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Full-Text Articles in Education

Virtual Classrooms Bridging Homeschooling To Public Schools, Dennis I. Norman Jul 2019

Virtual Classrooms Bridging Homeschooling To Public Schools, Dennis I. Norman

OTS Master's Level Projects & Papers

This research explored the preliminary results that show how technology through virtual classrooms has bridged the home and public-schooling systems. The research invites further reflection on the ways by which the home-learning process improves through the inclusion of other parameters such as the e-learning framework. Online education has been discussed extensively as a way of enabling the home-schooling with increased access to better teachers and learning materials.

The research identified the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) as a means of determining how new technologies in the online learning process compared to the virtual classroom learning experience. The research explored a case ...


Collaboration And Community In Undergraduate Writing Synchronous Video Courses (Svcs), Kimberly Fahle Apr 2019

Collaboration And Community In Undergraduate Writing Synchronous Video Courses (Svcs), Kimberly Fahle

English Theses & Dissertations

From the 2013 Position Statement of Principles and Example Effective Practices for Online Writing Instruction (OWI), OWI Principle 11 suggests, “Online writing teachers and their institutions should develop personalized and interpersonal online communities to foster student success.” Previous discussions of synchronous modalities have suggested interpersonal benefits of this mode could aid in creating these communities and could minimize the isolation and transactional distance students can experience in asynchronous instruction, which in turn can impact their persistence and learning. However, with little research on this modality, it is difficult to corroborate this assumption or design synchronous courses to best exploit these ...


Adaptive Leadership Approaches In Online Education: A Study Of Trust Creation And Change Management In Higher Education, Andrew R. Casiello Apr 2019

Adaptive Leadership Approaches In Online Education: A Study Of Trust Creation And Change Management In Higher Education, Andrew R. Casiello

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

The focus of this study was to determine which aspects of “Adaptive Leadership” are most commonly used by leaders in online education at doctoral research institutions where online education is playing a major role in enrollment. Within this study, the current state of higher education is reviewed and major changes in the financial, technological and competitive landscape are discussed. Challenges within the higher education context are addressed. These challenges include the increasing cost of a college education, decreased state support for public institutions, reduction of regional hegemony caused by technological advancements, increasing competition for students, and student demand for greater ...


Globalization, Culture, And Online Learning: An Exploration Of The Sociocultural Perspectives Of Indian Students Participating In U.S.-Based Online Courses, Mitsue S. Shiokawa Apr 2019

Globalization, Culture, And Online Learning: An Exploration Of The Sociocultural Perspectives Of Indian Students Participating In U.S.-Based Online Courses, Mitsue S. Shiokawa

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

This study correlates the impacts of globalization on higher education and the generation of online learning programs offered to global audiences. Concomitantly, it examines the sociocultural experiences of international students participating in United States based online courses. Of specific interest is the socialized culture of learning students from India bring with them into an online learning course, and how that socialized culture is negotiated through strategies of acculturation alongside the student’s perceived American culture of learning. The overarching focus of the study explores the advent of cybercultures within online learning course environments as a potential result of the intermingling ...


Community College Faculty Compensation For Online Course Development And Delivery, Radhika I. Prout Jan 2018

Community College Faculty Compensation For Online Course Development And Delivery, Radhika I. Prout

STEMPS Theses & Dissertations

The purpose of this dissertation was to determine the most common compensation practices community colleges in the United States provided to faculty for online course development and delivery. Many community colleges provided compensation as an incentive for faculty participation in supporting their online learning initiatives; however, limited research was available on fair compensation for these services. The population consisted of 980 community colleges that were identified using the American Association of Community College’s membership directory.

Data for this study were collected using a survey that contained 31 closed and open form response questions requesting demographic information and current practices ...


The Influence Of Cognitive Load On Infotec Students Participating In Online Learning, Joe Price Oct 2017

The Influence Of Cognitive Load On Infotec Students Participating In Online Learning, Joe Price

OTS Master's Level Projects & Papers

The theory of cognitive load has been developed to help educators, instructional designers, and developers of e-learning curriculum and materials, anticipate learning outcomes by fully understanding the cognitive capabilities and limitations of the learner. The theory is broad enough to be used in many educational environments because the focus is on making learning as effective and efficient as possible in regards to the human brain’s ability to process information. By reducing the complexity of the information to be learned and the manipulatives used to produce understanding, the curriculum developer can focus their energies on producing lessons that are streamlined ...


Higher Education Distance Advising In The 21st Century: Distance Learning Students' And Advisors' Perceptions, Brooke Lambert Brown Oct 2017

Higher Education Distance Advising In The 21st Century: Distance Learning Students' And Advisors' Perceptions, Brooke Lambert Brown

STEMPS Theses & Dissertations

The intent of this study was to focus on distance learning students’ and advisors’ perceptions of distance advising at a large, public university. Specifically, this study addressed four questions: what were the perceived performance gaps between distance learning students and distance learning advisors practice, how distance learning students’ needs were being satisfied, what tools and technology resources were being incorporated, and how advising needs differed based on college. The Winston and Sandor Academic Advising Inventory (AAI) served as the foundation for this quantitative research. The survey was modified accordingly and sent to two populations: distance learning advisors and distance learning ...


An Analysis Of Self-Regulated Learning Strategies, Academic Performance, And Satisfaction Among Recent Online High School Graduates, Jenifer Lee Price Oct 2017

An Analysis Of Self-Regulated Learning Strategies, Academic Performance, And Satisfaction Among Recent Online High School Graduates, Jenifer Lee Price

STEMPS Theses & Dissertations

Recent studies indicate a positive correlation between academic performance and metacognitive self-regulation (MSR) and effort regulation (ER). This relationship was explored across performance (e.g., higher and lower) and satisfaction (e.g., satisfied and dissatisfied) levels to help identify which self-regulated learning (SRL) skills were most critical for 102 recent graduates of online high schools. A mixed-methods design was employed to determine use of SRL strategies and to better understand participant experiences while learning online. Responses to surveys, open-ended questions, and ten follow-up interviews were compared and contrasted to assess the level of corroboration between quantitative and qualitative data in ...


The Effects Of Group-Based Context Personalization On Learning Outcomes And Motivation, Jessica J. Resig Oct 2017

The Effects Of Group-Based Context Personalization On Learning Outcomes And Motivation, Jessica J. Resig

STEMPS Theses & Dissertations

The rise of online course enrollments in higher education has highlighted the need to establish and validate effective online instructional strategies focused on improving learning outcomes and affective responses towards instruction. One such strategy, group-based context personalization, frames instructional materials within contexts relevant to shared interests among groups of students. This study sought to investigate the effects of group-based context personalization on learning outcomes and motivation towards the instruction when materials were contextualized based on a learner’s academic major.

This study employed a true experimental design to explore the effects of group-based context personalization on learning outcomes and motivation ...


The Effect Of Device When Using Smartphones And Computers To Answer Multiple-Choice And Open-Response Questions In Distance Education, Thomas Royce Wilson Apr 2017

The Effect Of Device When Using Smartphones And Computers To Answer Multiple-Choice And Open-Response Questions In Distance Education, Thomas Royce Wilson

Teaching & Learning Theses & Dissertations

Traditionally in higher education, online courses have been designed for computer users. However, the advent of mobile learning (m-learning) and the proliferation of smartphones have created two challenges for online students and instructional designers. First, instruction designed for a larger computer screen often loses its effectiveness when displayed on a smaller smartphone screen. Second, requiring students to write remains a hallmark of higher education, but miniature keyboards might restrict how thoroughly smartphone users respond to open- response test questions. The present study addressed both challenges by featuring m-learning’s greatest strength (multimedia) and by investigating its greatest weakness (text input ...


Facilitating Higher Levels Of Thinking And Deeper Cognitive Processing Of Course Texts Using Reciprocal Teaching Strategies In Asynchronous Discussion Forums, Jenifer R. Marquis Apr 2017

Facilitating Higher Levels Of Thinking And Deeper Cognitive Processing Of Course Texts Using Reciprocal Teaching Strategies In Asynchronous Discussion Forums, Jenifer R. Marquis

STEMPS Theses & Dissertations

Reciprocal teaching is an interactive instructional procedure that improves students’ text comprehension skills through instruction that utilizes scaffolds of four comprehension-fostering and comprehension-monitoring strategies: predicting, questioning, clarifying, and summarizing (Palincsar & Brown, 1984, 1986; Palincsar, Brown, & Martin, 1987). Reciprocal teaching involves student-led instruction, modeling, practice, and feedback in metacognitive self-monitoring and evaluating strategies (Brown, Campione, & Day, 1981). The purpose of this study was to determine the potential of reciprocal teaching to facilitate deeper cognitive processing and higher levels of thinking related to course texts in an online, asynchronous community college course. The strategies and peer teaching were incorporated into discussion forums for dialogue, strategy use, and peer teaching.

Studies have shown that purposefully designed interactions can lead to improved learning in distance courses. According to Borokhovski, Tamim, Bernard, Abrami, and Sokolovskaya (2012), designed interaction treatments include intentionally implemented collaborative instructional conditions for increasing student learning. In this study, reciprocal teaching provided student-student, student-teacher, and student-content interaction and supported the negotiation of meaning in a social learning atmosphere. Peer teaching resulted in generative processing through the reworking of a topic from the textbook into a lesson and questions for peers (Collins et al., 1989; King, 1991; Pressley et al., 1992; Rosenshine et al., 1996; Wood et al., 1990).

Quasi-experimental, multiple methods were employed to compare the effects of traditional discussions and reciprocal teaching discussions. A convenience sample of two sections of the same community college course was studied over 16 weeks. Outcome variables were level of thinking, understanding of course texts, online reciprocal teaching implementation, and students’ reflections on the relationship between ...


Innovation Adoption And Diffusion In Synchronous Tutoring Owls: A Cross-Contextual Case Study Using Diffusion Of Innovations Theory, Cynthia Marie Pengilly Oct 2016

Innovation Adoption And Diffusion In Synchronous Tutoring Owls: A Cross-Contextual Case Study Using Diffusion Of Innovations Theory, Cynthia Marie Pengilly

English Theses & Dissertations

Synchronous online tutoring shares many attributes with face-to-face tutoring such as real-time, document collaboration, and conversational cues provided by audio and video, yet writing center professionals know seemingly little about synchronous tutoring OWLs due to the lack of formal publications about synchronous online tutoring coupled with the prevailing paradigm that seeks to transfer face-to-face tutoring practices to online synchronous tutoring, which overshadows the innovation processes taking place in synchronous OWLs. The purpose of this study was to document emergent practices in the use of two different synchronous tutoring technologies and the processes by which those practices were adopted and implemented ...


Factors Influencing The Selection Of Academic Help Sources, Joan Giblin Oct 2016

Factors Influencing The Selection Of Academic Help Sources, Joan Giblin

STEMPS Theses & Dissertations

This study extends the literature on academic help-seeking by identifying factors influencing undergraduate students’ selection of a source of help. Learners engage in intentional decisions to seek help from human and non-human sources to resolve gaps in knowledge. Decision making heuristics provide a theoretical lens to understand these intentional decisions. Previous research in academic help-seeking assumed learners sought only human sources of assistance, resulting in a narrow understanding of how learners resolve knowledge gaps. Methodological trends in help-seeking research consistently favor quantitative, survey based tools with pre-defined options. As a result, the factors that influence the selection of a source ...


Multimedia Design, Learning Effectiveness, And Student Perceptions Of Instructor Credibility And Immediacy, Miguel Ramlatchan Jul 2016

Multimedia Design, Learning Effectiveness, And Student Perceptions Of Instructor Credibility And Immediacy, Miguel Ramlatchan

STEMPS Theses & Dissertations

Online learning and the use of multimedia is a quickly growing element of higher education. This experimental research study examines five common audio and video presentation designs to inform evidence-based practices that can be applied by instructional designers as they develop content for online learners. Specifically, this experiment compares instructor-only, slides-only, dual-windows, video-switching, and superimposed-slides multimedia designs in terms of learning effectiveness, perceived instructor credibility, instructor immediacy, and cognitive load created by each design. This study included a diverse sample of adult learners who were randomly assigned to treatment groups. A total of 171 participants completed the study and responded ...


Motivation And Learning In An Online Collaborative Project Using Gamification, Michele L. Hudiburg Apr 2016

Motivation And Learning In An Online Collaborative Project Using Gamification, Michele L. Hudiburg

STEMPS Theses & Dissertations

In 2012, there were 2.9 million students enrolled in graduate degrees and 22% were taking strictly online courses (Kena et al., 2014). Many students are not motivated to participate in collaborative learning experiences in online courses (Dirkx & Smith, 2004). Gamification, the inclusion of game elements in non-game contexts, has been shown to have a positive impact on motivation (Deterding, 2012; Kapp, 2012). Prior work has focused on structural gamification including elements such as points, levels, and badges as extrinsic motivators to traditional course activities. The current study explored content gamification including narrative, role-play, interactivity, and feedback in an online collaborative learning environment. Thirty-nine master’s degree students enrolled in an online educational technology program participated in a six-week, collaborative project as part ...


Online Learning And Effective Leadership: The Importance Of Relationship Building And Culture, Nadine K. Rupp Apr 2016

Online Learning And Effective Leadership: The Importance Of Relationship Building And Culture, Nadine K. Rupp

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

Online and blended learning are becoming more important in k-12 public schools because of their flexibility and increased opportunity for students in urban as well as rural environments. Implementing and sustaining technology-based learning is a complex process that requires educational leaders to have a broad spectrum of knowledge and skills which are critical to the success of online programs. This case study research used in-depth interviews to gather data on how one district was able to provide a successful program using effective leadership skills. Three areas critical to success were identified in the data: clear vision and achievable goals, appropriate ...


Leveraging Digital Communities Of Practice: How Asynchronous Digital Collaboration Afforded A Complex Reading/Writing Dialogue For Secondary School Students, Susanne Lee Nobles Apr 2016

Leveraging Digital Communities Of Practice: How Asynchronous Digital Collaboration Afforded A Complex Reading/Writing Dialogue For Secondary School Students, Susanne Lee Nobles

English Theses & Dissertations

This dissertation examines a case study of a research unit taught to secondary school students with the inclusion of an asynchronous digital collaboration with college students. Over consecutive school years, two classes of high school seniors and two classes of college students, despite being geographically separated by more than 90 miles, worked together in multiple reading and writing exchanges within an online community as they read a primary text and as the secondary school students wrote research papers. This study seeks to understand the effects of this unit on the secondary school students’ thinking, reading, and writing skills, focusing specifically ...


Effects Of Learner-To-Learner Interactions On Social Presence, Achievement And Satisfaction, Susan Elizabeth Allred Oyarzun Apr 2016

Effects Of Learner-To-Learner Interactions On Social Presence, Achievement And Satisfaction, Susan Elizabeth Allred Oyarzun

STEMPS Theses & Dissertations

The relationships between learner-to-learner interactions, achievement, social presence, and satisfaction in online learning have varying degrees of strength according to the research. More evidence is needed to identify clarify relationships among these variables and to identify best practices for designing learner-to-learner interactions to increase achievement, level of social presence, and learner satisfaction. This non-experimental, comparative study investigated the strategies used for learner-to-learner interactions effects on achievement, social presence, and satisfaction. Surveys measuring social presence and interaction quality were administered to instructors and students enrolled in 17 undergraduate asynchronous online courses. The surveys for instructors and students were the same, except ...


Motivation, Persistence, And Achievement In Community College Asynchronous Online Courses, Rachel Michelle Desmarais Apr 2015

Motivation, Persistence, And Achievement In Community College Asynchronous Online Courses, Rachel Michelle Desmarais

STEMPS Theses & Dissertations

Community college students enrolled in asynchronous online courses were examined for the correlational effects of motivation factors upon achievement and persistence in major and non-major courses. A modified version of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) (Pintrich, Smith, Garcia, & McKeachie, 1991) was employed to obtain measurements on motivation and self-regulatory factors. Demographic factors and first generation student status were used to determine any interaction effects.

A series of binary logistic regressions demonstrated significant, positive correlations between self-efficacy and modified MSLQ task value on persistence for these students. A series of ordinal logistic regressions demonstrated significant, positive correlations between self-management ...


Microblogging As A Facilitator Of Online Community In Graduate Education, Vincent Anthony Rhodes Jul 2014

Microblogging As A Facilitator Of Online Community In Graduate Education, Vincent Anthony Rhodes

English Theses & Dissertations

Part-time and distance-learning students can experience a sense of isolation from their peers and the university. Concern about this isolation and resulting student attrition has increased in the midst of explosive growth in online course enrollments. One possible solution: building a stronger sense of community within the online graduate classroom using microblogging technology such as Twitter. Unfortunately, scholars across disciplines define community in different ways with some rejecting the concept altogether in favor of other theoretical constructs. And, few scholars have examined the notion of online classroom community from an English Studies perspective exploring the rhetorical exigencies that underpin this ...


Improving Argumentation Through Goal Instructions In Asynchronous Online Discussions, Yekaterina Prudchenko Apr 2014

Improving Argumentation Through Goal Instructions In Asynchronous Online Discussions, Yekaterina Prudchenko

STEMPS Theses & Dissertations

Argumentation incorporated into class discussions can improve students' problem solving skills and enhance their epistemic and conceptual understanding. Research indicates students sometimes need scaffolding such as goal instructions to improve their argumentation skills. This study examined the effectiveness of different types of goal instructions on participants' argumentation achievement. In particular, the study compared the effects of minimal, moderate, substantial, and no goal instructions in asynchronous online discussions on participants' argumentation achievement, as measured by development, balance, and explanatory discourse scores. The study also tried to understand participants' experiences of the goal instructions by comparing the differences in emergent themes across ...


Analysis Of Student Perceptions Of The Psychosocial Learning Environment In Online And Face-To-Face Career And Technical Education Courses, Diane L. Carver Jan 2014

Analysis Of Student Perceptions Of The Psychosocial Learning Environment In Online And Face-To-Face Career And Technical Education Courses, Diane L. Carver

STEMPS Theses & Dissertations

Career and technical education (CTE) courses offered online are becoming more common in secondary schools. Recognizing the adaptability of CTE courses and designing curricula to offer online learners the same experience as face-to-face learners is challenging for education professionals and requires analyses of both environments. A lack of empirical studies makes it important to conduct research on online learning environments from the perspectives of high school students.

This study analyzes student perceptions of the psychosocial learning environment in online and face-to-face career and technical education courses. The research explores and compares how high school students perceive their learning environment and ...


Late Registration And Student Success In On-Campus And Online Classes, Patrick Tompkins Jan 2013

Late Registration And Student Success In On-Campus And Online Classes, Patrick Tompkins

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

The study examined the effect of late registration into on-campus and online classes upon student performance when accounting for completion of a college success skills course and the demographic factors of sex, race/ethnicity, age, and full-time/part-time enrollment status. The data source was 2010-2013 ex post facto data from 23 colleges in a large community college system in the southeastern United States. The statistical method of binary logistic regression was applied to the data. The regression models failed to yield strong predictions of the association between registration timing and student success. Coupled with previous studies, this study demonstrated that ...


Overcoming Barriers: How Community College Faculty Successfully Overcome Barriers To Participation In Distance Education, Matthew Meyer Jul 2012

Overcoming Barriers: How Community College Faculty Successfully Overcome Barriers To Participation In Distance Education, Matthew Meyer

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

To determine the primary barriers encountered by community college faculty in participating in distance education, community college faculty and administrators from community colleges in North Carolina and Virginia were surveyed using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Two separate online surveys were provided to faculty and distance education administrators (including chief academic officers) that included demographic questions and barrier assessment questions for both groups. Follow-up interviews were conducted among faculty and administrators at colleges that self-reported having successful or poorly performing distance education programs. To further frame the attributes of faculty participators and non-participators in distance education, the diffusion of innovations ...


Academic Predictors Of Online Course Success In The Community College, Christy D. Hawkins Jul 2012

Academic Predictors Of Online Course Success In The Community College, Christy D. Hawkins

STEMPS Theses & Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to identify academic factors that might predict online course success for community college students. Online course success was a focus of national research and debate as studies consistently indicated lower success rates in online courses as compared to traditional courses; however, research that identified academic predictors to guide the development of policies and services that support student success in online courses was limited.

A random sample of 20 online course sections held at one multi-campus, urban community college resulted in 491 enrollees being examined for seventy-eight factors that might predict online course success. Factors ...


Faculty And Student Perceptions Of Students' Sense Of Community In Online Courses, William C. Fiege Jul 2011

Faculty And Student Perceptions Of Students' Sense Of Community In Online Courses, William C. Fiege

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

The Classroom Community Scale (Rovai, 2002b) was used to examine faculty and student perceptions of students' sense of community at two points during an academic semester. The study also examined the relationship between student sense of community scores and their final course grades. A non-experimental research design was used by the researcher to analyze pre-survey to post-survey score means of students' sense of community as perceived by students and faculty. Two hundred sixty-nine (269) students and 48 faculty members representing 56 online arts and science courses at a community college in Virginia completed the pre-survey and post-survey surveys.

Students' perceptions ...


Utilizing A Web-Based Career Development Workshop To Address Career Decision-Making Difficulty Among Community College Distance Learners, Johanna Michele Brown Apr 2011

Utilizing A Web-Based Career Development Workshop To Address Career Decision-Making Difficulty Among Community College Distance Learners, Johanna Michele Brown

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

Career decision making difficulty, as it relates to undecided college students and career indecision, has been a concern for counselors and academic advisors for decades (Gordon, 2006; Mau, 2004). Individuals struggling with career indecision often seek assistance via career counseling, self-help tools, and/or computer-assisted career guidance systems (Gati, Gadassi, & Shemesh, 2005). The past decade has brought a large increase in the development of a number of web-based career guidance systems (CGS) (Bobek, Robbins, Gore, Harris-Bowlsbey, Lapan, Dahir, & Jepsen, 2005). Despite the rapid growth in the type and use of computer-assisted CGS, little empirical research has been conducted on the effectiveness of the systems as career decision making tools (Bloch, 2006; Fowkes & McWhirter, 2007; Gati, Kleinam, Saka, & Zakai, 2003; Mau, 1999). The purpose of this preliminary quantitative study was to assess the effectiveness of a web-based career development workshop to change career decision making difficulty of undecided community college distance learners. The results of this study will be used to determine the feasibility of incorporating ...


Faculty Compensation For Developing And Delivering Online Courses, Jeffrey Allen Burleson Apr 2011

Faculty Compensation For Developing And Delivering Online Courses, Jeffrey Allen Burleson

STEMPS Theses & Dissertations

The intent of this dissertation was to determine the most common compensation practices higher education institutions provided faculty for developing and delivering online courses. Many higher education institutions provided compensation as motivational tools to elicit faculty participation in new online learning initiatives; however, limited research was available on equitable compensation for these services. The population consisted of 263 small, medium, and large baccalaureate and masters level private and state-funded not-for-profit United States higher education institutions. This population was selected using the maximum number of institutions identified by the Carnegie Classification system that met these criteria.

Data for this study were ...


Community Of Inquiry Framework And Learning Outcomes, Jennifer Ann Maddrell Jan 2011

Community Of Inquiry Framework And Learning Outcomes, Jennifer Ann Maddrell

STEMPS Theses & Dissertations

First described by Garrison, Anderson, and Archer (2000), the Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework suggests social presence, teaching presence, and cognitive presence are essential elements to foster successful educational experiences in computer-mediated higher education distance learning environments. While hundreds of CoI-based articles have been published since 2000, those critical of the framework and related research suggested a lack of empirical evidence to support the framework's central claim that a CoI leads to deep and meaningful learning outcomes (Rourke & Kanuka, 2009). The current study, conducted with 51 graduate students in five distance education courses at the same university, compared the ...


The Effects Of Cooperative And Collaborative Strategies On Student Achievement And Satisfaction In Blended And Online Learning Environments, Christine E. Nickel Apr 2010

The Effects Of Cooperative And Collaborative Strategies On Student Achievement And Satisfaction In Blended And Online Learning Environments, Christine E. Nickel

STEMPS Theses & Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine whether cooperative versus collaborative strategies used for a group project had differential effects on students' achievement, process and solution satisfaction, value and preference for collaboration, and perceptions of community of inquiry in online and blended environments. The study sample consisted of teacher education students enrolled in a technology integration course. Students' age, academic level, online experience, and teaching experience were used as covariates in an effort to identify differential effects associated with student characteristics. Cooperative and collaborative strategies were differentiated by the amount of structure imposed by the instructor as well as ...