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Full-Text Articles in Education

Prevention Of Cyberbullying In Adolescents, Ashley Ellcessor May 2019

Prevention Of Cyberbullying In Adolescents, Ashley Ellcessor

Capstone Projects and Master's Theses

The topic being researched was cyberbullying and the effects it can have on adolescent. The participants for the Capstone Project included seven sixth-grade students in a public elementary school located in Monterey County. The capstone project began with a slideshow and a YouTube video. The slideshow and video were used to provide more information on the student’s prior knowledge. After the slideshow and video, the students participated in a game of Kahoot. During the Kahoot game, the students answered true and false questions. After the Kahoot game, the students were presented with an exit slip, where the researcher could ...


Examining Mediation And Moderation Effects Of Academic Motivation On The Relationship Between Disciplinary Events And Academic Performance In Secondary School, Cynthia Shuttleton Jan 2019

Examining Mediation And Moderation Effects Of Academic Motivation On The Relationship Between Disciplinary Events And Academic Performance In Secondary School, Cynthia Shuttleton

Doctoral Dissertations

Academic motivation is a key factor in students’ academic and behavioral success in school. Previous research has demonstrated strong relationships between disciplinary events and academic performance, as well as between academic performance and academic motivation. However, there is limited understanding of the relationship between academic motivation and disciplinary events, or how academic motivation, academic performance, and disciplinary events are related. The purpose of this study was to examine student self-ratings of their academic motivation in grades 9-12 in a public high school, and to investigate the associations and interactive relationships between these three variables. Participants (N=78) completed the Academic ...


Eustress In Advanced Placement (Ap) And International Baccalaureate (Ib) Students, Amanda C. Moseley Oct 2018

Eustress In Advanced Placement (Ap) And International Baccalaureate (Ib) Students, Amanda C. Moseley

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Eustress, the positive response to stress, is a relatively understudied concept. Most of the research on eustress has been concentrated in the occupational and management setting. Empirical studies of eustress in adolescents are absent, even though youth experience unique sources and magnitudes of stress. Specifically, Advanced Placement (AP) and International Baccalaureate (IB) students report more stress than their general education peers but excel in their rigorous academic program. Eustress is related to a variety of positive psychological and physiological outcomes among adult samples, which makes it an important concept to explore in adolescent samples. Many constructs such as self-efficacy, hope ...


Academic Achievement Among High School Students With Adhd And Internalizing Symptoms And Their Response To A Multicomponent Treatment Intervention, Maria Elena Golden Aug 2018

Academic Achievement Among High School Students With Adhd And Internalizing Symptoms And Their Response To A Multicomponent Treatment Intervention, Maria Elena Golden

Theses and Dissertations

ADHD is a common disorder in youth, with core deficits that impair important areas of functioning, most notably academic achievement. Existing school-based interventions may not be as effective in improving long-term academic outcomes for adolescents with comorbid ADHD and internalizing disorders. The purpose of this study was to explore the association between ADHD and internalizing symptoms in adolescents and the impact of anxiety and depression symptom severity on their academic outcomes after engaging in a multicomponent school-based intervention (BEST Project). The BEST Project was implemented in several high schools, with 126 participants included in this study. All participants met DSM-5 ...


Academic Stress, Depression, And Social Support: A Comparison Of Chinese Students In International Baccalaureate Programs And Key Schools, Wenjun Chen Jul 2018

Academic Stress, Depression, And Social Support: A Comparison Of Chinese Students In International Baccalaureate Programs And Key Schools, Wenjun Chen

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine how academic stress affects Chinese high achieving secondary students’ mental health. Potential moderating effects of perceived social support and gender on the relationship between academic stress and depression were also examined. Current literature suggests Chinese high school students report greater academic stress and depression than their counterparts overseas (Sun, Dunne, Hou, & Xu, 2013), but it is unclear about the status of high achieving Chinese students as well as how social support works as a protective factor on this particular population. In order to fill this gap, the current study recruited a diverse ...


Double Chins And Double Standards: A Meta-Analysis Of Weight-Based Bullying Amongst Female Adolescents, Juliah Distefano Jan 2018

Double Chins And Double Standards: A Meta-Analysis Of Weight-Based Bullying Amongst Female Adolescents, Juliah Distefano

Major Papers

Scholars are beginning to explore and understand the experiences of adolescent females in regards to weight-based bullying in their elementary school setting (Puhl, R. M., Luedicke, J., & Heuer, C. (2011). Weight‐based victimization toward overweight adolescents: observations and reactions of peers. Journal of School Health, 81(11), 696-703). The educational and social implications that weight-based bullying has amongst female adolescents can include: poor academic achievement coupled with a low degree of comfort when participating vocally in the classroom, the inability to initiate and maintain friendships, and an unwillingness to participate in extracurricular sports and activities. This should be cause for ...


Adolescent Protective Factors Related To Resilience: Issues Of Academic Self-Efficacy, Parental Involvement, And Special Education Status, Bethdalie Cruz Jan 2018

Adolescent Protective Factors Related To Resilience: Issues Of Academic Self-Efficacy, Parental Involvement, And Special Education Status, Bethdalie Cruz

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The predictive value of three constructs was examined in this study in order to explain adolescent self-reported protective factors associated with resilience while moderating for the effects of sex and race. The three constructs included Academic Self-efficacy, Maternal Parental Involvement, and Special Education Identification Status. Participants included 54 adolescents in diverse public middle and high schools, ages 11 to 18. Twenty of these participants were identified as receiving special education services while 34 did not. Results indicated that adolescent perceptions of Academic Self-efficacy significantly predicted protective factors associated with resilience while Special Education Identification Status and Maternal Parental Involvement did ...


Facilitating Collaboration Among School And Community Providers In Children's Mental Health, Holly J. Curran Jan 2018

Facilitating Collaboration Among School And Community Providers In Children's Mental Health, Holly J. Curran

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Interprofessional collaboration among school-based and community-based mental health providers in children's mental has been studied in relation to specific providers and as part of program evaluation; however, limited information exists as to how to overcome barriers to collaborative relationships. This study describes the experiences of school and community mental health service providers and those who supervise them. Using phenomenological methodology, three focus-group interview transcripts were analyzed by identifying recurrent themes relevant to the experience of collaboration from school and community providers' perspectives. Although participants viewed aspects of collaboration positively, barriers frequently interfered with collaborative relationships. Support for collaboration from ...


Predictive Relationship Between Anger And Violence In Canadian Secondary Students, Lawrence Alfred Deck Jan 2018

Predictive Relationship Between Anger And Violence In Canadian Secondary Students, Lawrence Alfred Deck

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Violence among Canadian secondary students remains a concern for administrators, teachers, community members, and students. The purpose of this retrospective quantitative nonexperimental study was to examine the predictive relationship between anger and violence among secondary students in Canada using the Anger Regulation and Expression Scale (ARES). The general aggression model provided the framework for the study. Survey data were collected from 138 students using the ARES. Demographic data and archival data from students' school files were also collected. Results of receiver operator characteristic analysis and binary logistic regression indicated that the ARES total score provided fair to good predictive ability ...


“I Wonder What You Think Of Me”: A Qualitative Approach To Examining Stereotype Awareness In Appalachian Students, Chelsea G. Adams Jan 2017

“I Wonder What You Think Of Me”: A Qualitative Approach To Examining Stereotype Awareness In Appalachian Students, Chelsea G. Adams

Theses and Dissertations--Educational, School, and Counseling Psychology

Historically, Appalachia has been stereotyped as being a culture bred in poverty and ignorance. Much research has shown that stereotyping reveals a pattern of behavioral change and an impact on psychological well-being for the stereotyped (e.g., Pinel, 1999; Woodcock, Jernandez, Estrada, & Schultz, 2012), and has largely been centered on race and gender (e.g., Byrnes, 2008; Tuckman & Monetti, 2011). Less is known about the development of culture-specific stereotypes such as those related to Appalachians – a highly stigmatized group (Daniels, 2014; Otto, 2002). The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of how adolescents in rural Appalachia develop awareness of stereotypes about Appalachia. Stratified random sampling was used to select twelve students (Grades 6-12) belonging to a small school district located in the Appalachian region of eastern Kentucky who were invited to participate in individual interviews ...


Cyberbullying In Rural Communities: Origin And Processing Through The Lens Of Older Adolescents, Lisa Reason, Michael Boyd, Casey Reason Dec 2016

Cyberbullying In Rural Communities: Origin And Processing Through The Lens Of Older Adolescents, Lisa Reason, Michael Boyd, Casey Reason

The Qualitative Report

The experiences of older adolescent cyberbullying victims from a rural community were explored in this qualitative study. Findings revealed that cyberbullying originates primarily as the result of jealousy over romantic relationships and cultural, religious, or sexual orientation intolerance. Participants also indicated that cyberbullies tend to be more brazen and cruel as the result of perceived anonymity. In addition, participants reported feelings of helplessness and rage in response to the attacks. Finally, participants suggested that the lack of knowledge and understanding of cyberspace resulted in a lack of emotional support and protection against cyberbullying.


Is Social Competence Achievable In Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder?, Monica Caldeira Aug 2016

Is Social Competence Achievable In Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder?, Monica Caldeira

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

A review of existing literature pertaining to the social skills of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder provides a mixed picture: some researchers argue that social skills are altogether lacking, while others indicate that, in some instances, individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder possess the same social skills as their typically developed peers. The purpose of this study was to examine the social competence of adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders, as well as the factors that contributed to or hindered adolescents’ social competence. A sample of 17 adolescents, with varying degrees of autism severity, together with their parents and teachers took part ...


Summum Bonum: Investigating Global Life Satisfaction In A Sample Of Profoundly Gifted Students, Clark Ivan Kopelman Aug 2016

Summum Bonum: Investigating Global Life Satisfaction In A Sample Of Profoundly Gifted Students, Clark Ivan Kopelman

Theses and Dissertations

The purposes of this dissertation were to provide additional information about life satisfaction – globally and in regard to relevant dimensions of life satisfaction – and the relationship between these aspects of life satisfaction in a sample of profoundly gifted youth. Participants in the Davidson Young Scholars Program (DYS) – a program designed specifically for profoundly gifted youth – completed a 90-item survey that included items pertinent to a variety of life domains.

Findings paint a picture of profoundly gifted adolescents as satisfied across life dimensions and, perhaps, more satisfied than their peers. Their satisfaction was not related to gender, though varied with age ...


Yes, I Can: The Effect Of A College Visit And Online Career Intervention On Eighth-Grade Students’ College And Career Self-Efficacy And College Intent, Karin Glessner Apr 2016

Yes, I Can: The Effect Of A College Visit And Online Career Intervention On Eighth-Grade Students’ College And Career Self-Efficacy And College Intent, Karin Glessner

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

This study examined the effect of a college workshop on the college and career self-efficacy and college intent of eighth grade students in a semi-rural setting. The study aimed to fill the gap in the literature by examining college and career self-efficacy and college intent for middle school students in semi-rural areas in the United States as they move to high school. Two groups of eighth grade students from two middle schools in a school district in West-Central Florida participated in the study. The study used a quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest non-equivalent waitlist control group design. Students in the treatment group participated ...


Aspects Of Science Engagement, Student Background, And School Characteristics: Impact On Science Achievement Of U.S. Students, Larry J. Grabau Jan 2016

Aspects Of Science Engagement, Student Background, And School Characteristics: Impact On Science Achievement Of U.S. Students, Larry J. Grabau

Theses and Dissertations--Educational, School, and Counseling Psychology

Science achievement of U.S. students has lagged significantly behind other nations; educational reformers have suggested science engagement may enhance this critical measure. The 2006 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) was science-focused and measured science achievement along with nine aspects of science engagement: science self-efficacy, science self-concept, enjoyment of science, general interest in learning science, instrumental motivation for science, future-oriented science motivation, general value of science, personal value of science, and science-related activities.

I used multilevel modeling techniques to address both aspects of science engagement and science achievement as outcome variables in the context of student background and school ...


Alcohol Expectancies Among A Sample Of Thai High School Students, Ian Newman, Duane F. Shell, Saranya Innadda, Tiandong Li Apr 2015

Alcohol Expectancies Among A Sample Of Thai High School Students, Ian Newman, Duane F. Shell, Saranya Innadda, Tiandong Li

Ian Newman

The objective of this study was to identify and describe the alcohol-related expectancies of a sample of Thai high school students. A convenience sample of 2,227 high school students in Chon Buri province completed an alcohol expectancy questionnaire. The initial factor analysis was done with data from 875 questionnaires and identified four factors. The four factors were cross-validated on two separate sets of 676 questionnaires. A relationship was found between expectancies and drinking behaviors. High school students who drank alcohol had significantly greater positive expectancies for alcohol and greater expectancies that alcohol would enhance sexual performance and power. Students ...


Alcohol Expectancies Among High School Students In Inner Mongolia, China, Duane F. Shell, Ian Newman, Ming Qu Apr 2015

Alcohol Expectancies Among High School Students In Inner Mongolia, China, Duane F. Shell, Ian Newman, Ming Qu

Ian Newman

Objective — This study examines differences in Chinese high school students’ alcohol expectancies by drinking status (nondrinker, occasional drinker, regular drinker) and gender (male, female). Method — The authors administered the Chinese Adolescent Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire (CAEQ) to a convenience sample of 1244 high school students (M = 627; F = 617) from schools in Hohhot City and Tongliao City in Inner Mongolia, China. Results — Differences were found in the 8 CAEQ factors (3 negative and 5 positive factors). Regular drinkers had lower negative consequences and higher positive perception expectancies than nondrinkers or occasional drinkers. Nondrinkers had higher harm to person/reputation expectancies than ...


Bullying And Peer Victimization: An Examination Of Cognitive And Psychosocial Constructs, Kisha M. Radliff, Cixin Wang, Susan M. Swearer Feb 2015

Bullying And Peer Victimization: An Examination Of Cognitive And Psychosocial Constructs, Kisha M. Radliff, Cixin Wang, Susan M. Swearer

Educational Psychology Papers and Publications

Research has demonstrated a link between internalizing factors and bullying perpetration and peer victimization; however, few studies have examined predictors of cognitive and psychosocial factors, such as locus of control and hopelessness. The current study examined cognitive and psychosocial factors in bullying perpetration and peer victimization in a sample of 469 middle school students. A mediator model of hopelessness was also investigated. Students involved in bullying reported a greater external locus of control compared with peers who were not involved in bullying. Bully victims endorsed the highest externality. Results showed that hopelessness fully mediated the relationship between verbal/relational victimization ...


An Evaluation Of A Mediational Model Of Adolescent Global Life Satisfaction, Michael D. Lyons Aug 2014

An Evaluation Of A Mediational Model Of Adolescent Global Life Satisfaction, Michael D. Lyons

Theses and Dissertations

This study extended previous research by simultaneously examining determinants and presumed psychosocial mechanisms related to the development of individual differences in adolescent life satisfaction, based on Evans‟ (1994) proposed model. Specifically, this study assessed the relations between personality (extraversion, neuroticism) and environmental experiences (stressful life events) on early adolescents‟ global life satisfaction as mediated by approach and avoidance coping behaviors using a sample of 529 students from one middle school in the south eastern United States. The results of this study found partial evidence to support Evans‟ model. Statistically significant relations were found for a number of individual pathways between ...


A Cross-Sectional Study Of The Relations Between Parental Factors And Academic Achievement In High School Adolescents, Patricia Marie Lanzon Jan 2014

A Cross-Sectional Study Of The Relations Between Parental Factors And Academic Achievement In High School Adolescents, Patricia Marie Lanzon

Wayne State University Dissertations

Bronfenbrenner's (1979) ecological model was used as the theoretical model for this study of parental achievement factors that influence adolescent academic achievement. Many predictors are related to a child's potential for academic achievement. Of the most proximal are parental and family factors, which were the focus in this study. The proximal parental and family factors for this study were as follows: family structure, maternal and paternal parenting styles and parental involvement, parents' school and community involvement, parental attitude toward achievement, and free and reduced lunch status. Achievement as determined by the student's actual grade point average was ...


Humane Education: Perspectives Of Practitioners On Program Evaluation Efforts And Analysis Of Changes In Knowledge, Attitudes, And Empathy In Two Violence Prevention And Intervention Programs, Melanie Wagner Jan 2014

Humane Education: Perspectives Of Practitioners On Program Evaluation Efforts And Analysis Of Changes In Knowledge, Attitudes, And Empathy In Two Violence Prevention And Intervention Programs, Melanie Wagner

Dissertations & Theses

This descriptive and comparative study examined the current landscape of humane education program evaluation and data analysis through a survey of humane educators across the country. Results of the humane education survey show that data collection and evaluation are occurring in humane education programs but these efforts do not capture and measure empathy, the primary goal of most humane education programs. Humane educators reported they felt the profession is progressive and relevant to a broad host of purposes, from building positive relationships with animals to playing a role in the larger social justice scheme. They also suggested that the field ...


Long-Term Trends Of Participation In Physical Activity During Adolescence With Educational Ambition And Attainment, Frances Jillian Priesmeyer Jan 2014

Long-Term Trends Of Participation In Physical Activity During Adolescence With Educational Ambition And Attainment, Frances Jillian Priesmeyer

Theses and Dissertations--Educational, School, and Counseling Psychology

Insufficient physical activity is a serious concern for the youth of this nation. In 2008, more than one third of children and adolescents could be classified as either obese or overweight (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011). Poor nutrition and lack of physical activity are two major factors contributing to this epidemic. A physically active lifestyle during youth not only improves physical health, but has also been shown to improve emotional health, behavior, and academic performance. It is important that this area of research is continued and expanded so appropriate educational policies that support the health and well-being of ...


Multidimensional Perfectionism And Social Connectivity Among Youth: Findings And Implications, Alexander Nounopoulos Jan 2013

Multidimensional Perfectionism And Social Connectivity Among Youth: Findings And Implications, Alexander Nounopoulos

Theses and Dissertations--Educational, School, and Counseling Psychology

Although traditional researchers exploring perfectionism frequently cast the construct in a negative light, a steady stream of recent studies have demonstrated that perfectionistic beliefs can yield both positive and negative outcomes. Despite this progression in the research, perfectionism remains an understudied phenomenon among youth, especially as it relates to the ways in which these individuals are perceived by others. The current study builds on the previous literature by exploring adolescent perfectionism across a variety of psychological and psychoeducational dimensions. Moreover, a unique addition to the literature offered by this study was the inclusion of peer-reports along with self-reported measures in ...


The Phenomenal Characteristics Of The Son-Father Relationship Experience, Chris L. Hickey Jan 2013

The Phenomenal Characteristics Of The Son-Father Relationship Experience, Chris L. Hickey

Dissertations & Theses

The purpose of this exploratory study is to examine what the son-father relationship experience feels like (the phenomenology of the son-father relationship), and how the relationship experience affects leadership development, specifically in the son.I chose to reverse the order of the typical reference on this topic (father-son) in order to emphasize the significance of the son (role) being the central character or object of interest, even in instances where the character is a father in addition to being a son.Additionally, it should be noted that all fathers are sons, but not all sons are fathers (biologically, and/or ...


Age-Related Social, Emotional, And Behavioral Differences In Children And Adolescents Manifesting The Symptom Presentation Of Nonverbal Learning Disabilities, Joyce Elberta Goins Jul 2012

Age-Related Social, Emotional, And Behavioral Differences In Children And Adolescents Manifesting The Symptom Presentation Of Nonverbal Learning Disabilities, Joyce Elberta Goins

Theses and Dissertations

Investigations regarding age-related behavioral, emotional, and social differences between younger and older groups of children with NLD remain scarce (Ozols & Rourke, 1988; Casey, Rourke, and Picard, 1991; Pelletier, Ahmad & Rourke, 2001) and have shown mixed results regarding the direction and severity of internalized and externalized behaviors. The current study explored the behavioral, emotional, and social differences between two groups of children and adolescents. The "younger" group consisted of children between the ages of 6 and 10 years of age. The "older" group consisted of children and adolescents between the ages of 11 and 16 years. Seventy two patient charts were selected for ...


The Relationship Between Academic Achievement And School-Based Mental Health Services For Middle School Students, Lisa Ogle Williams May 2012

The Relationship Between Academic Achievement And School-Based Mental Health Services For Middle School Students, Lisa Ogle Williams

Dissertations

Mental health issues among American adolescents and children can negatively impact their potential for school success. As many as 10% of students among the general education population suffer from psychiatric disorders, yet only between 1% and 5% of those students are being served. The effects of mental health difficulties are problematic for students because they negatively impact academic performance, behavior, attendance, and school violence (Whelley, Cash, & Bryson, 2003). There are often barriers to academic performance relative to psychiatric illness and problems that include inadequate health insurance coverage, lack of transportation, shortages of child mental health professionals, and stigmas associated to ...


Teacher Support As A Moderator Of Behavioral Outcomes For Youth Exposed To Stressful Life Events, Rebekah S. Huber, Sarah K. Sifers, Daniel Houlihan, Rachel Youngblom Jan 2012

Teacher Support As A Moderator Of Behavioral Outcomes For Youth Exposed To Stressful Life Events, Rebekah S. Huber, Sarah K. Sifers, Daniel Houlihan, Rachel Youngblom

Psychology Faculty Publications

The present study examined the relationship between teacher support, life stress, and behavioral outcomes in 103 youth. Participants completed questionnaires regarding life events, social support, personality, and behavior. Moderated regression analyses were conducted using youth perceptions of teacher support and negative life events to predict externalizing and internalizing problems. Results revealed a significant interaction between teacher support and life stress, indicating teacher support successfully moderated the effect of stress on externalizing problems. Main effects for life stress were consistent with previous literature suggesting that higher amounts of stress predict greater externalizing and internalizing problems. Implications for teacher support are discussed.


Randomized Trial Of A Broad Preventive Intervention For Mexican American Adolescents, Nancy A. Gonzales, L. E. Dumka, R. E. Millsap, A. Gottschall, D. B. Mcclain, J. J. Wong, M. German, A. M. Mauricio, Lorey A. Wheeler, F. D. Carpentier, S. Y. Kim Jan 2012

Randomized Trial Of A Broad Preventive Intervention For Mexican American Adolescents, Nancy A. Gonzales, L. E. Dumka, R. E. Millsap, A. Gottschall, D. B. Mcclain, J. J. Wong, M. German, A. M. Mauricio, Lorey A. Wheeler, F. D. Carpentier, S. Y. Kim

Faculty Publications from Nebraska Center for Research on Children, Youth, Families, and Schools

Objective—This randomized trial of a family-focused preventive intervention for Mexican American (MA) adolescents evaluated intervention effects on adolescent substance use, internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and school discipline and grade records in 8th grade, one year after completion of the intervention. The study also examined hypothesized mediators and moderators of intervention effects. Method—Stratified by language of program delivery (English vs. Spanish), the trial included a sample of 516 MA adolescents (50.8% female; M =12.3 years, SD=.54) and at least one caregiver that were randomized to receive a low dosage control group workshop or the 9-week group ...


Wholeistic EducationTm, Cerissa Leigh Desrosiers Jan 2012

Wholeistic EducationTm, Cerissa Leigh Desrosiers

Dissertations & Theses

This dissertation introduces Wholeistic EducationTM (WEDTM), an innovative, values-based, interdisciplinary pro-social theory that is the culmination of centuries of scientific and philosophical learning and exploration about optimal mental health and human development. WED is based on basic human nature and universal human rights, and so it applies to all variations of human society- racial, ethnic, religious, or otherwise. WED is a foundation theory to which any targeted implementation strategy can be applied. It is both a proactive strategy for seeking and maintaining health before a crisis arises in families, schools, and organizations as well as a treatment approach ...


African American Adolescents’ Perceptions Of Their Learning, Instructional, And Relational Experiences, Melissa M. Jenkins Aug 2011

African American Adolescents’ Perceptions Of Their Learning, Instructional, And Relational Experiences, Melissa M. Jenkins

Education Dissertations

This study was conducted to examine African American adolescents’ perceptions of their learning, instructional, and relational experiences to provide additional insight into how to eliminate the achievement gap. Research investigating the pedagogical experiences of African American adolescents’ is limited. A review of the literature suggested that the theories of pedagogy, culture, and motivation might inform our understanding of their achievement. A multiple-case design and methodological triangulation procedures were used to collect data from a stratified purposive sample of 12 African American eighth-grade students from an urban school district. The sample consisted of four high, four average, and four low achievers ...