaching. To become certified, teachers must demonstrate a clear understanding of rigorous standards as defined by the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards.

This phenomenological study examined ten Michigan elementary National Board Certified Teachers and candidates in hopes of better understanding the roles that motivation, support and pressure played in their decisions to seek NBC, and the influence the process had on their teaching. Four critical findings were identified.

The first critical ...


Public School Principals’ Perceptions In Accredited And Non-Accredited Elementary Schools Regarding Strategies To Improve Student Performance On The Michigan Education Assessment Program, Mattie P. Hampton Dec 2000

Public School Principals’ Perceptions In Accredited And Non-Accredited Elementary Schools Regarding Strategies To Improve Student Performance On The Michigan Education Assessment Program, Mattie P. Hampton

Dissertations

The purpose of this research study was to investigate whether principals of summary accredited elementary schools and principals of non-accredited elementary schools significantly differ in their perceptions in regards to selected strategies used to prepare students for the Michigan Education Assessment Program (MEAP). More specifically, this study attempted to address three focused interrelated questions: (I) Will principals of summary accredited elementary schools and principals of nonaccredited elementary schools significantly differ in their perceptions in regards to selected curriculum strategies used to prepare students for the MEAP? (2) Will principals of summary accredited elementary schools and principals of non-accredited elementary schools ...


The Relationship Of Reading Recovery Teachers' Efficacy To Length Of Service And School System Support, M. Louise Moon Dec 1998

The Relationship Of Reading Recovery Teachers' Efficacy To Length Of Service And School System Support, M. Louise Moon

Dissertations

Existing research results directly relate teachers’ efficacy to student outcomes and to continuing staff development and school context; however, little work has been done to investigate these relationships for Reading Recovery teachers. Reading Recovery (RR) is an early intervention program designed to assist first grade children who are having difficulty learning to read and write. This program requires ongoing staff development and an implementation plan designed to provide appropriate school context; therefore, survey data were collected from Reading Recovery teachers to study relationships between teacher efficacy and (a) their length of service in Reading Recovery and (b) support for RR ...


The Use Of Data In School-Based Decision Making, Walter J. Deboer Dec 1997

The Use Of Data In School-Based Decision Making, Walter J. Deboer

Dissertations

This study examined the extent to which various types of commonly available data were used by staff for school-based decision making at 24 elementary schools in the Grand Rapids Public School district. The level of data use w as correlated with measures of school effectiveness. Further correlational analyses examined: (a) whether principals' attitudes toward data influenced the level of data use, (b) whether staff at more effective schools made exemplary or effective use of data to a greater degree, and (c) whether staff at more effective schools were more likely to overcome traditional barriers to data use.

School effectiveness was ...


An Examination Of Factors Contributing To Exemplary Schools In An Urban Public School District In The Midwest, Gordon D. Griffin Dec 1996

An Examination Of Factors Contributing To Exemplary Schools In An Urban Public School District In The Midwest, Gordon D. Griffin

Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to determine whether there were characteristics that identify exemplary elementary schools. Selection of schools was based on standardized scores, principal tenure, parental involvement, Directors of Elementary School’s opinion, and accreditation status.

The demographic information suggested that both groups of schools were similar in composition. Developing schools demonstrated a significantly greater population of students receiving free lunch and a greater population of minority students. Each school principal and staff received two survey instruments: the Leadership Practices Inventory (Kouzes & Posner, 1992), and the School Assessment Survey (Wilson, 1985). The results were compared to determine which characteristics, or dimensions were different. A t test for independent means was computed for the majority of the dimensions. A one-way ANOVA was necessary for several dimensions, and a Kendall’s Coefficient of Concordance (W) was used to assess the dimension of goal consensus. There was support for the four hypotheses: the means of the exemplary and developing schools would be different; the exemplary schools would be identifiable as having common elements; the developing schools would be identifiable ...


The Relationship Between Principals' Length Of Administrative Experience And Organizational Leadership Behavior In Elementary Schools In Saudi Arabia, Hamad Adbulaziz Alkherb Apr 1996

The Relationship Between Principals' Length Of Administrative Experience And Organizational Leadership Behavior In Elementary Schools In Saudi Arabia, Hamad Adbulaziz Alkherb

Dissertations

The study examined educational leadership behaviors among elementary school principals in Qasim region of Saudi Arabia. Seven independent variables using a survey questionnaire among a randomly selected sample from the identified population. Self-reporting elicited, first, critical background information and, second, data concerning 60 specific leadership behavior items important to work issues, critical areas of educational administration, professional relationship situations, and leadership problems ordinarily confronted. Items were grouped according to five categories of twelve items each.

Ninety-six principals or 80% of the survey sample of 120 responded. Focus of the study derived importantly from an extensive and complex review of literature ...


A Study Of The Relationship Between Transformational Leadership And School Climate, Christine L. Jensen Aug 1995

A Study Of The Relationship Between Transformational Leadership And School Climate, Christine L. Jensen

Dissertations

The study investigated the relationship between transformational leadership and school climate in elementary schools in w est Michigan with enrollments of 200-800 students. Eighteen school districts with 294 participating teachers completed two questionnaires.

The independent variable of transformational leadership was investigated by using the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire to measure teachers' perceptions of leadership factors. The dependent variable of school climate was investigated by using the Organizational Climate Descriptor Questionnaire-Revised Elementary. The questionnaire was used to determine teachers' perceptions of principal openness, teacher openness, and overall school climate.

As a result of the data analysis, the investigation supported that there was ...


A Descriptive Study Of The Implementation Process For All-Day Alternate Day Kindergarten Schedules In Michigan Public Schools, Kenneth G. Drenth Jun 1995

A Descriptive Study Of The Implementation Process For All-Day Alternate Day Kindergarten Schedules In Michigan Public Schools, Kenneth G. Drenth

Dissertations

This research project was initiated and designed to gather data on the decision making, implementation, and evaluative processes being used in Michigan schools implementing all-day alternate day kindergarten schedules.

The major issues of concern w ere an assessment of preplanning activities transpiring prior to implementation, staff development preparations, parental involvement in the decision-making process, and evaluative data collected.

Data were collected during the fall of 1994 via a questionnaire sent to 68 Michigan school districts that had implemented an all-day alternate day kindergarten. The same questionnaire was also sent to five Michigan school districts that had implemented the all-day alternate ...


A Study Of The Effect Of Developmental Kindergarten Placement On Student Achievement: Issues And Other Alternatives For The "Unready" Child, Sandra F. Earley Apr 1995

A Study Of The Effect Of Developmental Kindergarten Placement On Student Achievement: Issues And Other Alternatives For The "Unready" Child, Sandra F. Earley

Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of developmental kindergarten placement beyond third grade and whether differences exist in levels of academic achievement between students who participated in developmental kindergarten and those who were recommended to attend but did not.

The target population of this study spanned 3 years and included 203 kindergarten eligible students in a suburban school district in mid- Michigan who were recommended to attend developmental kindergarten. The accessible population was 105 of the original 203 students.

The Michigan Educational Assessment Program (MEAP) reading and mathematics test mean scores were analyzed for both groups ...


Preservice Elementary Education Students’ Beliefs Regarding The Teaching And Learning Of Mathematics, Elsa L. Geskus Aug 1994

Preservice Elementary Education Students’ Beliefs Regarding The Teaching And Learning Of Mathematics, Elsa L. Geskus

Dissertations

This dissertation analyzes the entering and exiting beliefs of preservice elementary education students in three domains. The domains are: (1) the nature of teaching mathematics, (2) the nature of learning mathematics, and (3) the nature of the underlying source of their success or failure in mathematics. The data collection for this study was comprised of two questionnaires. The first questionnaire with 72 items used a five point Iikert scale. The second questionnaire took 10 of the Iikert items and formatted them as an open-ended response questionnaire. Students were to respond favorably or negatively to the statements and provide support for ...


The Effects Of Two Motivational Factors On Accuracy And Persistence For Second Graders, Jesse D. Baker Jun 1993

The Effects Of Two Motivational Factors On Accuracy And Persistence For Second Graders, Jesse D. Baker

Dissertations

Promoting and maintaining motivation in elementary students is an ongoing problem. This study hypothesized that (a) feedback has a greater motivational effect on persistence and on accuracy for second graders than does no feedback, and (b) knowledge of results feedback has a greater motivational effect than does pleasant feeling tone feedback. Evidence from the study showed mixed support for the hypotheses.

The study compared two forms of feedback and the absence of feedback. One group received praise in the form of general, positive statements—classified as feeling tone—about their work while completing mathematics computational portions of the second grade ...