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An Examination Of How Middle School Principals Make Sense Of Their Role In Leading Standards Based Educational Reform, Barbara J. Maling Apr 2019

An Examination Of How Middle School Principals Make Sense Of Their Role In Leading Standards Based Educational Reform, Barbara J. Maling

Muskie School Dissertations

A dominant feature of the educational policy landscape has been the adoption and use of learning standards to design classroom instruction. As these efforts move forward, often without clear definition of the classroom practices that should be adopted, the role of the school principal is critical in interpreting the changes, and charting a course for the teachers in the building. This qualitative study, examines the sensemaking of four active middle school principals as they interpreted and led standards-based reform efforts in their buildings, using a novel theoretical framework based on prior research (Benford & Snow, 2000; Spillane, Reiser, & Reimer, 2002). In addition, the study sought to illuminate how the forces of the principal's belief in the value of the standards-based education and their accountability to the district and state to create change affected their leadership practice in the school.

Key findings demonstrated that the variation in language related to standardsbased practices posed challenges for principals, and that principals made robust efforts to mediate the collective sensemaking of the practitioners in their buildings, as well the individual teacher sensemaking of the new practices. In the study principals hewed to the unique context of their school when determining what elements of standards-based practices to adopt. Other findings support the idea that a principal' s belief in the reform efforts is a substantially stronger influence on their leadership priorities than a sense of accountability.

This indicates that reform efforts should focus on careful consideration of the language used to describe the practices; they should account for resources ...


A Preliminary Investigation Of Maine Virtual Charter School Costs Relative To The Essential Programs And Services Funding Model, Amy F. Johnson Phd, Fleur Hopper, James E. Sloan Jul 2016

A Preliminary Investigation Of Maine Virtual Charter School Costs Relative To The Essential Programs And Services Funding Model, Amy F. Johnson Phd, Fleur Hopper, James E. Sloan

School Funding - Essential Programs and Services (EPS)

In 2015, the Maine State Legislature’s Joint Standing Committee on Education and Cultural Affairs commissioned the Maine Education Policy Research Institute (MEPRI) to study the state’s Essential Program and Services (EPS) K-­‐12 education funding model in relationship to the funding for Maine’s two virtual charter schools. The study was initiated with a review of available literature and reports on virtual school funding in other states. Because the structure of Maine’s virtual schools differs from typical models in other states, most notably because core academic subject teachers are required to teach from one central physical location ...


Recommendations And Resources For Evaluating Community School Programs, Janet C. Fairman Ph.D., Amy F. Johnson Phd Apr 2016

Recommendations And Resources For Evaluating Community School Programs, Janet C. Fairman Ph.D., Amy F. Johnson Phd

School Improvement

The legislative definition of “community schools” is intentionally broad and anticipates the possibility that community schools might vary significantly in their locally-developed goals and intervention programs. The needs of students and their families may vary by community, as does the array of existing resources available in the surrounding area. This leads to a broad set of possible strategies that may imply different expected outcomes and evaluation processes.

The grant program requires pilot schools to meet certain application criteria. Applications require schools to submit an audit or needs assessment, a community resources assessment, an outline of plans and goals based on ...


Proficiency-Based High School Diploma Systems In Maine: Local Implementation Of State Standards-Based Policy Phase Iv Policy Report, Erika K. Stump, Bernadette Doykos Phd, Catherine Fallona Phd Mar 2016

Proficiency-Based High School Diploma Systems In Maine: Local Implementation Of State Standards-Based Policy Phase Iv Policy Report, Erika K. Stump, Bernadette Doykos Phd, Catherine Fallona Phd

Proficiency-Based Education

In this current year, Phase IV, researchers collected new data from qualitative interviews and document analysis in six case study school districts in Maine, representing a range of demographics, geographic regions and implementation stages. Three of these districts had been involved in at least one year of Phase I-III of this study, allowing for exploration of ongoing implementation practices and comparing perceived challenges and benefits from initial implementation to later stages. Findings suggested that Maine's proficiency-based high school diploma mandate had mobilized PK-12 collaborative professional work, but there was an evident need for even greater professional time for full ...


Using Evidence-Based Criteria For Block Grant Funding Of Collaborative Time For Educator Professional Development, Janet C. Fairman Phd, A. James Artesani Edd Feb 2016

Using Evidence-Based Criteria For Block Grant Funding Of Collaborative Time For Educator Professional Development, Janet C. Fairman Phd, A. James Artesani Edd

School Funding - Essential Programs and Services (EPS)

This report was prepared by the Maine Education Policy Research Institute (MEPRI) at the request of the Maine State Legislature to provide recommendations for the development of a block grant program of supplemental funding to school districts to support evidence-based professional development for educators and/ or leaders or instructional coaching support in schools and classrooms. The report provides guidance to inform decisions on pending legislation, LD 1394, “An Act to Implement the Recommendations of the Commission to Strengthen the Adequacy and Equity of Certain Cost Components of the School Funding Formula”.

The report builds on an earlier MEPRI report which ...


An Examination Of Using Social Impact Bonds To Fund Education In Maine, Erika K. Stump Phd, Amy F. Johnson Phd Jan 2016

An Examination Of Using Social Impact Bonds To Fund Education In Maine, Erika K. Stump Phd, Amy F. Johnson Phd

School Funding - Essential Programs and Services (EPS)

As resolved in H.P. 285 - L.D. 418 (Chapter 52) and requested by the Maine Legislature's Joint Standing Committee on Education and Cultural Affairs, the Maine Education Policy Research Institute (MEPRI) has conducted a study with the purpose of examining current policies and investigating the feasibility of using Social Impact Bonds as a funding mechanism for public education programs in Maine.


Report Of The Commission To Study The Adequacy And Equity Of Certain Cost Components Of The School Funding Formula, Commission To Study The Adequacy And Equity Of Certain Cost Components Of The School Funding Formula Jan 2015

Report Of The Commission To Study The Adequacy And Equity Of Certain Cost Components Of The School Funding Formula, Commission To Study The Adequacy And Equity Of Certain Cost Components Of The School Funding Formula

School Funding - Essential Programs and Services (EPS)

The Commission was created by Resolves 2014, chapter 114, legislation that originated with the Joint Standing Committee on Education of the 126th Maine Legislature. Five members were appointed by the President of the Maine Senate; seven members were appointed by the Speaker of the House. The final two members were the Commissioner of Education or designee, and the Chair of the State Board of Education or designee. The names of Commission members and the organizations they represent, are included in Appendix B.

What follows are descriptions and materials related to each section of the Resolve and the final recommendations made ...


Summer Learning Loss For Maine Public School Elementary Students, David L. Silvernail Phd, Brian I. Mazjanis Jan 2015

Summer Learning Loss For Maine Public School Elementary Students, David L. Silvernail Phd, Brian I. Mazjanis

School Improvement

The goal of this research was to determine if there are statistically significant differences in learning between different categories of students apart from the influences of school. The foundational assumption is that student academic achievement is a product of both in-school and out-of-school factors. While there are many breaks from schooling during the calendar year, the largest by far is the summer recess. This study examined student achievement data measured at the end of one school year and then again at the beginning of the next school year. The study took advantage of the natural experiment that arose when the ...


A Comparison Of A Value-Added Status Model Versus A Value-Added Growth Model For Identifying High Performing Maine Middle Schools, Ida A. Batista Apr 2014

A Comparison Of A Value-Added Status Model Versus A Value-Added Growth Model For Identifying High Performing Maine Middle Schools, Ida A. Batista

Muskie School Capstones and Dissertations

This study focuses on the model developed for funding purposes since it is a high stake identification and has been the consistent method used for funding purposes within the state for at least the last ten years. The purpose of this study is to explore identification of higher performing Maine middle schools (grade 6 – grade 8) using student longitudinal data in a growth model evaluating growth versus the current value-added model of identification.


The Impacts Of Public Charter Schools On Students And Traditional Public Schools: What Does The Empirical Evidence Tell Us?, David L. Silvernail Phd, Amy F. Johnson Phd Jan 2014

The Impacts Of Public Charter Schools On Students And Traditional Public Schools: What Does The Empirical Evidence Tell Us?, David L. Silvernail Phd, Amy F. Johnson Phd

School Funding - Essential Programs and Services (EPS)

The goal of this BRIEF was to compile and analyze the available evidence of the impacts of public charter schools on students and schools. Using a series of five common claims made by proponents and opponents of public charter schools as an organizer, the existing empirical evidence was reviewed. The analysis revealed that student performance in charter schools is very mixed. In some cases studies have found positive effects in achievement, others negative effects, and still others no effects. The presence of charter schools has resulted in positive changes in some traditional public schools, while in other cases there appear ...


Implementation Of A Proficiency‐Based Diploma System In Maine: Phase Ii ‐ District Level Analysis, David L. Silvernail Phd, Erika K. Stump Phd, Anita Stewart Mccafferty, Kathryn M. Hawes Jan 2014

Implementation Of A Proficiency‐Based Diploma System In Maine: Phase Ii ‐ District Level Analysis, David L. Silvernail Phd, Erika K. Stump Phd, Anita Stewart Mccafferty, Kathryn M. Hawes

School Funding - Essential Programs and Services (EPS)

This report describes the findings from Phase II of a study of Maine's implementation of a proficiency‐based diploma system. At the request of the Joint Standing Committee on Education and Cultural Affairs of the Maine Legislature, the Maine Policy Research Institute (MEPRI) has conducted a two‐phased study of the implementation of Maine law LD 1422: An Act to Prepare Maine People for the Future Economy. Phase I of the study in 2012‐2013 reported on the preliminary development, costs and impacts of standards‐based school programs in Maine. Phase II of the study focused on examining school ...


Maine's Improving Schools: An Examination Of Distinguishing Features Of A Sample Of Maine's Improving Public Schools, Erika Stump Phd, David Silvernail Phd, Catherine Fallona Phd, Lori Moran Gunn Jan 2013

Maine's Improving Schools: An Examination Of Distinguishing Features Of A Sample Of Maine's Improving Public Schools, Erika Stump Phd, David Silvernail Phd, Catherine Fallona Phd, Lori Moran Gunn

School Improvement

In 2010, at the request of the Maine state legislature, the Maine Education Policy Research Institute (MEPRI) at the University of Southern Maine (USM) began a multi-year study of two sets of schools in Maine. One set of schools was unique because they were found to be examples of More Efficient Maine schools. The second set were unique because they were examples of Improving schools, schools on their way to becoming more efficient. Following a summary of the findings from the study of some of Maine’s More Efficient schools, this report provides a summary of the findings from the ...


More Efficient Public Schools In Maine: Learning Communities Building The Foundation Of Intellectual Work, David L. Silvernail Phd, Erika K. Stump Phd, Richard E. Barnes, Kenneth E. Kunin, Sarah E. Wintle Jan 2012

More Efficient Public Schools In Maine: Learning Communities Building The Foundation Of Intellectual Work, David L. Silvernail Phd, Erika K. Stump Phd, Richard E. Barnes, Kenneth E. Kunin, Sarah E. Wintle

School Improvement

This report describes the methodology used to identify Maine schools that were outperforming expectations and reports the results from conducting case studies of a representative sample of these and other Maine schools. Through these case studies, we were able to uncover what the schools were doing that set them apart from other schools and what other schools may wish to emulate as they work to build the foundation for improvement within their own schools.


Analysis Of The Essential Programs And Services Systemwide Cost Components: System Administration Operations And Maintenance, David L. Silvernail Phd, James E. Sloan, Amanda Bailey Mar 2011

Analysis Of The Essential Programs And Services Systemwide Cost Components: System Administration Operations And Maintenance, David L. Silvernail Phd, James E. Sloan, Amanda Bailey

School Funding - Essential Programs and Services (EPS)

In the original work of the EPS task force, the members concluded that the actual expenditures for these two systemwide EPS components were adequate. Thus, they set the cost of the two components to be actual expenditures. Accordingly, expenditures for these two components have been inflated each year using a CPI, and these cost figures have been used in establishing yearly EPS allocations.

As required by the statute, the System Administration and Operations and Maintenance EPS components were reviewed and updated in 2007-08. But these cost figures were revised as part of the school district reorganization law. The system administration ...


Essential Programs And Services Review: The Special Education Funding Model, Walter J. Harris Phd, Ida A. Batista Mar 2011

Essential Programs And Services Review: The Special Education Funding Model, Walter J. Harris Phd, Ida A. Batista

School Funding - Essential Programs and Services (EPS)

The purpose of this document is to review the special education funding component of the Essential Programs and Services funding model. This component was first implemented in 2005 -2006 and first reviewed in 2007-08. In order to establish a context for this second review, the sections below include an overview of special education and funding in the U.S. and in Maine.


Analysis Of The Essential Programs And Services Limited English Proficiency (Lep) Cost Component, David L. Silvernail Phd, Ida A. Batista Feb 2011

Analysis Of The Essential Programs And Services Limited English Proficiency (Lep) Cost Component, David L. Silvernail Phd, Ida A. Batista

School Funding - Essential Programs and Services (EPS)

The first scheduled review of the LEP component was conducted in 2007-08, with an additional review conducted in 2008-09, as requested by the Joint Standing Committee on Education and Cultural Services. This report describes the results of the regularly scheduled 2010-11 review.


Analysis Of The Essential Programs And Services Disadvantaged Youth Cost Component, David L. Silvernail Phd, James E. Sloan Feb 2011

Analysis Of The Essential Programs And Services Disadvantaged Youth Cost Component, David L. Silvernail Phd, James E. Sloan

School Funding - Essential Programs and Services (EPS)

Prior to implementation of EPS, Maine’s funding formula had little in terms of prescribed levels of adjustment to insure vertical equity. But beginning in 2005-06, three vertical equity adjustments were put into place (special needs, LEP, and Disadvantaged Youth), and provisions were included in the law for three year reviews of these adjustments. The Disadvantaged Youth adjustment was first reviewed in Fall 2008. This report describes the results from the second regularly scheduled review in 2010-2011.


The History And Developments Of Maine’S Essential Programs And Services Program, David L. Silvernail Phd Jan 2011

The History And Developments Of Maine’S Essential Programs And Services Program, David L. Silvernail Phd

School Funding - Essential Programs and Services (EPS)

The goal of this report is to describe the history, development and current status of one of the key components of Maine’s school funding formula; that is, the Essential Programs and Services cost determination portion of the formula. This report describes the history and the development of the EPS cost determination portion of the formula, and describes how the costs are currently calculated. Descriptions of the second and third major changes in the school funding formula appear in separate materials which are being developed by the Maine Department of Education.


From Ld 1196 To Maine Schools: An Evaluation Of Antidiscrimination Language In Education Policy, Finn Teach Jan 2010

From Ld 1196 To Maine Schools: An Evaluation Of Antidiscrimination Language In Education Policy, Finn Teach

Muskie School Capstones and Dissertations

Since the passage of the antidiscrimination law LD 1196 in 2005, Maine schools have been encouraged to utilize new language outlined in the law which protects gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender students from discrimination. This study evaluated antidiscrimination language in a sample of Maine’s school administrative unit policies and individual school handbook policies to determine to what extent LD 1196’s protections were incorporated to the policies. The evaluation found that school administrative units were much more likely than individual schools to have antidiscrimination policies with the protections outlined in LD 1196. Many administrative unit and school policies lack ...


Adequacy-Based Funding For Small, Isolated Schools: An Approach For Maine, Debra M. Allen, James E. Sloan Apr 2005

Adequacy-Based Funding For Small, Isolated Schools: An Approach For Maine, Debra M. Allen, James E. Sloan

School Funding - Essential Programs and Services (EPS)

No abstract provided.


The Relationship Between Maine School Administrative Unit Size, Costs, And Outcomes, David L. Silvernail Phd, James E. Sloan Mar 2004

The Relationship Between Maine School Administrative Unit Size, Costs, And Outcomes, David L. Silvernail Phd, James E. Sloan

School Funding - Essential Programs and Services (EPS)

No abstract provided.


Essential Programs And Services: Equity And Adequacy In Funding To Improve Learning For All Children, Maine State Board Of Education Jan 1999

Essential Programs And Services: Equity And Adequacy In Funding To Improve Learning For All Children, Maine State Board Of Education

School Funding - Essential Programs and Services (EPS)

This report has been prepared at the request of the Maine State Legislature. It is an attempt to define and quantify the resources that are necessary for each child in Maine to meet the standards set by the Learning Results. The recommendations provide an adequate and equitable amount of resources. The committee has defined "essential programs" to be the eight content areas of the Learning Results. The essential services are all those resources that would be required for each child to meet the standards.

The services deemed necessary for all students to achieve the Learning Results standards are categorized as ...


Financial Characteristics Of High And Low Performing Schools In A Predominantly Rural State, David L. Silvernail Phd Apr 1998

Financial Characteristics Of High And Low Performing Schools In A Predominantly Rural State, David L. Silvernail Phd

School Funding - Essential Programs and Services (EPS)

Do high performing schools use resources differently than low performing schools? What are the connections between K-12 school funding and academic performance? Today several states (e.g., Illinois, Minnesota, New Jersey, Ohio, Oregon, etc.) are exploring answers to these questions as they attempt to fund schools adequately and in more efficient ways. The research literature from early production function studies (e.g., Brown & Saks, 1975; Hanushak, 1979, 1989; Harnisch, 1987) provides some partial answers, but some of the most recent studies have unearthed some conflicting results (e.g., Baum, 1986; Hedges, Laine, & Greenwald, 1994; Monk, 1994; Wenglinsky, 1997). In addition, few of the studies ...