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Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

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The Impact Of Performance Funding On Community College Degree Completion, Certificate Completion, And Transfer Rate: A Difference-In-Differences Approach, Matthew J. Okerblom Jul 2019

The Impact Of Performance Funding On Community College Degree Completion, Certificate Completion, And Transfer Rate: A Difference-In-Differences Approach, Matthew J. Okerblom

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

Historically, state funding of higher education institutions has been allocated through enrollment, but there has been a recent trend towards a different model, performance funding. Performance funding is a model based on the attainment of designated metrics with the intent on improving student outcomes. The metrics used for these programs have often not aligned with the mission and characteristics of different institutions, especially that of community colleges. Although, several past performance funding models failed to improve student outcomes, much has been learned regarding program improvement. Texas implemented a performance funding model in 2013 which included a focus on community colleges ...


The Challenges Facing Women Leaders In Mid-Level Positions At Urban Community Colleges, Kia L. Hardy Jul 2019

The Challenges Facing Women Leaders In Mid-Level Positions At Urban Community Colleges, Kia L. Hardy

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

Although women lead at higher rates overall at community colleges, they continue to lead at lower rates in senior-level positions compared to men within those institutions. Women serve as presidents in 36% of community colleges (ACE, 2017). Additionally, community college presidents are currently retiring at rapid rates, and this turnover in leadership is expected to continue (Phillipe, 2016; Shults, 2001; Tekle, 2012). As community colleges face current and future reductions in senior-level leadership, women in mid-level leadership roles should be considered to fill the leadership gap.

Previous studies have examined the leadership challenges faced by women leaders, but there has ...


Who Am I Now? Teachers’ Development Of Leadership Identity A Phenomenologically-Informed Qualitative Research Study, Kimberly Alicia Richardson Jul 2019

Who Am I Now? Teachers’ Development Of Leadership Identity A Phenomenologically-Informed Qualitative Research Study, Kimberly Alicia Richardson

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

Due to the complexity of schools and more challenges to teaching and learning, teacher leadership is an answer to reform that addresses both improving teaching and restructuring of schools (Smylie & Denny, 1990). While empirical research exists that speaks to teacher leadership work, what teacher leaders do and why particular teachers emerge as leaders. An expanding body of research (e.g., Day and Harrison, 2007; Day, Kington, Stobart, & Sammons, 2006; Lord and Hall, 2005) advocates the acceptance of coupling identity and leadership, and the acknowledgment of the influence on leader’s development and behaviors. This phenomenological study examined the leadership identity development of a sample of teacher leaders in order to better understand their perceptions about what contributed to the development of their leadership identities. Using semi-structured interview questions, the lived experiences of the teachers were explored ...


Supplemental Instruction, Calibration, And Self-Efficacy: A Path Model Analysis, Jennifer Leigh Grimm Jul 2019

Supplemental Instruction, Calibration, And Self-Efficacy: A Path Model Analysis, Jennifer Leigh Grimm

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

Many students preparing for careers in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) are unable to persist past entry-level courses to complete their college degrees. As a result, many higher education institutions have implemented intervention programs, like Supplemental Instruction (SI), to help students master course content and gain the self-regulated learning (SRL) behaviors necessary for success in challenging STEM courses. Numerous studies have demonstrated that SI attendance is correlated with improved course grades; however, few studies have examined the effect of SI attendance on students’ SRL behaviors, like self-efficacy and calibration, which may explain students’ academic achievement throughout ...


Punctuations In Life: Exploring The Developmental Journeys Of Campus Tradition Builders, Preston Scott Reilly Jul 2019

Punctuations In Life: Exploring The Developmental Journeys Of Campus Tradition Builders, Preston Scott Reilly

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

Campus traditions are powerful vehicles that can shape college life (Cowley & Waller, 1979). Students foster smaller identities through their involvement in traditions on campus, and these traditions often ritualize coming-of-age or the start of American adulthood (Bronner, 2012). However, the climate of higher education today may be putting campus traditions and the purposes they achieve at risk. Often mistaken as frivolous and unnecessary parts of campus life (Manning 1994), these critical meaning-shaping events could fall prey to cost-cutting and downsizing as college campuses continue to evolve.

Guided by narrative analysis methods described by Patton (2002) and the Standard Life Story ...


The Impact Of State Equity Standards On Leaders' Espoused Beliefs About Social Justice, Amanda Hadgraft Jul 2019

The Impact Of State Equity Standards On Leaders' Espoused Beliefs About Social Justice, Amanda Hadgraft

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

School leaders are tasked with greater responsibilities than ever before. Today’s school leaders are expected to act as social justice leaders, ensuring all students have an equitable environment to learn in. State departments of education hold leaders accountable by comparing standardized test scores of students in majority and minority groups. The problem is these assessments measure the outcome of learning, but fail to measure the environments learning occurs in. The purpose of this study was to understand, within the context of the accountability climate, school leaders’ espoused beliefs about social justice, and the practices they employ to those ends ...


A Comparison Of Academic Outcomes In Courses Taught With Open Educational Resources And Publisher Content, Diane N. Ryan Apr 2019

A Comparison Of Academic Outcomes In Courses Taught With Open Educational Resources And Publisher Content, Diane N. Ryan

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

The academic outcomes of retention, completion, persistence and final exam scores between courses taught with open educational resources (OER) and courses taught with publisher content (non-OER) were investigated in this mixed method sequential study. The perceptions and experiences of the instructors who taught the courses were also explored. The participants were 215 community college students enrolled in an online section of Introduction to Communication (CST 110), Western Civilization (HIS 111), Applied Calculus (MTH 270) or Introduction to Psychology (PSY 201). Four instructors volunteered to teach an OER section and a non-OER section within each discipline. Students were randomly divided into ...


Adaptive Leadership Approaches In Online Education: A Study Of Trust Creation And Change Management In Higher Education, Andrew R. Casiello Apr 2019

Adaptive Leadership Approaches In Online Education: A Study Of Trust Creation And Change Management In Higher Education, Andrew R. Casiello

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

The focus of this study was to determine which aspects of “Adaptive Leadership” are most commonly used by leaders in online education at doctoral research institutions where online education is playing a major role in enrollment. Within this study, the current state of higher education is reviewed and major changes in the financial, technological and competitive landscape are discussed. Challenges within the higher education context are addressed. These challenges include the increasing cost of a college education, decreased state support for public institutions, reduction of regional hegemony caused by technological advancements, increasing competition for students, and student demand for greater ...


Sustainability Of Study Abroad Programs At Rural Community Colleges, Michelle Lieberman Apr 2019

Sustainability Of Study Abroad Programs At Rural Community Colleges, Michelle Lieberman

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

In this era of increased globalization, it is important to prepare students to participate in world issues and a worldwide economy. Study abroad increases knowledge regarding international affairs, boosts access to valuable cross-cultural experiences, and promotes academic success, retention (Raby, Rhodes, & Biscarra, 2014), cultural awareness (Clarke, Flaherty, Wright, & McMillen, 2009), and professional growth (Younes & Asay, 2003). Community colleges educate nearly half of the nation’s undergraduate students, but offer disproportionately few study-abroad programs (Hardy & Katsinas, 2007). Little existing research has documented the study abroad experiences of community college students. Even fewer studies have addressed sparse community college participation in study ...


Networkings Role In The Informal Learning Of Elementary Principals, Joshua J. Ringling Apr 2019

Networkings Role In The Informal Learning Of Elementary Principals, Joshua J. Ringling

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

Formal learning is an important aspect for school principals in the era of federal and state accountability. These formal learning opportunities provide the conditions for leadership development and personal growth. Although formal learning has been a consistent focus of educational leadership research, informal learning has not. The purpose of this study was to use qualitative case study methodology to gain a better understanding of in depth Social Networking amongst school principals with varying levels of experience, as well as capturing the what and how of knowledge transfer amongst principals. This study found that a principal’s informal learning opportunities are ...


Association Between Fiscal Effort Above Required Local Effort And Accreditation In Virginia Schools, Daniel C. Soderholm Apr 2019

Association Between Fiscal Effort Above Required Local Effort And Accreditation In Virginia Schools, Daniel C. Soderholm

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

This study expands on previous research regarding the adequacy of educational funding in order to reach a desired academic outcome. Specifically, this study examines Virginia policies of Standards of Quality and Standards of Accreditation to see if local fiscal effort above the minimum required by Virginia has an association to the desired minimum academic outcome of school accreditation.

The research in this study shows that when using a linear regression analysis or an ANCOVA there is no relationship between effort above Required Local Effort (RLE) and the percentage of students attending an accredited school. However, when looking at the non-linear ...


Globalization, Culture, And Online Learning: An Exploration Of The Sociocultural Perspectives Of Indian Students Participating In U.S.-Based Online Courses, Mitsue S. Shiokawa Apr 2019

Globalization, Culture, And Online Learning: An Exploration Of The Sociocultural Perspectives Of Indian Students Participating In U.S.-Based Online Courses, Mitsue S. Shiokawa

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

This study correlates the impacts of globalization on higher education and the generation of online learning programs offered to global audiences. Concomitantly, it examines the sociocultural experiences of international students participating in United States based online courses. Of specific interest is the socialized culture of learning students from India bring with them into an online learning course, and how that socialized culture is negotiated through strategies of acculturation alongside the student’s perceived American culture of learning. The overarching focus of the study explores the advent of cybercultures within online learning course environments as a potential result of the intermingling ...


Principal Influence On Collective Efficacy: A Single Case Study Looking At Principal Efficacy Influence On An Elementary School Through The Perspective Of Teachers, Jennifer Anne Banks Apr 2019

Principal Influence On Collective Efficacy: A Single Case Study Looking At Principal Efficacy Influence On An Elementary School Through The Perspective Of Teachers, Jennifer Anne Banks

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

This study explored ways in which self-efficacy beliefs and actions of a principal contributed to the shaping of school’s collective efficacy through teachers’ perceptions. A general qualitative methods approach was used. The study featured a single embedded case design highlighting one high-poverty school achieving state accreditation standards for student proficiency levels in English and math. The study population consisted of 14 elementary school teachers in a district in a state in the mid-Atlantic region. Data were collected through a survey, semi-structured interviews, and a focus group to answer the following research questions: (1) What experiences/elements were influential in ...


Political Culture And Policy: The Impact Of Culture And Values On School Choice Legislation, Heather Leigh Neal Apr 2019

Political Culture And Policy: The Impact Of Culture And Values On School Choice Legislation, Heather Leigh Neal

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

Policy actors unite political culture, power, and values to make substantial decisions which are often subjective in nature. Politics and policy are about collective decisions, which rely on the arrangement of a group of people. As values can influence policy actors in their attempt to solve problems, it is important for policymakers to establish a balance among the most essential values. A qualitative case study approach was used to investigate how, and what ways, political culture influenced how state stakeholders interpreted or implemented policy. Power and values were explored as both can connect for the implementation of policy. If values ...


Teacher Hiring And Placement At The Elementary School Level: The Challenges Of Implementing Strategic Human Resource Management Practices, Brittany Nicole Walker Apr 2019

Teacher Hiring And Placement At The Elementary School Level: The Challenges Of Implementing Strategic Human Resource Management Practices, Brittany Nicole Walker

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

Decades of research emphasizes the importance of staffing schools with quality teachers, as this will have the largest impact on student achievement (Mason, Schroeder, 2010). With high teacher turnover rates in addition to shrinking qualified candidate pools, the hiring process holds great significance (Tooms, 2004). This case study explored how one school district hires and places elementary school teachers. This study follows a qualitative case study approach using documents and interviews as data collection methods. Recently, Strategic Human Resource Management (SHRM) has made the transition from business to educational literature. This study explored two concepts, including fit and flexibility from ...


Building Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy (Ese): How Undergraduate Students Make Meaning Of Their Entrepreneurial Experiences, Amy Kurfist Apr 2019

Building Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy (Ese): How Undergraduate Students Make Meaning Of Their Entrepreneurial Experiences, Amy Kurfist

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

This qualitative, interview-based research study explores how undergraduate students at a single research university make meaning of their experiences in curricular and co-curricular university entrepreneurship programming. The study focuses on the developmental relationship between entrepreneurship education and feelings of entrepreneurial self-efficacy (ESE) and how feelings of ESE relate to future entrepreneurial intentions. I explore three of Bandura’s (1977) predictors of self-efficacy: mastery experiences, vicarious experiences, and social persuasion interwoven with the six dimensions of ESE developed by De Noble, Jung, and Ehrlich (1999) to determine how undergraduate students make meaning of their entrepreneurial experiences.

Through the analysis of data ...


Social Construction Of Power In Policymaking: A Case Of Cybersecurity Articulation Agreements In Virginia, Michael Paul Moore Oct 2018

Social Construction Of Power In Policymaking: A Case Of Cybersecurity Articulation Agreements In Virginia, Michael Paul Moore

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

Existing research into the creation of articulation agreements focused solely on the functional aspects of these documents, such as maximizing transfer credit. However, little is known about the experiences of faculty and administrators at the community colleges and universities who create articulation agreements and how their experiences affect partnerships between institutions. This is especially important for high-stakes articulation agreements in industries that are under-employed, as institutions are expected to enroll large numbers of students to meet the demands of the market. Who takes charge in the creation of such articulation agreements is of interest for leaders of institutions seeking to ...


The Impact Of The Number Of Dual Enrollment Credits On Racial Minority Students’ Completion Time At Five Virginia Community Colleges, Elizabeth Gardiner Dingess Jul 2018

The Impact Of The Number Of Dual Enrollment Credits On Racial Minority Students’ Completion Time At Five Virginia Community Colleges, Elizabeth Gardiner Dingess

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

The five-year college completion rate for students of color can be 15-20% lower than it is for White students (Fink, Jenkins, & Yanaglura, 2017). Dual enrollment courses have been researched as a predictor of college completion (Taylor, 2015), but fewer racial minority students enroll in dual enrollment courses; this enrollment disparity affects their college preparedness skills and may lead to lower college persistence and graduation rates (Evenbeck & Johnson, 2012). Despite the benefits dual enrollment courses could provide to racial minority students, few studies have examined the differences in college completion outcomes between racial minority and majority dual enrollment students (An, 2013; Pretlow & Wathington, 2014).

Participants in the current study included 292 dual enrollment students who attended one of five Virginia community colleges and completed an associate’s degree or certificate. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression to calculate the impact that the number of dual enrollment credits had on racial minorities’ college completion time. Control variables included gender, socioeconomic status ...


Access With Progress: A Comparative Analysis On The Co-Requisite Model Of Developmental Acceleration, Christopher Sean Wikstrom Apr 2018

Access With Progress: A Comparative Analysis On The Co-Requisite Model Of Developmental Acceleration, Christopher Sean Wikstrom

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

Students who are required to progress through a developmental education program face substantial barriers in the way of annual retention and program completion. A multitude of models exist on college campuses to improve these outcomes, one of which implements an on-time remediation approach. This co-requisite method is designed to reduce the time in developmental sequencing and stop-out points and accelerate students who are placed into preparatory classes to their gateway courses. As a form of developmental acceleration, students can concurrently enroll in their on-level and remedial courses in the same semester. A comparative analysis was performed between three student subgroups ...


The Relationship Between Course Delivery Mode And Location With Course Success For Dual Enrolled Students, Dean Morris Roughton Apr 2018

The Relationship Between Course Delivery Mode And Location With Course Success For Dual Enrolled Students, Dean Morris Roughton

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

High school dual enrollment has increased dramatically in recent years, growing 75% nationally between academic years 2002-03 and 2010-11 (Borden, Taylor, Park, & Seiler, 2013). Proponents of dual enrollment programs cite long-term, positive student outcomes for dual enrollment students: higher GPAs in college as adults (Allen & Dadgar, 2012; Jones, 2014; Karp, Calcagno, Hughes, Jeong, & Bailey, 2007), higher first year persistence rates in college (Jones, 2014; Karp et al., 2007), faster time to degree completion (Allen & Dadgar, 2012; Ganzert, 2014; Hughes, 2016), and higher college graduation rates (Ganzert, 2014; Hughes, 2016). However, very little research has focused on short-term success for dual enrolled students.

Course grades earned in dual enrollment programs become a part of the student’s official college transcript. As such, these grades can impact a student’s ability to be accepted at post-secondary institutions after graduation from ...


School Leaders’ Conceptualizations Of Teacher Care For African American Middle School Students, Violet Keene Whiteman Apr 2018

School Leaders’ Conceptualizations Of Teacher Care For African American Middle School Students, Violet Keene Whiteman

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

The purpose of this case study was to describe middle school leaders’ conceptualizations of caring teacher behaviors for African American middle school students. The qualitative case study focused on school leaders’ conceptualizations/identification of critical incidents (Flanagan, 1954) of care for African American middle school students. Noddings’ (1988) plan of action for implementing an ethic of care, including modeling, dialogue, practice, and confirmation, was used to inform the study. Data were collected through interviews, discussions of identified incidents of care, and observation documentation from the middle school leaders participating in the study.

Themes identified from the study included: build relationships ...


Change In The Middle: Implementing Professional Learning Communities For Sustained Instructional Change, Johnna L. Bryd-King Apr 2018

Change In The Middle: Implementing Professional Learning Communities For Sustained Instructional Change, Johnna L. Bryd-King

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

The purpose of this research was to explore the influence of school leaders and teachers on surface level vs. sustained change through the implementation of professional learning communities, furthering the understanding of why some schools increase student achievement and others do not. Two predominant psychological theories, Kruglanski’s lay epistemic theory and Schwartz’s value theory, were used to explore the influence of cognition formation and values on the phenomenon within a complex environment. This research studied three Southeastern Virginia suburban middle schools. Case study methodologies were utilized, including school leader and PLC teacher member interviews, and an online survey ...


The Impact Of Performance-Based Funding On Graduation Rates At Texas State Technical College, Adam Hutchison Apr 2018

The Impact Of Performance-Based Funding On Graduation Rates At Texas State Technical College, Adam Hutchison

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

As states legislatures seek improved results and increased accountability from higher education institutions, performance-based funding is frequently used as fiscal policy to determine state appropriations. Performance-based funding (PBF) determines an institution’s appropriation by its attainment of metrics, usually student outcomes. Early versions of PBF provided incentive funding for institutions that exceeded outcome goals, but later formulas included more intermediate metrics and required institutions meet targets to receive baseline funding. Prior studies examined the impact of PBF on retention and graduation rates at institutions through state-to-state comparisons and explored the political implications of PBF policies. Researchers found states using PBF ...


Predicting First-Year Mathematics Success At The Community College: Modifications On High School Grade Point Average And The Impact Of High School Quality, C. Caleb Marsh Apr 2018

Predicting First-Year Mathematics Success At The Community College: Modifications On High School Grade Point Average And The Impact Of High School Quality, C. Caleb Marsh

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

In recent years, student completion in the first-year college mathematics curriculum has become a significant barrier to student success and retention. Many states, such as North Carolina and Virginia, have been innovative in developing new strategies for placing students into an appropriate mathematics curriculum. A centerpiece of these strategies is to use student performance in high school, as measured by high school grade point average, as a predictor of course success and completion. However, in each system, what is largely absent from their placement models is an attempt to account for the quality of the institution that issued the high ...


Research Vs. Reality How School Districts Meet The Developmental Needs Of School Principals, Catina Bullard-Clark Apr 2018

Research Vs. Reality How School Districts Meet The Developmental Needs Of School Principals, Catina Bullard-Clark

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

This study examined the shared experiences of elementary principals on the professional development provided to them from their district. The study population consisted of 16 elementary school principals in a district in a state in the mid-Atlantic region. A general qualitative methods approach that was informed by phenomenology was followed. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews and a focus group with the participants and was then organized into themes to answer the following research questions: (1) What approaches to development are being implemented to support elementary principals in a district in a state in the Mid-Atlantic region? (2) Which methods ...


An Exploration Of Faculty And Staff Mentoring On High-Risk Community College Student Self-Efficacy, Support Systems, And Persistence, William E. Ashcraft Jan 2018

An Exploration Of Faculty And Staff Mentoring On High-Risk Community College Student Self-Efficacy, Support Systems, And Persistence, William E. Ashcraft

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of faculty and staff mentoring on high-risk community college student self-efficacy, support systems and persistence and identifying the attitudes and behaviors of successful faculty and staff mentors. Using a phenomenological qualitative approach, twenty-two successful high-risk students from one urban community college were interviewed and asked to identify and describe someone on campus who had been most influential in their ability to persist. The twenty-six community college faculty and staff personnel identified by these students were interviewed to learn what they do to help students succeed and persist. Four themes emerged ...


Community College Students' Deep Learning Approaches In Oer Courses, Kim Ellen Grewe Jan 2018

Community College Students' Deep Learning Approaches In Oer Courses, Kim Ellen Grewe

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

Open Educational Resources (OER) have the potential to bridge the gap for community college students not only because they are more affordable or provide access but also because they have the potential to make learning more meaningful for these same students. Although issues related to access and affordability have been extensively researched, less is known about the ways in which OER use may impact community college students’ deep approaches to learning. More qualitative research around OER efficacy from the student perspective is needed. The purpose of this study was to describe the ways students use OER and how students’ OER ...


A Study Of Late Registration At Four Community Colleges, Meredith Courtney Nourie-Manuele Jan 2018

A Study Of Late Registration At Four Community Colleges, Meredith Courtney Nourie-Manuele

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

At the community college level, a debated policy is whether to keep the option for late registration. Most colleges define late registration as registration that occurs any time after the first day of the semester (O’Banion, 2012). Some community colleges have opted to eliminate late registration, believing, based on previous studies, that late registration is a barrier to students and their success (Bolt, 2013; Hale & Bray, 2011; Jones, 2015; Smith, Street, & Olivarez, 2002; Weiss, 1999). Others assert late registration remain an option maintaining that the open access designation associated with the community college demands that students not be deterred from attending when that ...


A Workforce Development Study To Explore Current Demand For Industry-Recognized Credentials, Debra Kay Smiley Jan 2018

A Workforce Development Study To Explore Current Demand For Industry-Recognized Credentials, Debra Kay Smiley

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

In this descriptive research study, I identified industry-recognized workforce credentials that are or will be in high demand by employers operating in Virginia. I surveyed a targeted group of Virginia workforce development stakeholders including 17 Virginia Community College System workforce development leaders who represent each local community college, 47 Virginia local and regional economic development directors, and 11 Virginia Workforce Innovation Opportunity Act directors. Due to the economic disparity between rural and urban areas, I also examined the contrast between high-demand credentials needed by employers in rural and urban areas.

The findings revealed that the top two industry-recognized credentials were ...


Fiscal Effort For Pre-Kindergarten Spending And Early Literacy Achievement In Virginia, Patricia S. Williams Jan 2018

Fiscal Effort For Pre-Kindergarten Spending And Early Literacy Achievement In Virginia, Patricia S. Williams

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

There is a plethora of available early childhood education research linking participation and funding to short- and long-term benefits for individuals, society, and the economy. Educational advocates, social justice proponents, and economists agree that pre-kindergarten (Pre-K) education is the best human capital investment to spur economic growth and wealth. States are faced with choices and challenges concerning Pre-K investments as a vehicle to realizing desired literacy outcomes. Virginia, in particular, is stifled by below-average proficiency rates on national and state reading assessments, as well as declines school readiness skills and early literacy rates. For this reason, the intent of this ...