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Theses/Dissertations

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

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Incivility As A Barrier To Embeddedness Among Engineering Students: Does Gender Matter?, Katelyn R. Reynoldson Apr 2018

Incivility As A Barrier To Embeddedness Among Engineering Students: Does Gender Matter?, Katelyn R. Reynoldson

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

To meet the current demand for engineers, research has focused on how to attract and retain qualified candidates in the field, especially those that are underrepresented (e.g., women; NSB, 2016). The present study investigates incivility and embeddedness, which have been found to be antecedents of retention in both the workplace (Cortina, Magley, Williams, & Langhout, 2001; Mitchell, Holtom, Lee, Sablynski, & Erez, 2001) and the collegiate setting (Caza & Cortina, 2007; Major et al., 2015). To extend previous research, both constructs were examined simultaneously among undergraduate engineering students. Undergraduate, first-year engineers completed an online survey indicating the extent to which they experienced incivility in engineering, the primary source of the uncivil treatment, and ...


A Single Campus Study Of The Green Dot Bystander Intervention Program, Brittany F. Hollis Jan 2018

A Single Campus Study Of The Green Dot Bystander Intervention Program, Brittany F. Hollis

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Sexual assault is a serious public health issue that is especially problematic on college campuses. To combat sexual violence on college campuses prevention programs have been instituted by many universities. One such prevention program, the Green Dot program, works to teach students what constitutes sexual violence and how to prevent it by increasing bystander intervention. The current study examined the effectiveness of Green Dot at a large southeastern university. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was used as the theoretical framework. TPB examines how efficacy, attitudes, and norms influence behavior. Students were recruited to participate in the Green Dot program ...


Testing A Model Of Servant Leadership's Influence On Follower Outcomes: Exploring Mediation Effects Of Follower Trust And Prosocial Identity, Dante P. Myers Jan 2018

Testing A Model Of Servant Leadership's Influence On Follower Outcomes: Exploring Mediation Effects Of Follower Trust And Prosocial Identity, Dante P. Myers

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Servant leadership is beginning to emerge as a premier positive leadership approach in the 21st century. However, recent theoretical propositions detailing the process through which servant leadership impacts outcomes has not been tested. Using the JD-R framework, the present study investigates follower prosocial identity and follower trust as key mediators of the relationship between servant leadership and follower job satisfaction, organizational commitment, organizational citizenship behaviors, community citizenship behaviors, and turnover intentions. Research participants included 578 working adults recruited from Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (MTurk) that responded to three surveys separated by approximately one month each. The hypothesized model was tested ...


The Effect Of Narrative Feedback On The Learning And Transfer Of Complex Communication Skills, Rebecca A. Kennedy Jul 2017

The Effect Of Narrative Feedback On The Learning And Transfer Of Complex Communication Skills, Rebecca A. Kennedy

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

The purpose of the present research was to examine the effects of narrative performance feedback on learning and transfer of intercultural communication skills learned in an experiential training task. It was predicted that feedback based on a narrative structure, especially from a first-person perspective, would enhance learning by providing schemas for memory organization, contextual information, and emotional content. Using a healthcare-related training task, participants learned the CRASH principles of intercultural sensitivity and then performed a low-fidelity, text-based simulated conversation with a patient and patient’s family member. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three kinds of performance feedback: didactic ...


An Evaluation Of Game Fiction-Enhanced Training: Using Narrative To Improve Trainee Reactions And Learning, Michael Beaumont Armstrong Oct 2015

An Evaluation Of Game Fiction-Enhanced Training: Using Narrative To Improve Trainee Reactions And Learning, Michael Beaumont Armstrong

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Gamification is growing in popularity in instructional contexts like education and workplace training, but it is unclear which game elements are specifically conducive to improve learning outcomes. Narratives, which represent one way the game element “game fiction” is commonly implemented, have been used to improve learning outcomes over expository texts in the context of psycholinguistics, whereas the Technology-Enhanced Training Effectiveness Model (TETEM) proposes that certain individual differences impact the relationships between technology-enhanced training and learning outcomes. From this theoretical basis, this study gamified a training session with game fiction in order to improve reactions to training and learning over the ...


The Impact Of Trainee Characteristics On Transfer Of Training Over Time, Kristina N. Bauer Jul 2013

The Impact Of Trainee Characteristics On Transfer Of Training Over Time, Kristina N. Bauer

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Given that organizations invest a considerable amount of time and money into the training and development function, it is imperative that trainees transfer the learned material back to the job and continue to use the knowledge/skills. Yet, most studies have not assessed the transfer process over time (i.e., maintenance). Based on the lack of empirical investigation of maintenance, the current study had two goals: (1) to identify which factors are most important for skill maintenance (2) to identify when factors are most important to skill maintenance. To these ends, a model was developed and tested that examines the ...


The Effects Of An Online Sleep Hygiene Intervention On Students' Sleep Quality, Giuliana Farias Jul 2012

The Effects Of An Online Sleep Hygiene Intervention On Students' Sleep Quality, Giuliana Farias

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Students in college or in their first year of medical school undergo increased educational and social pressure. To cope, students may sacrifice sleep to meet demands. Poor sleep affects learning, performance, and health. Studies have been successful at improving sleep quality through the use of in-person recruitment or cognitive-behavioral therapy delivered over the internet (Trockel, Manber, Chang, Thurston, & Tailor, 2011). The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether an online sleep hygiene intervention could improve sleep quality. One hundred thirty-eight students from one undergraduate institution in Southeast Virginia completed this study. Students were divided into groups; one of them received information regarding good and bad sleep hygiene and the other received information about dreaming. Both groups filled out the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), The Sleep Hygiene Index (SHI), the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), the Sleep Hygiene Pretests ...


Relationships Between Religious Orientation And Academic Attitudes, Lauren Everitt Jul 2011

Relationships Between Religious Orientation And Academic Attitudes, Lauren Everitt

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

The goal of this study was to examine whether there is an underlying consistency between college students' approaches to religion and their approaches to higher education. A sample of 234 undergraduate students completed the Religious Life Inventory (Batson, Schoenrade, & Ventis, 1993), which assesses orientation to religion, and the Academic Attitude Scale (Wong, 1998), which identifies factors that motivate students to pursue higher education. The three dimensions (Means, End, and Quest) extracted from the Religious Life Inventory were compared to the six subscales (Intrinsic, Instrumental, Personal Development, External Pressure, Social Interest, No Better Option) of the Academic Attitude Scale to determine ...


Comics As A Cognitive Training Medium For Expert Decision Making, Amber Nalu Apr 2011

Comics As A Cognitive Training Medium For Expert Decision Making, Amber Nalu

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Experts such as military commanders must make decisions quickly and under deadly conditions. A variety of cognitive training media exist, from Powerpoint to virtual reality (VR) simulations; however, there are alternative media that have not yet been comprehensively studied for expert decision making training. In this study, the researcher has examined the use of comics as an alternative to current cognitive training media. In Experiment 1, naval submariners were shown a text-based medium or comic strip and asked to make a decision about the scenario after viewing. The scenario was derived from a situation that submariners were somewhat familiar with ...


Understanding The Relationship Between Peer Mentoring And Undergraduate Capitalization, Jonathan M. Holland Apr 2010

Understanding The Relationship Between Peer Mentoring And Undergraduate Capitalization, Jonathan M. Holland

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Research has demonstrated the importance of various forms of mentoring across multiple contexts. However, the topic of informal peer mentors has not been sufficiently explored. This study investigated the role of peer mentors in encouraging participation in voluntary development activities (i.e., capitalization). An online survey was completed by 288 undergraduate students. As hypothesized, mentoring was positively related to high levels of participation in capitalization activities and intentions to mentor in the future, and capitalization participation was positively related to higher levels of student satisfaction, continuance commitment, and career involvement. Contrary to expectations, capitalization participation was not significantly related to ...


Test Anxiety And Other Factors As Predictors Of Outcome For An Undergraduate University's Examination Of Writing Competency, Carrie D. Smith Jul 2009

Test Anxiety And Other Factors As Predictors Of Outcome For An Undergraduate University's Examination Of Writing Competency, Carrie D. Smith

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Testing in American schools has increased dramatically in recent years (Cizek & Burg, 2006), increasing the need for research in test anxiety (TA). Writing apprehension, a subcategory of TA, may be of particular concern among students at all levels of education given the recent addition of writing assessments on the SAT and GRE tests.

Very few recent studies have examined demographic correlates of TA and the demographics of students in higher education have been changing for some time. These changes include an increase in all categories of nontraditional students. Nontraditional students, by definition, face a particular set of challenges in attending college. They tend to have significant family responsibilities, work and/or other obligations beyond those of traditional students (Ryan, 2003), leaving less time and energy to focus on academics. The research findings on age trends have been variable. However, some research shows a slight decline in the prevalence of TA in the college years (Hembree, 1988; Zeidner, 1998). Early studies have shown that African American students, in general, show higher levels of TA than Caucasian students (Payne, Smith, & Payne, 1983; Rhine & Spaner, 1983).

There is minimal research that examines TA specifically for writing exams, or writing apprehension. Earlier studies found that writing apprehension is highly negatively correlated with performance on writing competency assessments and general essays (Daly, 1978; Faigley, Daly, & White, 1981). Given this, it is important to consider the factors that impact writing competency. Graham and Harris (2000) noted much support in the literature for the impact of transcription, or handwriting abilities, on writing competency but also point to self-regulation as another key factor in writing competency. They observed that skilled writers tend to have better self-regulation skills than less skilled writers. In ...


A Comparison Of Traditional And Nontraditional Students Attending Historically Black Or Predominantly White Institutions, Courtney H. Podesta Jul 2009

A Comparison Of Traditional And Nontraditional Students Attending Historically Black Or Predominantly White Institutions, Courtney H. Podesta

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Previous studies have demonstrated that there are benefits for some African American students in attending an Historically Black College or University (HBCU) over a Predominantly White Institution (PWI); however, studies have not considered how results might be impacted by student status, traditional vs. nontraditional, or the degree to which a student is considered to be nontraditional (minimally, moderately, or highly nontraditional). The current study addressed this gap in research by examining differences between the HBCU and PWI environments for 336 African American traditional and nontraditional students for the following variables: social support, academic self-concept, self-esteem, self-efficacy, role strain, ethnic identity ...


A Model Of Responses To Race-Based And Gender-Based Stereotype Threat In Computer Science, Lara Tedrow Jan 2009

A Model Of Responses To Race-Based And Gender-Based Stereotype Threat In Computer Science, Lara Tedrow

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

The perception of stereotype threat among computer science students was examined at two universities. A model of stereotype threat was developed and tested among students enrolled in three undergraduate computer science courses at two universities. The goal of this model was to provide an understanding of the underlying mechanisms through which stereotype threat works.

The study tested relationships among the following variables: race-based stereotype threat, gender-based stereotype threat, goal orientation, CS self-efficacy, active coping, behavioral disengagement, effort, and performance. Structural equation modeling was used to test the measurement model and a series of nested structural models. Findings supported the proposed ...


Achievement Motivation In African American College Students, April Michelle Muldrow Oct 2008

Achievement Motivation In African American College Students, April Michelle Muldrow

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

This study investigated the relationship between academic performance and stereotype threat (ST), achievement motivation, and racial socialization for African American (AA) students at an historically black university. Participants were 108 students randomly assigned to high or low ST condition. Students completed a performance measure, Noncognitive Questionnaire (NCQ), and Teenager Experience of Racial Socialization Scale (TERS) (Sedlacek, 2004; Stevenson et al., 2002). Results indicated that performance was not dependent upon threat, p = .63. Appreciation of AA culture was negatively associated with performance, p = .05. Drive toward academic self-development was positively related to performance, p = .05. Limitations and implications are discussed.


Motivation And Performance In Computer Science: Test Of An Integrative Theory, Katherine A. Selgrade Jul 2007

Motivation And Performance In Computer Science: Test Of An Integrative Theory, Katherine A. Selgrade

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to design and empirically test a parsimonious integrative motivation theory. The theory integrates aspects of expectancy theory, social cognitive theory, goal-setting theory, and commitment theory. The theory was tested with 170 undergraduate, students in an introductory computer science (CS) course.

The study tested relationships among the following variables: CS self-efficacy, mathematics ability, affective commitment to the CS class, goal orientation, effort, and performance. The study also tested the interactive effects of effort and ability on performance. Structural equation modeling was used to test the measurement model and a series of nested structural models. Findings ...


Teacher Factors That Influence Student Achievement: A Study Of Third And Fifth Grade Teachers, Jewelle L. Harmon Jul 2006

Teacher Factors That Influence Student Achievement: A Study Of Third And Fifth Grade Teachers, Jewelle L. Harmon

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Student achievement is of the highest concern for the government, educational administrators and parents. Researchers have looked at several possible student factors that affect student achievement. However, very little research has been done on teacher factors and their relationship with student achievement. The current study looked at the relationships among teacher absence, teacher job satisfaction, work-family conflict, family/work conflict, teachers' attitudes towards achievement measures, and their correlation with Virginia's standardized measure of student achievement; the Standards of Learning (SOLs). District differences in student achievement were also examined. Three school districts in southeastern Virginia accepted the invitation to ...


Social Support, Prior Interracial Experiences, And Network Orientation: Factors Related To Later Adjustment Among Black Freshmen At A Predominantly White University, Calvin Graham Jan 1997

Social Support, Prior Interracial Experiences, And Network Orientation: Factors Related To Later Adjustment Among Black Freshmen At A Predominantly White University, Calvin Graham

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

African-American students (mostly Freshmen) enrolled for the first year at a four-year university completed information about the racial composition of their high school, family income, living arrangements, and stressor prior to entering school. At two times during the first semester they completed measures of social support, network orientation and adaptation to college. Information about Grade Point Average (GPA) for the following term and attendance at the University one year later were also obtained. Racial composition of high school had some affect on social support at the university: Students from integrated and mainly Black high schools reported more social support satisfaction ...


Retirement And Re-Entry Decision-Making: A Faculty Perspective, Seth Zimmer Apr 1990

Retirement And Re-Entry Decision-Making: A Faculty Perspective, Seth Zimmer

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Universities are faced with an aging workforce and threatened with deficits in number and quality of replacements for retirees. New policies and programs affecting retirement and workforce re-entry are taking shape. This points to the need for research on the factors used by faculty members in the retirement decision-making process.

Faculty are somewhat unique in that their university roles and responsibilities often allow them to be professionally active simultaneously in other settings. The usual concept of retirement becomes somewhat blurred where faculty members are concerned.

The decision of when to retire and whether or not to re-enter the workforce must ...


Gender Differences In The Relation Between Locus Of Control And Physiological Responses, Monique C. Grelot Jan 1989

Gender Differences In The Relation Between Locus Of Control And Physiological Responses, Monique C. Grelot

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

The relationship between locus of control and the physiological responses of heart rate (HR) and electrodermal activity (EDA) was investigated in 30 males and 31 females during an arithmetic task. The Levenson's Internal, Powerful Others and Chance (IPC) scales (Levenson, 1974) were used to assess the various degrees of internality for each subject. Additionally, to determine each subject's physiological Lability or Stability (LS), EDA was measured by recording spontaneous skin conductance responses during a ten minute rest period and to a tone (an Orienting Response (OR) task). A simple difficulty effect was found on the performance scores across ...


Category Test And Wais Scores: Sex And Age Inter-Relationships, Julia Ann Shelton Jul 1987

Category Test And Wais Scores: Sex And Age Inter-Relationships, Julia Ann Shelton

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

The current study investigated sex and age differences on the WAIS and Category Test in a sample of 218 persons, half male and half female, between the ages of 16 and 39. The sample was composed of well educated diabetics without neurological symptomatology and of above average intelligence.

Three types of statistical analyses were performed. The first of these were factor analyses of structural composition of WAIS and Category tests as influenced by sex. Results suggested that males and females exhibit different patterns of performance. The second analyses were regression analyses to predict Category Test performance from WAIS scores and ...


A Study Of The Robustness Of The Three-Parameter Item Response Model, James B. Flynn Jan 1984

A Study Of The Robustness Of The Three-Parameter Item Response Model, James B. Flynn

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Simulation techniques were employed to investigate the use of the three-parameter item response model on psychological test data which violated the model's assumptions of large sample sizes, long tests and test unidimensionality. The accuracy of the person ability and item characteristic curve parameter estimates derived by the three-parameter item response model was evaluated. Data sets and distributions of person ability and item characteristic curve parameters were generated using a computer-based algorithm, AVRAM (Ree, 1980), which employs the three-parameter logistic probability equation described by Birnbaum (1968). A computer software package, LOGIST5 (Wingersky, Burton & Lord, 1982), which utilizes the three-parameter logistic probability equation, was used to derive the parameter estimates for the person response and the item characteristic curves.

The present study based its analyses on the unedited person-item data matrix. As such, the findings are somewhat inconsistent with those reported by studies employing an edited data matrix (e.g., Ree, 1979). However, these findings are much more consistent with the types of test situations likely to occur in industrial-organizational research, where the focus of research will be the evaluation of differences in individual and group test scores as opposed to the design and construction of tests.

The results showed that the item discrimination, ai, and lower asymptote, ci, parameters of the item characteristic curve were both accurately recovered when small sample sizes and short tests were used, and conditions of item bias existed. The person ability parameter, Bv was also accurately recovered. The recovery of bi, the item difficulty parameter, was most affected. The average absolute differences and root-mean-square errors obtained on bi were extremely large relative to those obtained on ai and ci, as well as, those reported for bi elsewhere in the literature (Ree, 1979). Not only were the individual parameter estimates for bi not accurately recovered, but also, changes in the means of the distributions of bi were observed.

When the samples available for item analysis are comprised of less than 2,000 examinees, and conditions of item bias exist, the practitioner of industrial-organizational psychology should consider the following: (1) Use the three-parameter model, but proceed with caution; or (2) adopt an alternative item response ...