Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Education Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 55

Full-Text Articles in Education

A Qualitative Investigation Of The Interpersonal Changes White Psychology Trainees Experience During Their Race-Based Learning And Development, Molly K. Beagle Dec 2017

A Qualitative Investigation Of The Interpersonal Changes White Psychology Trainees Experience During Their Race-Based Learning And Development, Molly K. Beagle

Dissertations

The current study expands upon prior research that has explored how white psychology and counseling graduate trainees are impacted by their learning about racism. Prior to this study being conducted, research primarily addressed the psychological impact of learning about racism for white trainees. There was minimal acknowledgment and exploration of how learning about racism impacted the interpersonal aspects of trainees’ lives, such as their relationships and larger social networks. The current study addresses this gap within previous research, with it being the first to have an intentional, exclusive focus on the interpersonal impact of learning about racism. The primary purpose ...


From Descendants Of Refugees To First-Generation College Students: The Untold Story Of Southeast Asian American College Students’ Lived Experience, Vunsin Hiew Doubblestein Apr 2017

From Descendants Of Refugees To First-Generation College Students: The Untold Story Of Southeast Asian American College Students’ Lived Experience, Vunsin Hiew Doubblestein

Dissertations

Aggregate data on Asian Pacific Americans (APAs) may show APAs to have exceptionally high educational attainment and economic mobility compared to other racial groups (Museus & Buenavista, 2016). In reality, various APA sub-groups face significant obstacles to academic access and success and are found at both the highest and lowest levels of the achievement, as well as educational attainment and income spectrums. In spite of the growing awareness of and scholarship on the complexity of APA student experience in higher education, there is limited research on Southeast Asian Americans (SEAAs) who have come to the U.S. as refugees, the circumstances ...


The Influence Of Racial Socialization On The Academic Achievement Of Black College Students, Vanessa R. Laurent Jun 2016

The Influence Of Racial Socialization On The Academic Achievement Of Black College Students, Vanessa R. Laurent

Dissertations

Black college students continue to have difficulties reaching academic success in various domains; however, understanding the nature of how academic success is cultivated by Black college students is vital for counselors, educators, and university administrators. The objective of the study was to understand how racial socialization influenced academic success. Research suggests that racial socialization contributes to positive long-term outcomes among African Americans and may be connected to academic achievement (Bowman & Howard, 1985; Boykin & Tom, 1985; Davis & Stevenson, 2006; Neblett, Terzian, & Harriott, 2010; Stevenson, 1994, 1995). Participants were 349 Black college students from a predominately White institution in the Midwest. They were administered a survey packet, which contained a ...


Cross-Cultural Mentoring Relationships Between Faculty And Students In Undergraduate Athletic Training Programs, Scott D. Michel Apr 2016

Cross-Cultural Mentoring Relationships Between Faculty And Students In Undergraduate Athletic Training Programs, Scott D. Michel

Dissertations

The art of passing on knowledge and experience from one generation to the next has been a part of our cultural structure since the beginning of civilization. Whether through verbal or written language, informal or formal mentoring processes have been used by faculty to pass knowledge down to the younger generations of students. Mentoring, however, is not an easy process; especially when the faculty mentor and the student mentee are of different races. With the continual increase in diversity of the student body, there is a growing need for White faculty members to become more culturally aware and to possess ...


Exploration Of Experiences And Perceptions Of Saudi Arabian Students Within A Team Project Setting At An U.S. University, Ronald A. Mckean Apr 2016

Exploration Of Experiences And Perceptions Of Saudi Arabian Students Within A Team Project Setting At An U.S. University, Ronald A. Mckean

Dissertations

Cultural differences between Saudi and American students produce immense challenges to a successful integrative acculturation. Positive experiences can not only enhance the education of international students, but also effect understandings and attitudes of local students, administrators, faculty, and staff. A greater implication of these experiences may be their influence on long term international relationships. Few qualitative studies have been conducted that examine the dynamics of the cultural integration of Saudi students with American students during the acculturation process.

The purpose of this qualitative research, therefore, is to describe and interpret the experiences and perceptions of Saudi Arabian students as they ...


A Phenomenological Approach Examining The Completion Of Latino High School Students Through The Lenses Of Critical Race Theory, Anna M. Rangel-Clawson Apr 2016

A Phenomenological Approach Examining The Completion Of Latino High School Students Through The Lenses Of Critical Race Theory, Anna M. Rangel-Clawson

Dissertations

Latino students represent 24% of the American student population (National Center for Educational Statistics, 2002, 2013). Dropout rates for Latino students living in severe poverty are twice the dropout rate of other Americans at the same income level (National Center Educational Statistics, 2002, 2013). The strongest factor that influenced those who choose to drop out seems to be related to a family’s socioeconomic status (Fry & Taylor, 2013; Rumberger & Lim, 2008; Swanson, 2004).

This study sought to elicit the voices of Latino students who successfully completed high school in a school district with significantly lower graduation rates for Latinos as compared to their district ...


Literacy Practices Among Migrant Teachers: Educator Perspectives And Critical Observations, Briana Asmus Aug 2015

Literacy Practices Among Migrant Teachers: Educator Perspectives And Critical Observations, Briana Asmus

Dissertations

This research builds upon scholarship that explores the unique needs of Latina/o migrant students and the teachers who serve them. Situated within the overlapping fields of migrant education, critical literacy, and Latina/o critical theory, this narrative examines the practices and perspectives of three teachers, each with more than a decade of experience teaching migrant students in a summer migrant education program (SMEP) in Michigan. The purpose of this study is to give educators, administrators, and community members who work with migrant students additional insight into the literacy acquisition process and unique challenges of working with this population.

Despite ...


Pedagogical Approaches To Multicultural Education Within Teacher Preparation Programs, Mark Steven Barajas Aug 2015

Pedagogical Approaches To Multicultural Education Within Teacher Preparation Programs, Mark Steven Barajas

Dissertations

Despite national standards established in 1979, U.S. teacher preparation programs have struggled to incorporate comprehensive, multicultural teacher education into existing curriculum (Sleeter, 2008). The weakness of multicultural training in most teacher preparation programs is theorized as a major contributor to the persistent achievement gap between students of color and White students (Ferguson, 2003). Furthermore, literature indicates White teachers frequently hold lower expectations for racial and ethnic minority students compared to White students and these lowered expectations often manifest as lower academic achievement (McKown & Weinstein, 2007).

This study provides empirical data regarding multicultural education within teacher preparation programs. Individual course sections of pre-service teachers completing a field-based teaching experience were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups or a no-treatment control group. Quantitative measures within a pretest-intervention-posttest research design were used to assess the effectiveness of variation in pedagogical approach of multicultural teacher education. Multiple analysis of covariance allowed for the examination of the extent to which variation of pedagogical approach of multicultural teacher education affected pre-service teachers’ cultural competence. Additionally, this study examined the extent to which differences in field placement sites affected pre-service teachers’ cultural competence. Finally, this study examined the unique interaction effects of variation of pedagogical approach of multicultural teacher education combined with differences in field placement site.

Results from the sample (n = 86; female = 57) indicated treatment group participants experienced significant (p = .001) and meaningful (2 = .303) change in ...


Experiences Of African American Female First Generation College Students, Ashley Green May 2015

Experiences Of African American Female First Generation College Students, Ashley Green

Dissertations

The purpose of this qualitative phenomenology study was to gain a better understanding of the experiences of African American, female, first generation college students attending a large, predominantly White research university and to understand what motivates them. The major research question guiding this study was: How do African American, female, first generation college students (in good academic standing) describe their college experience? The researcher asked the participants to discuss their challenges, how they responded to challenges, sources of motivation, and factors that contributed to their success in college.

Through individual, face to face, interviews with 10 African American, female, FGC ...


The Experiences Of Latina/O Executives In Higher Education, Leonard A. Savala Iii Jun 2014

The Experiences Of Latina/O Executives In Higher Education, Leonard A. Savala Iii

Dissertations

This study will examine the experiences of Latina/o executives (President, Chancellor, Chief of Staff, Executive Vice President, Chief Academic Officer (CAO)/Provost, Central Senior Academic Affairs Officer, Dean of Academic College, Senior Administrative Officer, Senior External Affairs Officer and Chief Enrollment Management Officer, or any administrator with Vice President in their title) in higher education. Throughout the United States there are very few Latina/o executives at either community colleges or four-year universities. Of those Latina/o executives, most serve at community colleges instead of four-year universities. Those Latinos who have served in executive positions have acquired a wealth ...


Black Male Graduates’ Reflections On Their College Experiences At A Private, Faith-Based, Predominantly White Institution Of Higher Education, Kimberly Hayworth Apr 2014

Black Male Graduates’ Reflections On Their College Experiences At A Private, Faith-Based, Predominantly White Institution Of Higher Education, Kimberly Hayworth

Dissertations

This study takes an in-depth look at the experiences of 12 Black males who graduated between 2001 and 2012 from a private, faith-based, predominantly White institution of higher education, with a purpose to better understand the essence of their collegiate experiences. Most research on minority college enrollment has focused on reasons why students of color do not persist (Bowen, Chingos & McPherson, 2009; Douthat, 2005; Tinto, 1993; Western, Schiraldi & Ziedenberg, 2003). Rather than rehearsing reasons for attrition, my dissertation investigated the essence of their collegiate experiences and what could be learned from Black males who did persist to graduation, with a particular focus on the personal and institutional factors influencing their educational journey.

A qualitative research methodology was used to understand the participants’ experience, focusing on the following research questions: How do Black males who graduated from a private, faith-based, predominantly White institution of higher education describe their college experiences? What do they describe as the key personal factors that contributed to their success? What were the personal obstacles they had to overcome? What do they describe as the key institutional factors that contributed to their success? What were the key institutional obstacles they had to overcome in order to succeed? Analysis of the data revealed noncognitive factors positively influenced their educational journey, including (a) their own self-efficacy; (b) overall welcoming “feel” of campus; (c) personal alignment with the campus culture; and (d) availability of support through family; campus mentors; and peers. The participants also shared personal and institutional obstacles they had ...


Cultural Adaptations Of American Teachers In International Schools, David J. Alban Dec 2013

Cultural Adaptations Of American Teachers In International Schools, David J. Alban

Dissertations

Global competition of academic aptitude between countries has sparked policymakers’ concerns with the performance of the United States educational system leading to many educational reforms that direct educators to diversify their instruction to meet the needs of all students. Advances in technology and travel allow people to interact with other cultures creating more globalized societies. These two converging issues place a greater significance on educators to understand the interplay between culture and their teaching practices.

Literature reveals that the influence of home and community cultures affects the learning behaviors of students (Davis-Kean, 2005: Wang, Beras, & Eberhard, 2005; Sigel, Stinson, & Kim, 1993; Cohen, 1987). Culturally ...


A Study Of The Effects Of Charter Schools On Achievement, Attendance And Selected Mitigating Factors In A Midwestern State’S Small Urban School Districts, Frederick C. Clarke Dec 2012

A Study Of The Effects Of Charter Schools On Achievement, Attendance And Selected Mitigating Factors In A Midwestern State’S Small Urban School Districts, Frederick C. Clarke

Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to determine whether students attending urban charter schools did better, or worse, than students attending traditional public schools, over a five-year time period, in a Midwestern state. Thirty-one urban school districts affiliated with a Midwestern Urban Education Association, and corresponding charter schools, located within these Midwestern school districts, were selected to participate in this study.

This study utilized a quasi-experimental research design and was supported by the earlier research of Dr. Gary Miron and Dr. Jerry Horn from Western Michigan University (Miron & Horn, 2000; Miron & Horn, 2002; Miron, 2005) and Dr. Scott Imberman from the University of Houston ...


Traveling With A Purpose: Stories Of Contradiction And Transformation In International Service-Learning, Rebecca A. Mcnamara Aug 2012

Traveling With A Purpose: Stories Of Contradiction And Transformation In International Service-Learning, Rebecca A. Mcnamara

Dissertations

Different conceptualizations of service‐learning are found in higher education, ranging from charity to social justice focused. Little is known about the lasting impact of social justice focused service-learning on undergraduate participants, especially in a global education setting. This study examined the experience and meaning making of participants of critical international service-learning (ISL) over time. Nineteen alumni of five ISL courses at three different higher education institutions were interviewed in this phenomenological study. Participants described contrasting experiences of being both stretched and destabilized, friend and foreigner, and finding the service‐learning both enjoyable and unsettling. The long term impact of ...


Social Justice, White Racial Identity, And Multicultural Competency Among White Master Level Trainees In Counselor Education And Counseling Psychology, Sara Rebecca Streufert Aug 2012

Social Justice, White Racial Identity, And Multicultural Competency Among White Master Level Trainees In Counselor Education And Counseling Psychology, Sara Rebecca Streufert

Dissertations

In recent years, scholars have become more vocal regarding counselors and counseling psychologists’ responsibilities to advance efforts for social change (Goodman et al., 2004; Speight & Vera, 2004; Vera & Speight, 2004). As a result, empirical investigations have started to evaluate variables that may contribute to trainees and mental health professionals’ desire to participate in social justice advocacy (Beer, 2008; Caldwell, 2008; Landreman et al., 2007; Nilsson & Schmidt, 2005). However, most of these studies do not focus on trainees and mental health professionals who identify as White. The present study used quantitative analyses to explore nine hypotheses regarding the relationship between social justice, White racial identity, and multicultural competency among White master level trainees.

Trainees who participated in this study were recruited from master level programs in counseling psychology or counselor education at a large Midwestern University. A total of 208 surveys were used in the analyses of this research design. The measures used include the Social Justice Advocacy Scale (SJAS; Dean, 2008), the Oklahoma Racial Attitudes Scale-Revised (ORAS-R; Vandiver & Leach, 2005), the Multicultural Counseling Knowledge and Awareness Scale (MCKAS; Ponterotto, Gretchen, Utsey, Rieger, & Austin, 2002), and the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MC-SDS; Crowne & Marlowe, 1960). Statistically significant results were found on six of the nine research questions. Major findings suggest that advanced multicultural training, knowledge about diversity and multicultural issues, and White racial attitude orientation have statistically significant effects on White master level trainees’ interest in social justice advocacy. The results of this study, limitations, and ...


African American Male Teachers In K-12 Education: A Limited Quantity, Kelley A. Peatross Jan 2011

African American Male Teachers In K-12 Education: A Limited Quantity, Kelley A. Peatross

Dissertations

This study examined the underrepresentation of African American (A/A) male teachers in three Midwestern school districts. The study sought to determine: (1) the perception of A/A teachers concerning their K-12 teaching experiences when disaggregated by the number of years of teaching, (2) their perception of why they went into teaching when disaggregated by the number of years of teaching, (3) their perception of the need for A/A male teachers, and (4) their perception of value and accomplishments as A/A male teachers in the classroom.

This study utilized a qualitative phenomenological design and was based upon Maslow ...


African American Students’ Experiences, Achievement And Outcomes; Examined Through The Lenses Of Teacher Expectations, Racial Congruence And Stereotype Threat, Carla Postell Jan 2011

African American Students’ Experiences, Achievement And Outcomes; Examined Through The Lenses Of Teacher Expectations, Racial Congruence And Stereotype Threat, Carla Postell

Dissertations

The phenomenological study examined the retrospective perceptions of academic experiences and outcomes of 13 African American full or part-time college students enrolled in either a community college or university located in an urban area. For the purpose of this study, educational experiences are defined as self-reported academic achievements and perceived success levels attained by participants during high school. Academic outcomes are the self-reported academic achievement and success level attained at their colleges and universities. The researcher interviewed participants, using a one-on-one interview process to conduct the interviews.

This study examined influences of race congruence between students and teachers. This topic ...


Comparing Indigenous And External Teachers: Beliefs, Origins Of Beliefs, And Expectations, Richard H. Fowler Dec 2009

Comparing Indigenous And External Teachers: Beliefs, Origins Of Beliefs, And Expectations, Richard H. Fowler

Dissertations

This phenomenology examines rural economically poor school teachers' beliefs, belief origins, and their expectations of and for their students. Data analysis employed two lenses. The proposed lens examined participants as either indigenous or external utilizing Banks' (2001) cross-cultural teaching experiences. In this study, the indigenous participants experienced childhoods in poor rural towns, while external participants experienced childhoods in urban/suburban areas. A second emergent lens examined participants as experiencing working-class or middle-class childhoods. Findings utilizing lens one were mixed and varied with no definitive pattern. The emergent lens utilizing economic class of participants' childhoods found a number of consistent differences ...


African American Student Retention: A Study Of The Effects Of An Intrusive Advising Intervention At A Career College, Deanna R. Burt Aug 2009

African American Student Retention: A Study Of The Effects Of An Intrusive Advising Intervention At A Career College, Deanna R. Burt

Dissertations

This casestudy integrates mixed methodologies to examine the retention effects of an "intrusive advising" intervention using two groups of at-risk, first-time, first-year, African American students enrolled in a predominantly-White, career ("proprietary") college. By design, the study uses data from mixed sources to respond to the overarching research question, "How does intrusive advising influence the retention of African American students who are at risk of attrition?"

Quantitative data was collected and analyzed using a quasi-experimental research design methodology. Qualitative data was collected and analyzed from focus groups, personal interviews, and field notes as a means to provide deeper understanding of the ...


First-Generation, Income-Eligible Peer Mentor Study, Charlotte L. Giscombe Dec 2008

First-Generation, Income-Eligible Peer Mentor Study, Charlotte L. Giscombe

Dissertations

This study was designed to determine how mentoring affects the peer mentor. Despite the proliferation of peer mentoring programs, little research has been conducted to consider how mentoring affects the peer mentor's attitudes, leadership ability, and academic accomplishments when engaging in a mentoring relationship.

The focus of this study is on the at-risk peer mentors who are part of the federally funded Student Support Services (SSS) located on a midwestern university campus, and seeks to ascertain whether their grade point average, retention, graduation rates, self-confidence, self-esteem, self-worth, and leadership abilities are changed by serving in a mentoring relationship. Since ...


Effective Intervention Approaches For Increased Student Achievement With At-Risk Middle School Students: Voices From Parents, Susan J. Peets Dec 2008

Effective Intervention Approaches For Increased Student Achievement With At-Risk Middle School Students: Voices From Parents, Susan J. Peets

Dissertations

Parent involvement is closely linked to student achievement. Research suggests that students, families, and schools benefit from active participation by families in the process of educating children. Many parents provide a broad range of support to their children, although, currently no common agreement on the most effective forms of parent support exists.

This study focused on the gap in the literature as to the needs of middle school at-risk students' parents. Qualitative methods were used to explore how parents of twelve at-risk middle school students (identified by low academic achievement scores of reading at least one year below grade level ...


Bilingual Education, Federalism, And The Political Culture Of American Public Education, 1964-1980, Robert Harold Duke Aug 2008

Bilingual Education, Federalism, And The Political Culture Of American Public Education, 1964-1980, Robert Harold Duke

Dissertations

Five decades of English-only orthodoxy in American public schools came to an end with the passage of the Bilingual Education Act of 1968 (BEA). This research investigates how the convergence of community activism, ethnic pride, and union clout shaped and reshaped bilingual education programming at thelocal level within the broader context of post-WWII American society. By comparing and contrasting the experiences of communities in Texas and Michigan with the newly enacted BEA, this study illuminates the changing political culture of school governance from the high-water mark of Johnson-era liberalism tothe surging tide of Reaganite conservatism. It asserts that the tradition ...


Attitudes Toward And Knowledge Of Affirmative Action In Higher Education, Erika Ann Carr Dec 2007

Attitudes Toward And Knowledge Of Affirmative Action In Higher Education, Erika Ann Carr

Dissertations

Affirmative action has become an increasingly important topic in higher education because colleges and universities are key battlegrounds regarding how affirmative action policies are enacted. Senior-level higher education administrators have historically taken the lead in shaping affirmative action policies in higher education, and knowing their own community's standpoints on the policies could assist them in deciding how to proceed in defending affirmative action in the face of increasing opposition.

This study measures individuals' attitudes toward and knowledge of affirmative action within one university in the state of Michigan, where affirmative action was banned through a state-wide election in November ...


Resilient Teachers: A Qualitative Study Of Six Thriving Educators In Urban Elementary Schools, Paul Giroux Dec 2007

Resilient Teachers: A Qualitative Study Of Six Thriving Educators In Urban Elementary Schools, Paul Giroux

Dissertations

This qualitative research study used elements of phenomenological and narrative research methodology to explore the common characteristics and experiences of a sample of resilient elementary teachers working in urban schools. The six research subjects in this study’s sample each had at least eight years of teaching experience, and each participated in a cycle of three in-depth interviews designed to determine their degree of resilience and to develop a portrait of their personal and professional characteristics, experiences, attitudes and beliefs. Once the data collection phase was complete, data was coded and then analyzed to identify which of the characteristics and ...


Exposing Star Teachers Of Children In Poverty, Bobbi Morehead Dec 2007

Exposing Star Teachers Of Children In Poverty, Bobbi Morehead

Dissertations

Public schools have control over whom they choose to hire to serve as teachers. When quality teachers are hired, all students have a better chance at achieving academic success. It is the responsibility of every public school principal to truly understand common patterns, which can assist teachers to become outstanding teachers, defined in this study as Star Teachers. It is also the principals' responsibility to make sure the work conditions of such Star Teachers are conducive to personal and professional renewal.

The passion to educate all children drives the following research questions: (1) How do Star Teachers describe the significant ...


Gender Disparity In Nigerian Education: Women’S Experience Of Barriers To Equal Educational Opportunity, Eugene Okoli Dec 2007

Gender Disparity In Nigerian Education: Women’S Experience Of Barriers To Equal Educational Opportunity, Eugene Okoli

Dissertations

Discrepancies between males and females in access to schooling, school completion rates, and participation in employment opportunities are still more the norm in some regions of the world than others. Limited access to education plagues women in Nigeria as well as in Sub-Saharan Africa. Disparity in access to educational opportunity is a pressing gender equity issue in Nigeria (World Bank, 2003).

Relatively few studies have focused on obtaining the viewpoints of women who experience this phenomenon. To hear the voices of these women regarding how they gained or were denied access to education in the Nigerian context, a cross-section of ...


An Evaluative Model For Incorporating Diversity Training Into Teacher Preparation, Amy Sue Desonia Jun 2007

An Evaluative Model For Incorporating Diversity Training Into Teacher Preparation, Amy Sue Desonia

Dissertations

In 1949, W.E.B. DuBois noted, "Of all the rights for which the world has struggled and fought for 5,000 years, the right to learn is undoubtedly the most fundamental (Foner, 1970, pp. 230-231)." Yet, inequity, so deeply embedded in the United States public education system, severely inhibits the free exercise of this right by many. Teachers struggle to teach, and students struggle to learn. Preparing pre-service teachers for diversity in pre-kindergarten through 12th grade (PK-12) classrooms throughout the United States is becoming increasingly urgent based on demographic trends--students will progressively become more diverse as they represent different ...


Factors Contributing To Career Success: Perceptions From African American Male School Administrators, Oliver Wilson Aug 2006

Factors Contributing To Career Success: Perceptions From African American Male School Administrators, Oliver Wilson

Dissertations

In this qualitative study, interviews were conducted with seven Black male school administrators in the Michigan school district who held the position of assistant principal or principal. The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of Black male school administrators in Michigan school districts. The interviews were recorded and transcribed. Using a phenomenological approach the participant responses were codified, grouped, and analyzed for emergent themes. Five themes emerged as a result of the data analysis: (1) Colleague support is a key mechanism in the success of Black male school administrators. (2) Parental involvement is important in the success ...


The Effects Of The Michigan Transition Outcomes Project, Jane E. Finn Jun 2005

The Effects Of The Michigan Transition Outcomes Project, Jane E. Finn

Dissertations

This study investigated whether the Transition Outcomes Project used in Michigan resulted in improved compliance with the transition components required by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 1997 (IDEA 1997) and interviewed staff who have implemented this model to identify their perceptions ofhow it affected the transition planning process for students with disabilities. The study used qualitative and quantitative measures. The quantitative measures studied the effectiveness of the model, while the qualitative measures investigated the perceptions of the school personnel who implemented the model in their district.

Findings showed that the Michigan Transition Outcomes Project is an effective model ...


Underrepresented Doctoral Students: The Cultural And Institutional Barriers That Hinder Their Ability To Graduate, Nancy Greer-Williams Dec 2004

Underrepresented Doctoral Students: The Cultural And Institutional Barriers That Hinder Their Ability To Graduate, Nancy Greer-Williams

Dissertations

African American, Hispanic/Latino, and American Indian doctoral students continue to have attrition rates substantially higher than their White counterparts (Lovitts, 2001). Attrition was defined as the act of weakening or exhausting by constant harassment, abuse, or attack (Merriam-Webster, 2004). Research todate on this topic has focused on causes and barriers that can be attributed to mainstream groups, not on particular cultural barriers that may adversely affectdoctoral persistence among underrepresented groups. This study collected the lived experiences of these students at three separate university settings and turned them into conceptualized statements in an effort to understand the meaning of their ...