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Educational Psychology

2010

University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Articles 1 - 11 of 11

Full-Text Articles in Education

Verbal Cues: Producing The Same Results In Stereotype Threat Research?, Tarryn E. Mcghie Dec 2010

Verbal Cues: Producing The Same Results In Stereotype Threat Research?, Tarryn E. Mcghie

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

This study examined the notion that stereotype threat experiments can be influenced through linguistic manipulation. The cueing of a phrase (whether stereotypical or non-stereotypical) can produce performance differences between groups, rather than cueing of a stereotype, as used in previous research. Participants (n=95) mostly Caucasian females (68%) ranging in age from 18-45 (M=22.7). The design involved three groups and participants were randomly assigned in order to control for consequential affects. The control group received no verbal cues. The stereotypical group received a stereotypical cue (i.e. men tend to do better on this test than women). The ...


Predictors Of Recall And Reading Time For Seductive And Nonseductive Text Segments, Ivan V. Ivanov Dec 2010

Predictors Of Recall And Reading Time For Seductive And Nonseductive Text Segments, Ivan V. Ivanov

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

This correlational study explored how concreteness, relevance, importance, and interestingness related to the recall of seductive details and base text, while controlling for text coherence, and student background knowledge. Previous research has provided evidence for the significant relationship between these variables and the seductive details effect in particular and text recall in general. However, this is the first study to consider all these variables simultaneously. A group of 68 undergraduates read an expository text on lightning formation, performed an immediate test on free recall, and rated each text sentence for concreteness, relevance, importance, and interestingness. A simple regression analysis revealed ...


The Multiple-Choice Concept Map (Mccm): An Interactive Computer-Based Assessment Method, Ioan C. Sas Dec 2010

The Multiple-Choice Concept Map (Mccm): An Interactive Computer-Based Assessment Method, Ioan C. Sas

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

This research attempted to bridge the gap between cognitive psychology and educational measurement (Mislevy, 2008; Leighton & Gierl, 2007; Nichols, 1994; Messick, 1989; Snow & Lohman, 1989) by using cognitive theories from working memory (Baddeley, 1986; Miyake & Shah, 1999; Grimley & Banner, 2008), multimedia learning (Mayer, 2001), and cognitive load (Chandler and Sweller, 1991, 1992; Cerpa, Chandler, & Sweller., 1996) to identify potential design weaknesses of traditional select-and-fill-in (SAFI) concept map assessment and then to guide the design of the new and improved multiple-choice concept map (MCCM) assessment method. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of (1) the type of the list of concepts or relations and (2) the spatial placement of the selection list on the examinee's overall mental effort. Using a 2x2 Factorial MANCOVA, with prior knowledge as the covariate, the participants were compared on the length of time to complete the assessment and on examinee's rating of personal mental effort exerted during the assessment. A Simple Planned Comparison was conducted to evaluate estimated mean differences between the primary group of interest (MCCM-integrated Group 4) and each of the other three groups. Of additional interest were differences among the four different groups on the examinees' attitudes and impressions toward their respective assessment method; these data provided more insight into the quality of design for each treatment group.

The type of List/Map had a significant main effect on the overall mental effort/strain or the linear combination of time on task and mental effort rating scores. More specifically, however, the test of between-subjects effects indicated that the type of list/map had a statistically significant effect on the time to complete the assessment, but not on the examinees ...


Learning With Animation And The Illusion Of Understanding, Eugene Sam Paik Dec 2010

Learning With Animation And The Illusion Of Understanding, Eugene Sam Paik

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

A controlled experiment was conducted on the effects of two types of animation - motion and highlighting - on learning. The treatment consisted of a 3.5 minute multimedia presentation that described the workings of a flushing toilet tank. A 2x2 factorial design ({motion, no-motion} x {highlight, no-highlight}) was employed with two dependent measures of learning (retention and transfer). Participants consisted of 65 undergraduates. Highlighting animation had a positive effect on both retention and transfer while motion animation had a negative effect on transfer. No significant interaction was detected between motion and highlighting.


In addition, the experiment tested the illusion of understanding ...


Stereotype Threat’S Effect On Women’S Achievement In Chemistry: The Interaction Of Achievement Goal Orientation For Women In Science Majors, Janice M. Conway-Klaassen Aug 2010

Stereotype Threat’S Effect On Women’S Achievement In Chemistry: The Interaction Of Achievement Goal Orientation For Women In Science Majors, Janice M. Conway-Klaassen

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

"Stereotype threat is being at risk of confirming, as a self-characteristic, a negative stereotype about one's group" (C. M. Steele & Aronson, 1995, p. 797). A stereotype threat effect then is described as the detrimental impact on a person's performance or achievement measurements when they are placed in a stereotype threat environment.

For women, the negative stereotype that exists in our culture states that women are typically not as capable as men in mathematics or science subjects. This study specifically explored the potential impact of stereotype threat on women who have chosen a science-based college major. They were tested ...


Exploring Preservice Teachers' Views Of Intelligence, Anne Marie Poliquin May 2010

Exploring Preservice Teachers' Views Of Intelligence, Anne Marie Poliquin

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

This study explored preservice teachers' views of intelligence. Specifically, I was interested in whether preservice teachers believed that intelligence was changeable (incremental) or fixed (entity). Dweck and colleagues found that people view traits like intelligence as either fixed or incremental (Dweck & Leggett, 1988; Dweck, Chiu, & Hong, 1995; Plaks, Grant & Dweck, 2005). Teachers bring both their beliefs and knowledge into the classroom. Views about intelligence affect beliefs about student ability. Teachers' expectations, instructional decisions, teaching strategies, and educational assessment are affected by these beliefs. In order for change to occur, learners must engage deeply (Dole & Sinatra, 1998, Sinatra & Mason, 2008). Change is more likely to occur when implicit theories are brought to light and examined. Interventions that refute prior knowledge and engender reflection have been shown to be facilitative of change (Mason & Gava, 2007). Change is also more likely when the learner engages deeply with the content (Patrick & Pintrich, 2001; Pintrich, Marx & Boyle, 1993; Sinatra & Mason, 2006). This study employed a mixed methods approach to explore preservice teachers' personal and implicit beliefs about intelligence. Participants were randomly assigned to four conditions where they read a refutational text, an alternative text, participated in a structured discussion on intelligence or school uniforms using a prediscussion organizer, or did some combination of these activities. Specifically, Condition 1 participants read a refutational text on intelligence and completed a structured discussion, Condition 2 participants read a refutational text and discussed school uniforms, Condition 3 participants read an alternative text on the brain and had a structured discussion on intelligence, and finally Condition 4 participants read the alternative text and discussed school uniforms.

Refutational texts provide a platform for deep cognitive engagement that may occur when a text directly refutes prior knowledge (Murphy & Mason, 2006). Although refutational texts have been shown to be effective (Hynd, 2003; Guzzetti et al., 1993), only a few studies have tried to increase the effectiveness of refutational texts by combining these texts with other interventions such as discussion (Broughton, Sinatra, & Nussbaum, 2009).

My results did not support my hypothesis that preservice teachers would be primarily fixed in their viewpoints. In fact, participants came to the study with views consistent with an incremental perspective. In this study the most effective educational intervention to increase conceptual change was the combination of refutational text plus structured discussion. The results indicate that preservice teachers' views of intelligence are centered on personal and emotional beliefs rather than theory or empirical evidence. The condition with the most change read the refutation text and discussed intelligence; however, there was also a main effect of text.

From an educational standpoint, this study suggests that refutational texts combined with a structured ...


The Effect Of Goal Orientation Of Attention, Learning, And Metacognitive Awareness, Ordene V. Edwards May 2010

The Effect Of Goal Orientation Of Attention, Learning, And Metacognitive Awareness, Ordene V. Edwards

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

An experimental study was conducted to examine whether achievement goals affect attention, comprehension, and metacognition. One hundred and twenty undergraduate students enrolled in introductory educational psychology classes participated. Students were randomly assigned to one of four goal groups (mastery, performance approach, performance avoidance, or control group) and one of three question groups (emotions, brain, and no questions). The study was conducted in two sessions. First, students were given a reading test, and questionnaires to measure their prior knowledge and personal goals. Second, students read the text on a computer. Then they completed an interest questionnaire, a manipulation check, a post ...


Re-Entry African American Male High School Dropouts Through The Lens Of Critical Race Theory With Content Analysis Of The Case Studies, Robert Paul Walker May 2010

Re-Entry African American Male High School Dropouts Through The Lens Of Critical Race Theory With Content Analysis Of The Case Studies, Robert Paul Walker

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

This is a multi-case study, utilizing in-depth interviews, of three African American male high school dropouts who are reentering an alternative high school program in Southern Nevada. The participants tell of their life experiences, broadly considered, in relationship to school, family, peers, and discrimination. Hearing their story in their own voices gives a forceful dimension to the statistics of the group many call the "endangered species." The in-depth interviews reveal the challenging experiences that many young African American men must rise above in order to survive, including the daily incidents of racism--both institutional and individual--that all African Americans endure. The ...


Toward The Development Of A Model To Estimate The Readability Of Credentialing-Examination Materials, Barbara Anne Badgett May 2010

Toward The Development Of A Model To Estimate The Readability Of Credentialing-Examination Materials, Barbara Anne Badgett

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The purpose of this study was to develop a set of procedures to establish readability, including an equation, that accommodates the multiple-choice item format and occupational-specific language related to credentialing examinations. The procedures and equation should be appropriate for learning materials, examination materials, and occupational materials. To this end, variance in readability estimates accounted for by combinations of semantic and syntactic variables were explored, a method was devised to accommodate occupational-specific vocabulary, and new-model readability formulas were created and calibrated. Existing readability formulas were then recalibrated with the same materials used to calibrate the new-model formulas. The new-model and recalibrated ...


Raising Children Who Soar: A Guide To Healthy Risk-Taking In An Uncertain World, P. S. Mcmillen Jan 2010

Raising Children Who Soar: A Guide To Healthy Risk-Taking In An Uncertain World, P. S. Mcmillen

Library Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Zing: Seven Creativity Practices For Educators And Students, P. S. Mcmillen Jan 2010

Zing: Seven Creativity Practices For Educators And Students, P. S. Mcmillen

Library Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.