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Science and Mathematics Education

2016

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Articles 31 - 60 of 721

Full-Text Articles in Education

Integrating Science And Literacy For Young English Learners : A Pilot Study., Yuliya Ardasheva, Lori A. Norton-Meier, Thomas R. Tretter, Sherri L. Brown Dec 2016

Integrating Science And Literacy For Young English Learners : A Pilot Study., Yuliya Ardasheva, Lori A. Norton-Meier, Thomas R. Tretter, Sherri L. Brown

Thomas Tretter

This pilot investigated the promise of positive outcomes in literacy, science, and social behavior on K– 2 English learner (﴾EL)﴿ students after two months of implementation of the Science Inquiry Centered Argumentation Model (﴾ScICAM)﴿—a systematic teaching approach to science learning that integrates literacy instruction and argument-‐based inquiry. The sample included 17 teachers and 31 EL students. Results indicated that teacher practices (﴾proximal outcomes)﴿ aligned well with the ScICAM approach and resulted in increases in EL student learning (﴾distal outcomes)﴿. Teacher increase in the use of inquiry and writing scaffolds and student growth in the ability to express understandings ...


Undergraduate Teaching Assistant Impact On Student Academic Achievement., Stephanie B. Philipp, Thomas R. Tretter, Christine V. Rich Dec 2016

Undergraduate Teaching Assistant Impact On Student Academic Achievement., Stephanie B. Philipp, Thomas R. Tretter, Christine V. Rich

Thomas Tretter

This study evaluated the impact that trained and supported undergraduate teaching assistants (UTAs) may have had on the academic achievement of students in the first semester of an introductory chemistry course for science and engineering majors. Framed by the concepts of Lave and Wenger’s Community of Practice and Wheeler, Martin and Suls’ Proxy Model of Social Comparison , the study used an untreated control group with dependent post-test only design. Covariates related to student academic achievement and contextual variables were also collected and used to build models for the final exam core outcome variable. Hierarchical linear models indicated that having ...


Development Of Undergraduate Teaching Assistants As Effective Instructors In Stem Courses., Stephanie B. Philipp, Thomas R. Tretter, Christine V. Rich Dec 2016

Development Of Undergraduate Teaching Assistants As Effective Instructors In Stem Courses., Stephanie B. Philipp, Thomas R. Tretter, Christine V. Rich

Thomas Tretter

This study examined the development of peer mentoring skills and deepening of content knowledge by trained and supported undergraduate teaching assistants (UTAs) working with students in entry-level STEM courses across nine departments at a large research intensive U.S. university. Data were collected from two sources: a survey with 10 items requesting 5-point Likert-type responses and an open-ended reflection written by each UTA to process their experiences. The survey responses were analyzed by comparing rates of agreement across the 10 items. Statements from the reflections were categorized by research question and descriptively labeled to capture the essence of implied or ...


The Effectiveness Of Participation In A Project-Based Learning Project On At-Risk Student Self-Efficacy, Benjamin Aaron Weber Dec 2016

The Effectiveness Of Participation In A Project-Based Learning Project On At-Risk Student Self-Efficacy, Benjamin Aaron Weber

Dissertations and Theses

Project-based learning is a multifaceted approach to teaching in which students explore real-world problems and challenges while working in small collaborative groups. Project-based learning is active and engaging and drives students to obtain a deeper knowledge of the subjects they're studying, and students develop confidence and self-direction as they move through both team-based and independent work. This project endeavored to assess the effect of participation in a project-based learning (PBL) activity of the Wind and Oar Boat School's curriculum on the self-efficacy of at-risk high school students. Twenty students participated in the program for both math and applied ...


Toy Blocks And Rotational Physics, Gabriele U. Varieschi, Isabel R. Jully Dec 2016

Toy Blocks And Rotational Physics, Gabriele U. Varieschi, Isabel R. Jully

Gabriele Varieschi

Have you ever observed a child playing with toy blocks? A favorite game is to build towers and then make them topple like falling trees. To the eye of a trained physicist this should immediately look like an example of the physics of “falling chimneys,” when tall structures bend and break in mid-air while falling to the ground. The game played with toy blocks can actually reproduce well what is usually seen in photographs of falling towers, such as the one that appeared on the cover of the September 1976 issue of The Physics Teacher.1 In this paper we ...


Intonation And Compensation Of Fretted String Instruments, Gabriele U. Varieschi, Christina M. Gower Dec 2016

Intonation And Compensation Of Fretted String Instruments, Gabriele U. Varieschi, Christina M. Gower

Gabriele Varieschi

We discuss theoretical and physical models that are useful for analyzing the intonation of musical instruments such as guitars and mandolins and can be used to improve the tuning on these instruments. The placement of frets on the fingerboard is designed according to mathematical rules and the assumption of an ideal string. The analysis becomes more complicated when we include the effects of deformation of the string and inharmonicity due to other string characteristics. As a consequence, perfect intonation of all the notes on the instrument cannot be achieved, but complex compensation procedures can be introduced to minimize the problem ...


Toy Models For The Falling Chimney, Gabriele U. Varieschi, Kaoru Kamiya Dec 2016

Toy Models For The Falling Chimney, Gabriele U. Varieschi, Kaoru Kamiya

Gabriele Varieschi

In this paper we review the theory of the ‘‘falling chimney,’’ which deals with the breaking in mid-air of tall structures when they fall to the ground. We show that these ruptures can be caused by either shear forces typically developing near the base, or by the bending of the structure which is caused primarily by the internal bending moment. In the latter case the breaking is more likely to occur between one-third and one-half of the height of the chimney. Small scale toy models are used to reproduce the dynamics of the falling chimney. By examining photos taken during ...


Pisa 2015 : A First Look At Australia’S Results, Sue Thomson, Lisa De Bortoli, Catherine Underwood Dec 2016

Pisa 2015 : A First Look At Australia’S Results, Sue Thomson, Lisa De Bortoli, Catherine Underwood

Lisa De Bortoli

The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is an international comparative study of student achievement directed by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). PISA 2015 represents the sixth such study since PISA was first conducted in 2000. Seventy-two OECD countries or partner economies participated in PISA 2015. In Australia, PISA is managed by the Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER) and is jointly funded by the Australian Government and the state and territory governments. The goal of PISA is to measure how well 15-year-olds, who are nearing the end of their compulsory schooling in most participating educational systems ...


Pisa 2015 : A First Look At Australia’S Results, Sue Thomson, Lisa De Bortoli, Catherine Underwood Dec 2016

Pisa 2015 : A First Look At Australia’S Results, Sue Thomson, Lisa De Bortoli, Catherine Underwood

OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA Australia)

The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is an international comparative study of student achievement directed by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). PISA 2015 represents the sixth such study since PISA was first conducted in 2000. Seventy-two OECD countries or partner economies participated in PISA 2015. In Australia, PISA is managed by the Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER) and is jointly funded by the Australian Government and the state and territory governments. The goal of PISA is to measure how well 15-year-olds, who are nearing the end of their compulsory schooling in most participating educational systems ...


Modification Of Linguistic Instructional Strategies For Application In Chemistry: Progressing Beyond Scientific Literacy To Chemical Fluency, Genevieve Marie Criss Dec 2016

Modification Of Linguistic Instructional Strategies For Application In Chemistry: Progressing Beyond Scientific Literacy To Chemical Fluency, Genevieve Marie Criss

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

This thesis project presents multiple instructional supports, designed from modifications of bilingual and linguistic educational methods, to promote the development of chemical fluency in chemistry language learners. These chemical language-focused supports will be presented in the form of six language modules, which feature specifically tailored linguistic strategies and specialized resources. Each module is specifically designed to support and align with the chemical language needs in the first six units of a typical Regents Chemistry classroom in New York state. Linguistic strategies for use in these modules include: 1) translation supports as used in bilingual education, with particular reference to code-switching ...


Are There Any Winners In High-Stakes Testing? A Qualitative Case Study Exploring Student, Parent And Teacher Attitudes Towards Naplan Numeracy Tests In Years 3 And 5, Gregory S. C. Hine Dec 2016

Are There Any Winners In High-Stakes Testing? A Qualitative Case Study Exploring Student, Parent And Teacher Attitudes Towards Naplan Numeracy Tests In Years 3 And 5, Gregory S. C. Hine

Gregory S.C. Hine

Through the annual implementation of National Assessment Program Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN), testing of mathematical standards across Australia invokes questions about the impact that high-stakes testing has for the teaching and learning of mathematics. According to recent studies on high-stakes testing, the role of the teacher is instrumental in children’s achievement results. The purpose of this case study is to explore perspectives about NAPLAN from key participants at one Western Australian Primary School, namely: students, teachers, and parents. The paper will report on the extent to which instructional pedagogy at one school has been affected by the implementation of ...


What A Scientist Looks Like: How Community Colleges Can Utilize And Enhance Science Identity Development As A Means To Improve Success For Women Of Color, Sarah Rodriguez-Jones, Kelly J. Cunningham, Alec Jordan Dec 2016

What A Scientist Looks Like: How Community Colleges Can Utilize And Enhance Science Identity Development As A Means To Improve Success For Women Of Color, Sarah Rodriguez-Jones, Kelly J. Cunningham, Alec Jordan

Education Publications

This article explores the application of science identity development theory for women of color interested in the science disciplines; and it advocates for taking an intersectional approach to understanding how women of color form science identities. The article also challenges community college administrators and scholars to focus on redefining science identity development theory within the community college setting as a means to enhance success for women of color pursuing academic work in scientific disciplines.

Women of color are severely underrepresented in science and engineering occupations; they make up approximately 5% of employed scientists and engineers (2% Black, 2% Hispanic, 1 ...


Formulating A Pharmacy Collection Without A Prescription, Kristin Laughtin-Dunker, Linda Galloway Dec 2016

Formulating A Pharmacy Collection Without A Prescription, Kristin Laughtin-Dunker, Linda Galloway

Library Articles and Research

Librarians without a background in the health sciences were tasked with building a collection to support a new pharmacy school at a traditionally liberal arts institution. Despite little subject expertise, the team assessed current holdings, conducted a review of recommended resources, and collaborated with faculty to prioritize acquisitions to support the developing program as funds became available. The hire of a health sciences librarian provided new opportunities for assessment and for continued collecting. Altogether, this process allowed for the creation of recommended best practices that can be adopted by any librarian procuring resources to support new health science programs.


Project-Based Learning And Design-Focused Projects To Motivate Secondary Mathematics Students, Kelly W. Remijan Dec 2016

Project-Based Learning And Design-Focused Projects To Motivate Secondary Mathematics Students, Kelly W. Remijan

Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-Based Learning

This article illustrates how mathematics teachers can develop design-focused projects, related to project-based learning, to motivate secondary mathematics students. With first-hand experience as a secondary mathematics teacher, I provide a series of steps related to the engineering design process, which are helpful to teachers in developing design-focused projects, describe various projects that have been developed and implemented within my classroom, and share project artifacts illustrated by pictures, student work, and student comments. Referring to the MUSIC Model of Academic Motivation and reflecting upon personal observations, student outcomes, and student comments, I provide personal insight on how design-focused projects can be ...


The Exclusionary Affect Of Biased Rhetoric And Passive Teaching Styles Used By Faculty In Undergraduate Stem Courses On Females And Underrepresented Minorities, Sabrina Rosalyn Georgio Westover Dec 2016

The Exclusionary Affect Of Biased Rhetoric And Passive Teaching Styles Used By Faculty In Undergraduate Stem Courses On Females And Underrepresented Minorities, Sabrina Rosalyn Georgio Westover

Honors Theses AY 16/17

Research suggests that the culture in gateway undergraduate STEM classes does not promote an environment in which students feel welcome to ask questions and actively participate in the learning process. It has been observed that rhetoric used in these classrooms negatively affects underrepresented students in these fields. Gender and racial biases further play a negative role in whether or not students feel welcome in their STEM department (Malcom, 2016). Overall, the pervasive culture of undergraduate STEM education appears to ineffectively gauge student understanding due to stereotypes and unproductive rhetoric that affects student retention and ultimate success in the field. Through ...


Effect Of Small Class Setting On The Algebra I Achievement Of Ninth-Grade Students, Lisa Kissire Dec 2016

Effect Of Small Class Setting On The Algebra I Achievement Of Ninth-Grade Students, Lisa Kissire

Dissertations

The effects of class size on student outcomes has been widely studied at the elementary level. Many such studies have found important relationships between class size and outcome in the areas of academic achievement, student discipline, and teacher retention. However, little attention has been given to the examination of how class size may affect student outcomes in the middle school and high school levels. The purpose of this nonexperimental study was to examine the effects of class size setting, gender, socioeconomic status, and school configuration on the Algebra I achievement of ninthgrade students. Participants were drawn from four rural schools ...


Race, Class And Gender In Engineering Education: A Quantitative Investigation Of First Year Enrollment, Canek Moises Luna Phillips Dec 2016

Race, Class And Gender In Engineering Education: A Quantitative Investigation Of First Year Enrollment, Canek Moises Luna Phillips

Open Access Dissertations

Research explanations for the disparity across both race and gender in engineering education has typically relied on a deficit model, whereby women and people of color lack the requisite knowledge or psychological characteristics that Whites and men have to become engineers in sufficient numbers. Instead of using a deficit model approach to explain gender and race disparity, in the three studies conducted for this dissertation, I approach gender and race disparity as the result of processes of segregation linked to the historic and on-going perpetuation of systemic sources of oppression in the United States. In the first study, I investigate ...


Authentic Science In Education: Studies In Course-Based Research At The United States Military Academy, Anthony M. Chase Dec 2016

Authentic Science In Education: Studies In Course-Based Research At The United States Military Academy, Anthony M. Chase

Open Access Dissertations

This dissertation consists of two studies at the United States Military Academy. Both studies involve the use of Course-based Undergraduate Research Experiences (CUREs). These experiences give students the ability to engage in undergraduate research at an early point in their academic career by replacing traditional laboratory activities with semester-long research projects. Both studies show an implementation of this type of instruction from the Center for Authentic Science Practice in Education (CASPiE). Study 1 shows the specific method of implementation at the military academy and explores learning-based outcomes. Primarily the outcome of critical thinking is demonstrated. Critical thinking is a construct ...


The Association Between Tolerance For Ambiguity And Fear Of Negative Evaluation: A Study Of Engineering Technology Capstone Courses, Sergey I. Dubikovsky Dec 2016

The Association Between Tolerance For Ambiguity And Fear Of Negative Evaluation: A Study Of Engineering Technology Capstone Courses, Sergey I. Dubikovsky

Open Access Dissertations

For many students in engineering and engineering technology programs in the US, senior capstone design courses require students to form a team, define a problem, and find a feasible technical solution to address this problem. Students must integrate the knowledge and skills acquired during their studies at the college or university level. These truly integrative design activities do not have a single “correct” solution. Instead, there is an array of solutions, many of which could be used to achieve the final result. This ambiguity can cause students to experience anxiety during the projects.

This study examined the main topics: • To ...


Students' Explanations In Complex Learning Of Disciplinary Programming, Camilo Vieira Dec 2016

Students' Explanations In Complex Learning Of Disciplinary Programming, Camilo Vieira

Open Access Dissertations

Computational Science and Engineering (CSE) has been denominated as the third pillar of science and as a set of important skills to solve the problems of a global society. Along with the theoretical and the experimental approaches, computation offers a third alternative to solve complex problems that require processing large amounts of data, or representing complex phenomena that are not easy to experiment with. Despite the relevance of CSE, current professionals and scientists are not well prepared to take advantage of this set of tools and methods. Computation is usually taught in an isolated way from engineering disciplines, and therefore ...


Factors Influencing Teacher Instructional Practice In Mathematics When Participating In Professional Development, William S. Walker Iii Dec 2016

Factors Influencing Teacher Instructional Practice In Mathematics When Participating In Professional Development, William S. Walker Iii

Open Access Dissertations

In this research, I investigated teachers’ interpretations of the goals of professional development and factors that contributed to enacted instructional practices. A multiple-case study design was used to examine the interpretations of four high school teachers participating in a year-long professional development program with a standards-based framework for mathematics education. Data collection included information about the professional development program, the intended and enacted curriculum (Stein et al., 2007), the teachers’ interpretations of the professional development goals, and context factors that influenced instructional planning and implementation. The data were used to create a description of the professional development, a case study ...


A Mixed-Methods Program Evaluation Of Two Middle School Mathematics Intervention Programs, Angela Hines Dec 2016

A Mixed-Methods Program Evaluation Of Two Middle School Mathematics Intervention Programs, Angela Hines

Education Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this study was to conduct a program evaluation of two mathematics intervention programs, Transmath and Vmath, in order to discover whether students who are exposed to the intervention programs will show growth in their mathematics performance. The effectiveness of the programs was measured quantitatively by collecting a pre and postassessment score using Moby Max and qualitatively regarding the implementation and effectiveness of the two programs by conducting classroom observations and teacher interviews.

The literature in this study identifies the connection between RTI, tiered intervention, mathematics intervention, and program implementation fidelity. The current literature contains a great deal ...


A Matter Of Time: The Relationship Of Class Length And Demographics On The South Carolina Algebra I End-Of-Course Test In South Carolina Middle Schools, Jennifer Addie Ramsey Dec 2016

A Matter Of Time: The Relationship Of Class Length And Demographics On The South Carolina Algebra I End-Of-Course Test In South Carolina Middle Schools, Jennifer Addie Ramsey

Education Dissertations and Projects

For middle school students taking Algebra 1 as a high school credit, having sufficient instructional time to understand and explore the course content is crucial. While the focus of the literature review helps lend understanding to the study, there has been limited information concerning assessment scores in middle school math classes and the length of class time. This study investigated the differences in the End-of-Course Examination Program (EOCEP) test scores of middle school students in Algebra 1 as influenced by schedules used in South Carolina public middle schools for each individual year in a 5-year span of the 2010-2015 academic ...


Teacher Self-Efficacy, Instructional Practices, And Student Achievement In Mathematics: A Correlational Study, Kristi Lynn Day Dec 2016

Teacher Self-Efficacy, Instructional Practices, And Student Achievement In Mathematics: A Correlational Study, Kristi Lynn Day

Education Dissertations and Projects

This mixed-methods research examined teacher self-efficacy in mathematics and the use of specific mathematical instructional practices in Grades 3-5 classrooms. The purpose was to examine the relationships among teacher self-efficacy of teaching mathematics, the use of specific mathematical instructional practices, and student achievement as measured by the North Carolina end-of-grade test. According to the National Mathematics Advisory Panel (2008), differences in students’ mathematical achievement are credited to differences in teacher characteristics including their self-efficacy in teaching and use of specific instructional practices. The study sought to add to the research behind that finding.

Correlational relationships among the variables were studied ...


Examining The Influence Of Number Line Fraction Task Characteristics On Student Work, Sharlee Hatch Dec 2016

Examining The Influence Of Number Line Fraction Task Characteristics On Student Work, Sharlee Hatch

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Research supports the claim that classrooms with teachers who respond to student thinking in the mathematics classroom will see greater student gains and student success (Lamon, 1996; Sleep & Boerst, 2012). The topic of fractions is both difficult to teach and learn, but has important implications on future success in mathematics and in life. This study set out to explore the ways in which student work is influenced by characteristics of number line fraction tasks. By examining task type, number line structure, and number choice this study shares the way these task characteristics influenced student strategies. The relationship between task characteristic and student work is examined qualitatively; in addition to how well each task characteristic uncovers three key conceptual understanding fraction ideas: partitioning, iterating, and unitizing. Additionally, this study looks at which task characteristics better highlight informal or intuitive understanding of these key ideas and in what ways. The findings can be used to inform the selection of fraction tasks for the classroom.


Improving The Speech Intelligibility By Cochlear Implant Users, Behnam Azimi Dec 2016

Improving The Speech Intelligibility By Cochlear Implant Users, Behnam Azimi

Theses and Dissertations

In this thesis, we focus on improving the intelligibility of speech for cochlear implants (CI) users. As an auditory prosthetic device, CI can restore hearing sensations for most patients with profound hearing loss in both ears in a quiet background. However, CI users still have serious problems in understanding speech in noisy and reverberant environments. Also, bandwidth limitation, missing temporal fine structures, and reduced spectral resolution due to a limited number of electrodes are other factors that raise the difficulty of hearing in noisy conditions for CI users, regardless of the type of noise. To mitigate these difficulties for CI ...


Using Minecraft To Integrate Common Core Activities Across Elementary School Curriculum, William A J Couling Dec 2016

Using Minecraft To Integrate Common Core Activities Across Elementary School Curriculum, William A J Couling

Capstone Projects and Master's Theses

Minecraft, an open world sandbox game rich with educational possibility, has been a growing sensation among elementary age children across the US. Though there has been some experimentation in a number of schools across the United States, there has been no mass movement to embracing Minecraft as a virtual learning environment. With advances in the fields of Virtual Learning Environments and the new wave of educational thinking known as the “Maker Movement,” the modern educational field has an opportunity for radical new ways of teaching. Using an elementary school as a model in the Monterey Bay area, I surveyed a ...


Pedagogical Moves As Characteristics Of One Instructor’S Instrumental Orchestrations With Tinkerplots And The Ti-73 Explorer: A Case Study, James L. Kratky Dec 2016

Pedagogical Moves As Characteristics Of One Instructor’S Instrumental Orchestrations With Tinkerplots And The Ti-73 Explorer: A Case Study, James L. Kratky

Dissertations

Those supporting contemporary reform efforts for mathematics education in the United States have called for increased use of technologies to support student-centered learning of mathematical concepts and skills. There is a need for more research and professional development to support teachers in transitioning their instruction to better meet the goals of such reform efforts.

Instrumental approaches to conceptualizing technology use in mathematics education, arising out of the theoretical and empirical work in France and other European nations, show promise for use to frame studies on school mathematics in the United States. Instrumental genesis is used to describe the bidirectional and ...


Professional Learning Communities (Plcs) For Early Childhood Science Education, Jungwon Eum Dec 2016

Professional Learning Communities (Plcs) For Early Childhood Science Education, Jungwon Eum

Public Access Theses and Dissertations from the College of Education and Human Sciences

This study explored the content, processes, and dynamics of Professional Learning Community (PLC) sessions. This study also investigated changes in preschool teachers’ attitudes and beliefs toward science teaching after they participated in two different forms of PLCs including workshop and face-to-face PLC as well as workshop and online PLC. Multiple sources of data were collected for this study including participant artifacts and facilitator field notes during the PLC sessions.

The participants in this study were eight teachers from NAEYC-accredited child care centers serving 3- to 5-year-old children in an urban Midwest city. All teachers participated in a workshop entitled, “Ramps ...


Exploration Of Student Biodiversity Knowledge And Decision-Making For A Wildlife Conservation Socioscientific Issue, Ashley R. Alred Dec 2016

Exploration Of Student Biodiversity Knowledge And Decision-Making For A Wildlife Conservation Socioscientific Issue, Ashley R. Alred

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Global biodiversity, a foundation for ecosystem function, is diminishing at a rate unprecedented in the last 50 years. Biodiversity loss and ecosystem services deterioration is linked to increased food insecurity, reduced water quality and availability, decreased energy security, higher economic losses and human suffering (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005). Consequently, educators should invest in supporting students in their development of ecological understanding and formal decision-making skills so they are equipped with meaningful tools they can use as scientifically literate citizens. To contribute to that mission, this study seeks to explore student 1) comprehension and explanation of biodiversity concepts and 2) decision-making ...