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Full-Text Articles in Education

The Physiology Of Social-Emotional Learning: Integrating Biomarkers Of Self-Regulation Into The Assessment And Implementation Of Programs, Martin E. Blank Oct 2019

The Physiology Of Social-Emotional Learning: Integrating Biomarkers Of Self-Regulation Into The Assessment And Implementation Of Programs, Martin E. Blank

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

In the last two decades, formalized social-emotional learning (SEL) programs in schools have proliferated in response to a staggering increase in mental, social, and emotional challenges for youth. SEL programs differ in their theoretical foundations, though there are commonalities among them. Self-regulation (SR) surfaces as an important pillar. Researchers have relied mostly on self-reporting and teacher questionnaires to measure the effectiveness of these programs to improve SR and other aspects of youth well-being, without explicitly considering the physiological effects of these interventions on the biomarkers of youth. By addressing this gap, program researchers, developers, and educators can reach their stated ...


Summary: Who's Responsible For Job Skills?, Peter Cappelli Sep 2019

Summary: Who's Responsible For Job Skills?, Peter Cappelli

Wharton PPI B-School for Public Policy Seminar Summaries

There has been much discussion in recent years about a skills gap in the U.S., driven largely by employer complaints over filling jobs. The term “skills gap” can mean different things. Usually, it refers to a belief that there is something fundamentally lacking in the labor force. In the typical telling of the skills gap story, schools are failing to educate students effectively and are graduating students who do not have the skills employers need, thus creating a basic skills shortfall in the labor force as a whole. Others who talk about a skills gap really are referring to ...


What's Next For Career Services: Increasing Well-Being And Preparing Students For The Future Of Work, Allyson M. Dhindsa Aug 2019

What's Next For Career Services: Increasing Well-Being And Preparing Students For The Future Of Work, Allyson M. Dhindsa

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

With the world of work becoming increasingly complex and uncertain, career services at colleges and universities is having a hard time keeping up. The delivery of career services has typically evolved in reaction to shifts in societal and economic norms; however, this paper suggests that the theories and research of positive psychology – the study of what makes life worth living – can offer career services a proactive approach to improve upon the current delivery model and its impact on student well-being. While it is clear that occupational well-being is central to the satisfaction of college students with 86% citing job placement ...


Keystone Scholars: A State-Wide Pennsylvania Child Savings Accounts Initiative, Robert A. Nathenson, Amanda Jones-Layman Aug 2019

Keystone Scholars: A State-Wide Pennsylvania Child Savings Accounts Initiative, Robert A. Nathenson, Amanda Jones-Layman

CPRE Policy Briefs

In 2019 the Pennsylvania Treasury launched a state-wide children’s savings account (CSA) initiative, Keystone Scholars. Keystone Scholars provides $100 in college savings to eligible families - all children born or adopted in Pennsylvania after January 1, 2019. In this introductory research brief, we describe how CSAs are an important tool for families to increase educational expectations and asset accumulation, particularly for college savings, offer a preliminary look into college savings accounts in Pennsylvania, and explore how the Pennsylvania Treasury is using data-driven insights to encourage college savings of Pennsylvanian households.


Empowering Student Leaders As Catalysts For Positive Culture, Elizabeth Blaum Aug 2019

Empowering Student Leaders As Catalysts For Positive Culture, Elizabeth Blaum

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

American boarding schools provide a unique environment to explore positive psychology interventions as they relate to both adolescents as individuals, as members of a leadership group and the school community as a unit. Through exploring positive psychology theories and interventions as well as recent findings about the adolescent brain, this capstone integrates the two to build a student leadership curriculum grounded in strategies to meet adolescents where they are and guide them toward safe and self-regulated development capable of contributing to the well-being of a community. Explorations in positive psychology; the adolescent brain; the intersection of positive education and boarding ...


Pathways For Analyzing And Responding To Student Work For Formative Assessment: The Role Of Teachers’ Goals For Student Learning, Caroline Brayer Ebby, Janine Remillard, Jordan H. D'Olier Jul 2019

Pathways For Analyzing And Responding To Student Work For Formative Assessment: The Role Of Teachers’ Goals For Student Learning, Caroline Brayer Ebby, Janine Remillard, Jordan H. D'Olier

CPRE Working Papers

This study explored how teachers interpreted and responded to their own student work during the process of formative assessment. The study involved a purposefully selected sample of 32 teachers in grades K-5 who had been trained by the Ongoing Assessment Project (OGAP) to use learning progressions to analyze and respond to evidence in student work. Since formative assessment is fundamentally an interpretive process, involving continually eliciting and interpreting evidence of student thinking from student work in order to inform teaching and learning (Black & Wiliam, 2009), the study analyzed data collected through semi-structured interviews.

The study found variations in the way teachers make sense of their student work for formative assessment that were related to their underlying goals for student learning. Teachers with an achievement orientation tended to focus on performance goals: giving formative assessment items to gauge student performance on problems that reflected what had recently been taught and focused on singular or multiple components of performance to make a binary judgment (i.e. students who “get it or don’t get it”). Teachers with a learning orientation gave items to learn more about what students were able to do on different types of problems and focused on student strategies as an indicator of underlying understanding and development. These orientations also had implications for the instructional response teachers developed; as teachers looked beyond surface features of student work and binary distinctions, they developed more differentiated responses ...


Mental Health, Schooling Attainment And Polygenic Scores: Are There Significant Gene-Environment Associations?, Vikesh Amin, Jere R. Behrman, Jason M. Fletcher, Carlos A. Flores, Alfonso Flores-Lagunes, Hans-Peter Kohler Jun 2019

Mental Health, Schooling Attainment And Polygenic Scores: Are There Significant Gene-Environment Associations?, Vikesh Amin, Jere R. Behrman, Jason M. Fletcher, Carlos A. Flores, Alfonso Flores-Lagunes, Hans-Peter Kohler

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

It is well-established that (1) there is a large genetic component to mental health, and (2) higher schooling attainment is associated with better mental health. Given these two observations, we test the hypothesis that schooling may attenuate the genetic predisposition to poor mental health. Specifically, we estimate associations between a polygenic score (PGS) for depressive symptoms, schooling attainment and gene-environment (GxE) interactions with mental health (depressive symptoms and depression), in two distinct United States datasets at different adult ages- 29 years old in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) and 54 years old in the Wisconsin Longitudinal ...


Meaningful & Sustainable School Improvement With Distributed Leadership, Jonathan A. Supovitz, John D'Auria, James P. Spillane Jun 2019

Meaningful & Sustainable School Improvement With Distributed Leadership, Jonathan A. Supovitz, John D'Auria, James P. Spillane

CPRE Research Reports

School leadership is broadly acknowledged to be the lynchpin for school success. Yet, amongst the countless demands that school leaders face, making wise leadership choices is increasingly challenging. On what should leaders focus their attention and how should they prioritize their improvement efforts? How can they identify, understand, and make headway on the difficult challenges that will substantially enhance the educational experiences of their students, and how can they bring their faculty together with commitment around these improvement efforts?

In this essay we lay out a research-informed framework for advancing meaningful school improvement using a distributed leadership approach.

This report ...


Attachment To The Social Construct Of Success And The Myth Of The "Good College": Effects Of Toxic Stress On Affluent Adolescents, Corey Hirsch May 2019

Attachment To The Social Construct Of Success And The Myth Of The "Good College": Effects Of Toxic Stress On Affluent Adolescents, Corey Hirsch

Doctorate in Social Work (DSW) Dissertations

The demands and expectations placed on many high school students in affluent communities require almost impossible performance levels, or even perfection, and parents, peers, high school teachers, counselors, and administrators, as well as others in affluent communities, become increasingly invested in the quest for success demonstrated by high level performance and achievement. As a result, students in affluent communities are vulnerable to experiencing extreme pressure to succeed as demonstrated by gaining admittance to a “good college.” This dissertation utilizes the foundational aspects of attachment theory to provide a framework for understanding how individuals in affluent communities develop a strong attachment ...


Barriers To Attaining Higher Education Among Substance Abuse Counselors, Steven Dawson May 2019

Barriers To Attaining Higher Education Among Substance Abuse Counselors, Steven Dawson

Doctorate in Social Work (DSW) Dissertations

Twenty-three million people over the age of 12 meet criteria for a substance use disorder. Drug overdose is currently the number one cause of injury-related death in the US. From 1999 to 2017, almost 218,000 people died from overdoses related to opioids. In 2017, opioid overdoses were five times higher than they were in 1999. The financial cost of substance abuse in the US is estimated at $700 billion annually. Evidence-based approaches have been shown to improve outcomes, yet substance use treatment has the lowest rates of utilization of evidence-based practices of any health care discipline.

Graduate level education ...


Call To Action Series | Community Assessment: State And Local Leaders Need Integrated Data Approaches And Tools To Better Coordinate Early Childhood Programs And Services, Ecdataworks Project May 2019

Call To Action Series | Community Assessment: State And Local Leaders Need Integrated Data Approaches And Tools To Better Coordinate Early Childhood Programs And Services, Ecdataworks Project

CPRE Working Papers

ECDataWorks developed the Community Assessment Framework to guide states in the integration and use of early childhood data across four key areas: eligibility, access, services, and impact. Tools and reports that align with this framework can support early childhood providers, advocates, state administrators, and policymakers with strategic planning.


Call To Action Series | Data Governance Dashboard: Interactive Data Governance Tools And Processes Are Needed For Effective And Sustainable Ecids, Ecdataworks Project May 2019

Call To Action Series | Data Governance Dashboard: Interactive Data Governance Tools And Processes Are Needed For Effective And Sustainable Ecids, Ecdataworks Project

CPRE Working Papers

ECDataWorks developed the Data Governance Dashboard Framework to guide states in establishing transparent and ongoing methods for gathering ECIDS stakeholder feedback. Gathering input from diverse stakeholders and leadership about policy priorities and how data are used enables responsive decisions about updates needed to the state research agenda, data elements required, and resources necessary for new or enhanced analytics. This structured feedback creates a reliable source of information and a basis on which governance groups can make decisions. The Data Governance Dashboard Framework supports the continued improvement, use, and sustainability of the ECIDS over time.


Call To Action Series | Expanded School Readiness: State And Local Leaders Need Integrated Data Tools To Inform Efforts To Improve School Readiness, Ecdataworks Project May 2019

Call To Action Series | Expanded School Readiness: State And Local Leaders Need Integrated Data Tools To Inform Efforts To Improve School Readiness, Ecdataworks Project

CPRE Working Papers

ECDataWorks developed the Expanded School Readiness Framework to help states explore the preparedness of schools, communities, and children. Expanded school readiness reports allow for tracking progress toward state school readiness goals and inform decisions such as: identifying needs for teachers, programs, and classrooms; identifying best practices and improve instruction in specific domains; developing strategies for collaborating across schools and community providers to prepare for incoming kindergartners; allocating funding for early childhood programs and school districts; and establishing strategies to engage parents.


Call To Action Series | Data Story: State And Local Leaders Need Analytic Tools To Tell Their Data Stories, Ecdataworks Project May 2019

Call To Action Series | Data Story: State And Local Leaders Need Analytic Tools To Tell Their Data Stories, Ecdataworks Project

CPRE Working Papers

ECDataWorks developed the Data Story Framework to guide states in bringing together comprehensive data and informing action steps. The framework includes four key elements: conclusions, narrative, visuals, and key takeaways.


Positive Psychology Interventions In The Classroom For Students With Special Needs: First Book, Jill G. Bell, Kellie Cummings, Mina Simhai, Arlen Solodkin May 2019

Positive Psychology Interventions In The Classroom For Students With Special Needs: First Book, Jill G. Bell, Kellie Cummings, Mina Simhai, Arlen Solodkin

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Service Learning Projects

This paper sets forth the empirical and theoretical underpinnings and evidence-based activities that teachers of students with special needs in low-income schools can utilize to manage behavioral challenges. The authors identify applicable positive psychology resources, as requested by First Book, a non-profit providing member educators with resources that help children learn and seeks to accelerate implementation of innovative research in low-income schools. The authors, at the request of First Book, focus on emotional intelligence, growth mindset, self-regulation and character strengths, operationalizing these topics with a two-pronged approach: 1) specific actions teachers can take to build positive classrooms and 2) practical ...


‘I Don’T Really Get It’: An Ethnographic Investigation Of The National School Lunch Program Of Middle School Children In New Jersey, Emily G. Elenio Apr 2019

‘I Don’T Really Get It’: An Ethnographic Investigation Of The National School Lunch Program Of Middle School Children In New Jersey, Emily G. Elenio

Anthropology Senior Theses

In light of the obesity epidemic, the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) has been extensively analyzed and criticized. Thus far, literature examining the NSLP has focused on what foods are provided rather than what is actually eaten. Additionally, there is limited research on the socialization effects of school lunch and childhood foodways within a school setting. The socialization of children during household mealtimes has been extensively studied, but these studies have been limited to the family dinner table. The purpose of this ethnographic study is to determine how children are socialized during school lunch and to examine the extent to ...


Complaining As Reflective Practice In Tesol Teacher–Mentor Post-Observation Meetings, Santoi Wagner, Kristina B. Lewis Apr 2019

Complaining As Reflective Practice In Tesol Teacher–Mentor Post-Observation Meetings, Santoi Wagner, Kristina B. Lewis

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

This study investigates interactions between a novice language teacher and TESOL practicum mentor during a series of post-observation meetings, focusing on how and why the teacher engages in complaining. We draw upon conversation analysis and narrative analysis to look at how the teacher’s complaints are developed and managed, as well as what they accomplish, within the institutional context. The data show the novice teacher uses a variety of interactional resources to construct complaints about her co-teacher, a peer observer, and the practicum course workload. We argue that complaints are relevant to reflective practice and show how the teacher’s ...


An Inquiry Approach To Understanding Students’ Learning Goals In An Adult English For Speakers Of Other Languages Classroom, Emily Schwab Apr 2019

An Inquiry Approach To Understanding Students’ Learning Goals In An Adult English For Speakers Of Other Languages Classroom, Emily Schwab

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

This paper seeks to expand discussions about identifying students’ learning aspirations in adult English for Speakers of Other Languages classes in the United States. By critically examining the process of ascertaining students’ learning goals and dreams for the future in one adult ESOL class, the author explores how an inquiry approach to this process opened space for centering students in class learning design and the implications it has for complicating researchers’ understandings of forming curriculum around the reasons students expressed for coming to class. Utilizing data from a year-long practitioner inquiry project, the teacher–researcher offers a perspective on centering ...


Global Citizenship And Local Social Relations In The Discourse Of Self- Development: Translanguaging In Address Terms, Jay Jo Apr 2019

Global Citizenship And Local Social Relations In The Discourse Of Self- Development: Translanguaging In Address Terms, Jay Jo

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

This study examines communicative practices of a group of South Korean adults conducting self‑organized English practice to develop their oral competence in English. In the context of globalization, these young Koreans organized a study group that practiced English‑mediated communication as a means of self-development—a collective discourse in South Korea that encourages individuals to make relentless efforts to develop oneself. However, in this study of communicative practices in a study group, I found that members of the group endorse not only such a societal discourse but also the making of locally-based social relationships among the people sharing similar ...


Embracing Students’ Diverse Communicative Repertoires To Change English As A Second Language Classroom Participation Dynamics, Patricia Miele Apr 2019

Embracing Students’ Diverse Communicative Repertoires To Change English As A Second Language Classroom Participation Dynamics, Patricia Miele

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

Student-initiated interaction is often difficult to achieve in English as a second language classes, despite its value for improving students’ oral communication skills. This problem is exacerbated by English-only rhetoric, common in classrooms around the world, which demands monolingual communication or no communication at all. In contrast, students can be encouraged to draw on their diverse communicative repertoires even in English language classes with mixed first languages (L1s) when those repertoires are seen as assets. In the example analyzed in this article, a Chinese student managed to break her way into a clique of Saudi Arabian students by bringing Chinese ...


Code Switch At An Alternative High School, Dean Schmeltz Apr 2019

Code Switch At An Alternative High School, Dean Schmeltz

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

A two-year, ethnographic study of the use of the term code switch within an alternative high school community reveals that it has taken on a distinct, institutional meaning. Observed primarily as a reprimand, teachers nonetheless downplayed the significance of the disciplinary term in interviews. However, Black students expressed a sense of being asked to switch between two versions of themselves, only one of which is professional enough to belong in school. Students generally accepted that this was what teachers implied by the term, but some rejected the idea that code switching is a fundamental change, or that the change should ...


Analyzing Co-Teacher Turns As Interactional Resources, Xiaoyu Wang Apr 2019

Analyzing Co-Teacher Turns As Interactional Resources, Xiaoyu Wang

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

Collaborative teaching is widely adopted in teacher-training programs in the United States for the positive influence it has on teachers’ professionalism and on students’ learning. Though there are a vast number of studies on the Initiation- Response-Feedback (IRF) sequence between teachers and students, studies on the use of IRF in co-teaching contexts are scarce. The current study focuses on interactions between two pre-service teachers in a semester-long adult ESL classroom at a U.S. university. Through a discourse analysis of the leading and non-leading teachers’ interactions within the IRF sequence, the study has found that the nonleading teacher utilized the ...


What Is Normal In Educational Linguistics?, Jennifer Phuong Apr 2019

What Is Normal In Educational Linguistics?, Jennifer Phuong

Working Papers in Educational Linguistics (WPEL)

In this note from the field, I explore what is considered normal in educational linguistics when considering language in special education contexts through a Disability Studies in Education perspective. In highlighting theoretical perspectives that simultaneously complement and complicate one another, I argue that our field should more carefully consider processes of ableism and racism in issues of language and education.


Recruitment, Employment, Retention And The Minority Teacher Shortage, Richard M. Ingersoll, Henry May, Gregory Collins Apr 2019

Recruitment, Employment, Retention And The Minority Teacher Shortage, Richard M. Ingersoll, Henry May, Gregory Collins

GSE Publications

This study examines and compares the recruitment, employment, and retention of minority and nonminority school teachers over the quarter century from the late 1980s to 2013. Our objective is to empirically ground the ongoing debate regarding minority teacher shortages and changes in the minority teaching force. The data we analyze are from the National Center for Education Statistics’ nationally representative Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) and its longitudinal supplement, the Teacher Follow-up Survey (TFS). Our data analyses document the persistence of a gap between the percentage of minority students and the percentage of minority teachers in the US. But the ...


The Role Of External Support Providers In Improving K-3 Reading Outcomes In New York, Thomas Hatch, Meesuk Ahn, Daniel Ferguson, Alyson Rumberger Feb 2019

The Role Of External Support Providers In Improving K-3 Reading Outcomes In New York, Thomas Hatch, Meesuk Ahn, Daniel Ferguson, Alyson Rumberger

CPRE Policy Briefs

No abstract provided.


Mapping The Reading Improvement Sector In New York City The Role Of External Support Providers In Improving K-3 Reading Outcomes, Thomas Hatch, Meesuk Ahn, Daniel Ferguson, Alyson Rumberger Feb 2019

Mapping The Reading Improvement Sector In New York City The Role Of External Support Providers In Improving K-3 Reading Outcomes, Thomas Hatch, Meesuk Ahn, Daniel Ferguson, Alyson Rumberger

CPRE Working Papers

This report shares the results of a project designed to help build the collective capacity and increase the impact of the external support providers working to improve K-3 reading outcomes in New York City public elementary schools. In the first phase of the project, we identified all the programs in what we call the K-3 reading improvement sector in NYC 2014-15. In the second phase, we examined the extent to which a sample of these programs have the goals, resources, and personnel to improve reading outcomes system-wide. In the third phase, we mapped the relationships among a sample of programs ...


The Role And Contribution Of Academic Researchers In Congressional Hearings: A Critical Discourse Analysis, Laura W. Perna, Kata Orosz, Daniel C. Kent Feb 2019

The Role And Contribution Of Academic Researchers In Congressional Hearings: A Critical Discourse Analysis, Laura W. Perna, Kata Orosz, Daniel C. Kent

GSE Publications

This study uses critical discourse analysis to explain how legislators determine the role and contributions of academic researchers in Congressional legislative hearings. The discursive practices that legislators use serve to construct the social identity of academic witnesses, characterize witnesses’ qualifications, solicit information from witnesses, frame comments from witnesses, and amplify and mitigate witness testimony. The findings make visible the ways that legislators use the power of their positions to depict academic witnesses as both experts who offer independent knowledge and experts who validate or confirm a legislator’s preferences and priorities. The results have implications for academics who seek to ...


Typology Of Teacher Leadership Programs, Jill Harrison Berg, Peter Horn, Jonathan A. Supovitz, Jason Margolis Jan 2019

Typology Of Teacher Leadership Programs, Jill Harrison Berg, Peter Horn, Jonathan A. Supovitz, Jason Margolis

CPRE Research Reports

Education leaders are perennially seeking new ways to build the capacity of teachers to enhance learning experiences for all students. Teacher leadership, which we define as teachers’ support of the improvement of teaching and learning beyond their own classroom, has long been a source of interest and experimentation (Wenner & Campbell, 2017; York-Barr & Duke, 2004). Teacher leadership recognizes teachers’ instructional expertise as an asset for educational improvement, capitalizes upon teachers’ relationships with their colleagues to support change, and may provide career advancement opportunities to improve job satisfaction and the professionalization of teaching. For these and other reasons, states, districts, funders and teachers themselves have become increasingly interested in the promise of teacher leadership.

In this study, we map the landscape of teacher leadership programs across the U.S. and identify commonalities and distinctions amongst the range of programs. Using a variety of search approaches to capture publicly-available information, we document 285 state, local, university, and foundation-sponsored programs that use a variety of techniques to support teachers as leaders. We then categorize the forms of support, attending to program models, objectives, sponsorship, and audience.

We identify three major forms of support provided by teacher leadership programs: (1) preparation of teachers with knowledge and skills that can help them to lead; (2) positioning of teachers in leadership roles to capitalize upon their expertise; and (3) recognition of teachers as leaders through awards and other forms of appreciation or acknowledgement. While some programs focus only on one of these approaches, most employed a combination of these forms of support. Based on this ...


“Your Guide To Tree Adventure”: Interpretive Panel And Guidebook Design, Emily Clarke Jan 2019

“Your Guide To Tree Adventure”: Interpretive Panel And Guidebook Design, Emily Clarke

Internship Program Reports

In honor of Out-on-a-Limb’s 10th anniversary, this project provides supplementary interpretation at the Arboretum about tree morphology. In addition to creating an activity booklet designed to encourage visitors with children to see different corners of the Arboretum, I also created three interpretive panels intended to walk a visitor through the parts of a tree. These panels are titled “Don’t leave without looking,” “Every ring tells a story,” and “Getting to the root of things.”


A Multilevel Factor Analytic Investigation Of The Learning-To-Learn Scales: A More Child-Centered Look At Dimensionality, Benjamin Pratt Brumley Jan 2019

A Multilevel Factor Analytic Investigation Of The Learning-To-Learn Scales: A More Child-Centered Look At Dimensionality, Benjamin Pratt Brumley

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Children from low-income households are at risk for entering school behind their more economically advantaged peers across major domains of school readiness. The Head Start program represents the federal government’s response to these achievement gaps by mandating the use of scientifically based assessments and curricula to provide children with the necessary school readiness skills. Routine teacher-report assessment of children’s school readiness using scientifically validated assessments is key to effectively guide early childhood education. Approaches to Learning is one of the five domains of school readiness targeted by Head Start. The Learning-to-Learn Scales (LTLS) is currently the only multidimensional ...