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Full-Text Articles in Education

Teachers’ Job Satisfaction: Content Area In Relation To Middle School Teachers’ Job Satisfaction, Ashley Potter Jul 2019

Teachers’ Job Satisfaction: Content Area In Relation To Middle School Teachers’ Job Satisfaction, Ashley Potter

OTS Master's Level Projects & Papers

Retaining high quality teachers to counteract the teacher shortage happening across the nation has been a focus of the education system. Middle school educators require a certain skill set and knowledge to be effective at this vital time in their student’s lives. These specific set of educators have not been exempt from the shortage statistic. A teachers’ overall job satisfaction plays a major role in their decision making on a daily basis and their longevity in the profession. Although there are studies on teachers’ job satisfaction, there is minimal research available on how the content area a middle school ...


Virtual Classrooms Bridging Homeschooling To Public Schools, Dennis I. Norman Jul 2019

Virtual Classrooms Bridging Homeschooling To Public Schools, Dennis I. Norman

OTS Master's Level Projects & Papers

This research explored the preliminary results that show how technology through virtual classrooms has bridged the home and public-schooling systems. The research invites further reflection on the ways by which the home-learning process improves through the inclusion of other parameters such as the e-learning framework. Online education has been discussed extensively as a way of enabling the home-schooling with increased access to better teachers and learning materials.

The research identified the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) as a means of determining how new technologies in the online learning process compared to the virtual classroom learning experience. The research explored a case ...


A Study To Determine How To Measure The Laser Safety Climate At Academic Institutions, John Settlemyer Jul 2019

A Study To Determine How To Measure The Laser Safety Climate At Academic Institutions, John Settlemyer

OTS Master's Level Projects & Papers

Statement of Problem

The purpose of this study was to determine if the laser safety climate can be measured at academic institutions and what factors would provide valid measures of the laser safety climate at academic institutions. Specifically, the study attempted to answer the following questions:

Research Questions

RQ1. Can laser safety climate be measured at academic institutions using a climate survey instrument?

RQ2. What factors should be measured by a laser safety climate instrument?

RQ3. What measures would provide actionable data for prescriptive intervention by laser safety professionals at academic institutions? (p. 4)


An Examination Of Personality Traits As A Predictor Of The Use Of Self-Regulated Learning Strategies, Jacqueline L. Bruso Jul 2019

An Examination Of Personality Traits As A Predictor Of The Use Of Self-Regulated Learning Strategies, Jacqueline L. Bruso

STEMPS Theses & Dissertations

Each learner brings a unique mix of personality traits, preferences, and talents to the educational setting. These factors can influence the extent to which learners are able to effectively deploy skills and strategies to achieve their academic goals. Gaining a deeper awareness of how specific personality traits play a role in the choice and deployment of SRL strategies provides opportunities to anticipate which learners might be ineffective self-regulators. Doing so would enable instructional designers, educators, or higher education administrators to better plan and deliver effective educational experiences for a wide range of learners. The purpose of this study was to ...


Teacher And Child Interaction: The Effects Of Familial Distress, Child Behavior, And Teacher Perceptions, Jessekah R. Ennis Jul 2019

Teacher And Child Interaction: The Effects Of Familial Distress, Child Behavior, And Teacher Perceptions, Jessekah R. Ennis

Sociology & Criminal Justice Theses & Dissertations

There has been a significant amount of research that has studied the ecological conditions that create behavioral problems for children from families that are female headed, in poverty, and live in areas where there is violent crime. There has also been evidence that revealed statistically significant associations between the way teachers perceive students from low socioeconomic backgrounds and their beliefs of the capacity of the children to learn. Studies have also examined how teachers interact with children that are exhibiting behavioral problems that are from low socio-economic status. However, to date there has been no study that has combined these ...


Crafting A Pedagogical Identity: A Multiple-Method Examination Of An English Department’S Writing Pedagogy, Nathan Alan Serfling Jul 2019

Crafting A Pedagogical Identity: A Multiple-Method Examination Of An English Department’S Writing Pedagogy, Nathan Alan Serfling

English Theses & Dissertations

This study developed after a program review of my current English department. The review pointed to a lack of coherence within our required writing curriculum. To learn more about my colleagues’ practices and values in writing instruction and to discover similarities and strengths that might guide our curricular revisions, I devised a multiple method, descriptive study of my colleagues’ pedagogies. I initially distributed surveys and used four key pedagogical taxonomies from writing studies scholarship (current-traditional rhetoric, expressivism, cultural studies and critical pedagogy, and rhetoric and argumentation) to analyze the survey data. Finding these taxonomies to be inadequate frameworks for understanding ...


The Impact Of State Equity Standards On Leaders' Espoused Beliefs About Social Justice, Amanda Hadgraft Jul 2019

The Impact Of State Equity Standards On Leaders' Espoused Beliefs About Social Justice, Amanda Hadgraft

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

School leaders are tasked with greater responsibilities than ever before. Today’s school leaders are expected to act as social justice leaders, ensuring all students have an equitable environment to learn in. State departments of education hold leaders accountable by comparing standardized test scores of students in majority and minority groups. The problem is these assessments measure the outcome of learning, but fail to measure the environments learning occurs in. The purpose of this study was to understand, within the context of the accountability climate, school leaders’ espoused beliefs about social justice, and the practices they employ to those ends ...


The Challenges Facing Women Leaders In Mid-Level Positions At Urban Community Colleges, Kia L. Hardy Jul 2019

The Challenges Facing Women Leaders In Mid-Level Positions At Urban Community Colleges, Kia L. Hardy

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

Although women lead at higher rates overall at community colleges, they continue to lead at lower rates in senior-level positions compared to men within those institutions. Women serve as presidents in 36% of community colleges (ACE, 2017). Additionally, community college presidents are currently retiring at rapid rates, and this turnover in leadership is expected to continue (Phillipe, 2016; Shults, 2001; Tekle, 2012). As community colleges face current and future reductions in senior-level leadership, women in mid-level leadership roles should be considered to fill the leadership gap.

Previous studies have examined the leadership challenges faced by women leaders, but there has ...


The Impact Of Performance Funding On Community College Degree Completion, Certificate Completion, And Transfer Rate: A Difference-In-Differences Approach, Matthew J. Okerblom Jul 2019

The Impact Of Performance Funding On Community College Degree Completion, Certificate Completion, And Transfer Rate: A Difference-In-Differences Approach, Matthew J. Okerblom

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

Historically, state funding of higher education institutions has been allocated through enrollment, but there has been a recent trend towards a different model, performance funding. Performance funding is a model based on the attainment of designated metrics with the intent on improving student outcomes. The metrics used for these programs have often not aligned with the mission and characteristics of different institutions, especially that of community colleges. Although, several past performance funding models failed to improve student outcomes, much has been learned regarding program improvement. Texas implemented a performance funding model in 2013 which included a focus on community colleges ...


Punctuations In Life: Exploring The Developmental Journeys Of Campus Tradition Builders, Preston Scott Reilly Jul 2019

Punctuations In Life: Exploring The Developmental Journeys Of Campus Tradition Builders, Preston Scott Reilly

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

Campus traditions are powerful vehicles that can shape college life (Cowley & Waller, 1979). Students foster smaller identities through their involvement in traditions on campus, and these traditions often ritualize coming-of-age or the start of American adulthood (Bronner, 2012). However, the climate of higher education today may be putting campus traditions and the purposes they achieve at risk. Often mistaken as frivolous and unnecessary parts of campus life (Manning 1994), these critical meaning-shaping events could fall prey to cost-cutting and downsizing as college campuses continue to evolve.

Guided by narrative analysis methods described by Patton (2002) and the Standard Life Story ...


Effects Of High-Carbohydrate Versus Mixed-Macronutrient Meals On Soccer Physiology And Performance, Jaison Lee Wynne Jul 2019

Effects Of High-Carbohydrate Versus Mixed-Macronutrient Meals On Soccer Physiology And Performance, Jaison Lee Wynne

Human Movement Sciences Theses & Dissertations

The purpose of the study was to measure the effects of an acute pre-competition high-carbohydrate (HCHO) meal versus a mixed-macronutrient (MM) meal on physiology, perceptual responses, and performance in 15 division I female collegiate soccer players. Being there are conjectural advantages to pre-exercise meals higher in fiber, fat, and protein, this study was conducted to evaluate the physiological and perceptual effects of pre-competition MM meals. This study used a randomized, investigator-blinded, crossover design involving two dietary interventions – HCHO and MM meals – that were consumed four hours prior to two separate intra-squad soccer scrimmages. Assessments included running metrics via global positioning ...


A Comparison Of College Student-Athletes With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (Adhd) And Nonathletes With Adhd: Academic Adjustment, Severity Of Mental Health Concerns, And Complexity Of Life Concerns, Sonja Lund Jul 2019

A Comparison Of College Student-Athletes With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (Adhd) And Nonathletes With Adhd: Academic Adjustment, Severity Of Mental Health Concerns, And Complexity Of Life Concerns, Sonja Lund

Counseling & Human Services Theses & Dissertations

College student-athletes traditionally experience more stressors than their nonathletic peers due to their dual roles. ADHD causes impairments in executive functioning which can cause additional stress for the college student. The combination of ADHD and student-athlete status may impact academic adjustment, mental health severity, and complexity of college life concerns. Presently, no study has explored how student-athletes with ADHD may compare with nonathletes with ADHD in terms of these elements. The purpose of this study is to address this gap in literature and by analyzing archival data collected from university students across the United States. This study utilized an ex-post ...


Supplemental Instruction, Calibration, And Self-Efficacy: A Path Model Analysis, Jennifer Leigh Grimm Jul 2019

Supplemental Instruction, Calibration, And Self-Efficacy: A Path Model Analysis, Jennifer Leigh Grimm

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

Many students preparing for careers in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) are unable to persist past entry-level courses to complete their college degrees. As a result, many higher education institutions have implemented intervention programs, like Supplemental Instruction (SI), to help students master course content and gain the self-regulated learning (SRL) behaviors necessary for success in challenging STEM courses. Numerous studies have demonstrated that SI attendance is correlated with improved course grades; however, few studies have examined the effect of SI attendance on students’ SRL behaviors, like self-efficacy and calibration, which may explain students’ academic achievement throughout ...


Principal Influence On Collective Efficacy: A Single Case Study Looking At Principal Efficacy Influence On An Elementary School Through The Perspective Of Teachers, Jennifer Anne Banks Apr 2019

Principal Influence On Collective Efficacy: A Single Case Study Looking At Principal Efficacy Influence On An Elementary School Through The Perspective Of Teachers, Jennifer Anne Banks

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

This study explored ways in which self-efficacy beliefs and actions of a principal contributed to the shaping of school’s collective efficacy through teachers’ perceptions. A general qualitative methods approach was used. The study featured a single embedded case design highlighting one high-poverty school achieving state accreditation standards for student proficiency levels in English and math. The study population consisted of 14 elementary school teachers in a district in a state in the mid-Atlantic region. Data were collected through a survey, semi-structured interviews, and a focus group to answer the following research questions: (1) What experiences/elements were influential in ...


Examining The Relationship Between Expectancy-Value Motivation, Barriers, And Physical Activity Engagement Among Adults With Visual Impairments, Tiffany Nicole Kirk Apr 2019

Examining The Relationship Between Expectancy-Value Motivation, Barriers, And Physical Activity Engagement Among Adults With Visual Impairments, Tiffany Nicole Kirk

Human Movement Sciences Theses & Dissertations

Despite the documented benefits associated with physical activity, adults with visual impairments tend to participate in insufficient physical activity for health promotion. Current literature suggests that barriers to physical activity, or factors that constrain participation in physical activity, may inform the physical activity participation of adults with visual impairments. The purpose of the first study was to develop and validate a brief scale designed to measure the magnitude of barriers to physical activity for use among adults with visual impairments. Expectancy-value theory may offer insight into physical activity by examining adults with visual impairments’ expectancy beliefs and subjective task values ...


The Psychometric Properties Of The School Counseling Internship Competency Scale, Melanie Ann Burgess Apr 2019

The Psychometric Properties Of The School Counseling Internship Competency Scale, Melanie Ann Burgess

Counseling & Human Services Theses & Dissertations

Counselor education programs aim to adequately train competent pre-service counselors to fulfill a myriad of roles and responsibilities associated with their specialty area. In accordance with professional organizations, gatekeeping is an ethical responsibility of counselor educators and supervisors to protect the welfare of clients and the health of the counseling profession through ongoing evaluation of pre-service counselors. Presently, no standardized evaluation tool exists to assess school counseling interns comprehensively, attending to school counseling competencies, dispositions, roles, and responsibilities. The purpose of the study is to attend to the gap in literature through the creation and validation of The School Counseling ...


A Comparison Of Academic Outcomes In Courses Taught With Open Educational Resources And Publisher Content, Diane N. Ryan Apr 2019

A Comparison Of Academic Outcomes In Courses Taught With Open Educational Resources And Publisher Content, Diane N. Ryan

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

The academic outcomes of retention, completion, persistence and final exam scores between courses taught with open educational resources (OER) and courses taught with publisher content (non-OER) were investigated in this mixed method sequential study. The perceptions and experiences of the instructors who taught the courses were also explored. The participants were 215 community college students enrolled in an online section of Introduction to Communication (CST 110), Western Civilization (HIS 111), Applied Calculus (MTH 270) or Introduction to Psychology (PSY 201). Four instructors volunteered to teach an OER section and a non-OER section within each discipline. Students were randomly divided into ...


Science In The School Library Inquiry Model (Sslim): A Mixed-Methods Case Study Of The Implementation Of A Science And Information Inquiry Curriculum In An Elementary Library, Bree L. Ruzzi Apr 2019

Science In The School Library Inquiry Model (Sslim): A Mixed-Methods Case Study Of The Implementation Of A Science And Information Inquiry Curriculum In An Elementary Library, Bree L. Ruzzi

Teaching & Learning Theses & Dissertations

Data indicate that students in the U.S. may start school with lower levels of science understanding and that these levels may consistently remain lower throughout their public-school career. With deficits in science achievement starting in the earliest years of students’ education, benefits may be gained by exploring alternate resources and alternative environments that can support young student’s science education and achievement. A largely unexplored area for science instruction is in the school library. This dissertation, a mixed-methods, case study, examined the creation and implementation of a novel information and science inquiry model and curriculum, SSLIM. This curriculum was ...


Collaboration And Community In Undergraduate Writing Synchronous Video Courses (Svcs), Kimberly Fahle Apr 2019

Collaboration And Community In Undergraduate Writing Synchronous Video Courses (Svcs), Kimberly Fahle

English Theses & Dissertations

From the 2013 Position Statement of Principles and Example Effective Practices for Online Writing Instruction (OWI), OWI Principle 11 suggests, “Online writing teachers and their institutions should develop personalized and interpersonal online communities to foster student success.” Previous discussions of synchronous modalities have suggested interpersonal benefits of this mode could aid in creating these communities and could minimize the isolation and transactional distance students can experience in asynchronous instruction, which in turn can impact their persistence and learning. However, with little research on this modality, it is difficult to corroborate this assumption or design synchronous courses to best exploit these ...


Examining Self-Contained And Integrated Physical Education Experiences Among Individuals With Visual Impairments, Rebecca Coffey Apr 2019

Examining Self-Contained And Integrated Physical Education Experiences Among Individuals With Visual Impairments, Rebecca Coffey

Human Movement Sciences Theses & Dissertations

Introduction. While research to date has examined the views of individuals with visual impairments toward integrated public-school physical education, little attention has been given to examining perspectives toward experiences at residential schools for those with visual impairments. By understanding the perspectives of those who attended physical education in both contexts, researchers can gain valuable information about particularities that can make experiences meaningful or challenging. The purpose of this study was to examine how individuals who experienced physical education in both integrated and residential school settings viewed their physical education class experiences. Methods. This study utilized a retrospective interpretative phenomenological approach ...


Comparing Higher Order Value Differences By Religious And Spiritual Association And Implications For Counseling: An Exploratory Study, Gregory C. Lemich Apr 2019

Comparing Higher Order Value Differences By Religious And Spiritual Association And Implications For Counseling: An Exploratory Study, Gregory C. Lemich

Counseling & Human Services Theses & Dissertations

The spiritual but not religious (SBNR) population in the U.S. has grown into a significant minority demographic (27%; Lipka & Gecewicz, 2017). Despite this emergence, scant literature has addressed this population and how it differs in values from others, specifically, how SBNR groups differ from those who identify as spiritual and religious (SAR), religious but not spiritual (RBNS), and not spiritual or religious (NSOR). To help this deficiency, this dissertation study explored the intersection of spirituality, religiosity, spiritual and religious categories (SRC; i.e. SAR, SBNR, RBNS, NSOR), and the theory of basic human values (Schwartz, 1992, 1994; Schwartz et al., 2012) in an undergraduate sample. Specifically, this study began with a factor analysis on the spirituality and religiosity scales. The results were that spirituality and religiosity factored into a singular factor named S/R. This new S/R factor was found to contribute to SRC self-identification through an ANOVA. Next, the S/R factor was correlated with values resulting in a ...


Networkings Role In The Informal Learning Of Elementary Principals, Joshua J. Ringling Apr 2019

Networkings Role In The Informal Learning Of Elementary Principals, Joshua J. Ringling

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

Formal learning is an important aspect for school principals in the era of federal and state accountability. These formal learning opportunities provide the conditions for leadership development and personal growth. Although formal learning has been a consistent focus of educational leadership research, informal learning has not. The purpose of this study was to use qualitative case study methodology to gain a better understanding of in depth Social Networking amongst school principals with varying levels of experience, as well as capturing the what and how of knowledge transfer amongst principals. This study found that a principal’s informal learning opportunities are ...


Political Culture And Policy: The Impact Of Culture And Values On School Choice Legislation, Heather Leigh Neal Apr 2019

Political Culture And Policy: The Impact Of Culture And Values On School Choice Legislation, Heather Leigh Neal

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

Policy actors unite political culture, power, and values to make substantial decisions which are often subjective in nature. Politics and policy are about collective decisions, which rely on the arrangement of a group of people. As values can influence policy actors in their attempt to solve problems, it is important for policymakers to establish a balance among the most essential values. A qualitative case study approach was used to investigate how, and what ways, political culture influenced how state stakeholders interpreted or implemented policy. Power and values were explored as both can connect for the implementation of policy. If values ...


Building Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy (Ese): How Undergraduate Students Make Meaning Of Their Entrepreneurial Experiences, Amy Kurfist Apr 2019

Building Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy (Ese): How Undergraduate Students Make Meaning Of Their Entrepreneurial Experiences, Amy Kurfist

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

This qualitative, interview-based research study explores how undergraduate students at a single research university make meaning of their experiences in curricular and co-curricular university entrepreneurship programming. The study focuses on the developmental relationship between entrepreneurship education and feelings of entrepreneurial self-efficacy (ESE) and how feelings of ESE relate to future entrepreneurial intentions. I explore three of Bandura’s (1977) predictors of self-efficacy: mastery experiences, vicarious experiences, and social persuasion interwoven with the six dimensions of ESE developed by De Noble, Jung, and Ehrlich (1999) to determine how undergraduate students make meaning of their entrepreneurial experiences.

Through the analysis of data ...


Factors That Influence Students’ Decisions To Enroll In Initial Vocational Education And Training (Ivet) Lyceums In Tajikistan, Farid Safarmamad Apr 2019

Factors That Influence Students’ Decisions To Enroll In Initial Vocational Education And Training (Ivet) Lyceums In Tajikistan, Farid Safarmamad

STEMPS Theses & Dissertations

The purpose of this descriptive study was to examine the factors influencing students’ decisions to enroll in IVET lyceums in Tajikistan. The researcher administered a paper-based survey to collect data from a stratified random sample of n = 541 students in IVET lyceums. Data were analyzed by performing descriptive statistics, paired t-tests, chi-squares tests, Mann-Whitney U tests, and principal axis factoring (PAF). The findings showed that IVET students are mainly male (70%), from rural areas (60%), economically disadvantaged (60%), and enrolled after 9th grade (68%). There was a strong relationship between gender and program enrollment, meaning female and male students made ...


Globalization, Culture, And Online Learning: An Exploration Of The Sociocultural Perspectives Of Indian Students Participating In U.S.-Based Online Courses, Mitsue S. Shiokawa Apr 2019

Globalization, Culture, And Online Learning: An Exploration Of The Sociocultural Perspectives Of Indian Students Participating In U.S.-Based Online Courses, Mitsue S. Shiokawa

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

This study correlates the impacts of globalization on higher education and the generation of online learning programs offered to global audiences. Concomitantly, it examines the sociocultural experiences of international students participating in United States based online courses. Of specific interest is the socialized culture of learning students from India bring with them into an online learning course, and how that socialized culture is negotiated through strategies of acculturation alongside the student’s perceived American culture of learning. The overarching focus of the study explores the advent of cybercultures within online learning course environments as a potential result of the intermingling ...


An Exploration Of Professional Preparedness Of Instructional Designers To Evaluate, Philena V. Devaughn Apr 2019

An Exploration Of Professional Preparedness Of Instructional Designers To Evaluate, Philena V. Devaughn

STEMPS Theses & Dissertations

Formative, summative, and confirmative evaluation of instructional products determine whether learner objectives have been attained and substantiate the value of the instruction. The ability to implement an evaluation plan is classified as an essential skill for instructional designers by the International Board of Standards for Training and Performance Improvement (IBSTPI). Previous research has ascertained that entry-level instructional designers have failed to master the skills required to create evaluation plans.

The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the professional preparation received by instructional designers, for instruction evaluation, through graduate level programs. The data collected for this study was the ...


An Experimental Study Of Research Self-Efficacy In Master’S Students, Nicola Aelish Meade Apr 2019

An Experimental Study Of Research Self-Efficacy In Master’S Students, Nicola Aelish Meade

Counseling & Human Services Theses & Dissertations

Engaging master’s counseling students in the research literature and facilitating an environment that strengthens their research identity development are necessities for counselor educators. This need is juxtaposed with over 20 years of research, which found that counseling students appeared to lack confidence and have low interest in this topic (Gelso, Baumann, Chui, & Savela, 2013; Phillips & Russell, 1994). Low research self-efficacy was presented as an important explanatory factor. Thus, this experimental study deployed a pedagogical intervention based on the work of Albert Bandura and his social learning theory. Two sections of the required research course in a southeastern university CACREP counseling program was taught at the same time and day by two instructors. One instructor facilitated the course curriculum to the intervention group based on an experimenter-created self-efficacy pedagogy. The other instructor taught the content to the comparison group using standard pedagogical methods. Students were assessed using two measures: a well-known research self-efficacy scale (RSE; Holden, Barker, Meenaghan, & Rosenberg, 1999) and a researcher-developed knowledge questionnaire. The researcher hypothesized that from pre- to post-test, the intervention would contribute to significantly increasing the research self-efficacy and knowledge scores of the experimental group over and above the scores of the comparison group. Group differences ...


Mothers’ Voices In Early Childhood Education: A Dual Case Study Of Resettled Refugee Mothers’ Perspectives, Rebecca John Apr 2019

Mothers’ Voices In Early Childhood Education: A Dual Case Study Of Resettled Refugee Mothers’ Perspectives, Rebecca John

Teaching & Learning Theses & Dissertations

The U.S. admits approximately 70,000 refugees each year. Many of these are families with young children. Refugee populations differ from broader immigrant populations in their background and experiences, yet they are rarely disaggregated from other immigrant populations within educational studies. Many refugee families meet the eligibility guidelines for early childhood educational programs, such as Head Start or public PreK programs; however, they often have difficulty navigating the enrollment process (Gross & Ntagengwa, 2016; Hooper, Zong, Capps, & Fix, 2016). To date, little is known about the specific experiences of resettled refugee mothers and their perspectives of navigating the early childhood education context ...


Adaptive Leadership Approaches In Online Education: A Study Of Trust Creation And Change Management In Higher Education, Andrew R. Casiello Apr 2019

Adaptive Leadership Approaches In Online Education: A Study Of Trust Creation And Change Management In Higher Education, Andrew R. Casiello

Educational Foundations & Leadership Theses & Dissertations

The focus of this study was to determine which aspects of “Adaptive Leadership” are most commonly used by leaders in online education at doctoral research institutions where online education is playing a major role in enrollment. Within this study, the current state of higher education is reviewed and major changes in the financial, technological and competitive landscape are discussed. Challenges within the higher education context are addressed. These challenges include the increasing cost of a college education, decreased state support for public institutions, reduction of regional hegemony caused by technological advancements, increasing competition for students, and student demand for greater ...