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Educational Psychology

1998

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Full-Text Articles in Education

Cognitive Development Beyond Childhood, David Moshman Dec 1998

Cognitive Development Beyond Childhood, David Moshman

Educational Psychology Papers and Publications

Concluding this volume on children’s cognition, this chapter addresses developmental changes in cognition that extend beyond childhood. I will not trace cognitive change across the entire span of adulthood (for lifespan accounts, see Cerella, Rybash, Hoyer, & Commons, 1993; Commons, Richards, & Armon, 1984; Craik & Salthouse, 1993; Holliday & Chandler, 1986; Hoyer & Rybash, 1994; Kausler, 1994; Lachman & Burack, 1993; Miller & Cook-Greuter, 1994; Rybash, Hoyer, & Roodin, 1986; Sinnott & Cavanaugh, 1991). Rather, I highlight changes associated with the second (and to a lesser extent the third) decade of life. The research reviewed suggests that developmental changes in cognition, at least in some individuals, continue at least through adolescence and early adulthood.

In the opening sections of the chapter, I address ...


Java Applets Enhance Learning In A Freshman Ece Course, Charles R. Graham, Timothy N. Trick Oct 1998

Java Applets Enhance Learning In A Freshman Ece Course, Charles R. Graham, Timothy N. Trick

All Faculty Publications

The goals of our work have been to enhance the learning environment of our students and to increase the productivity of faculty by freeing them from the drudgery of grading homework and quizzes, as well as the time required to record and compute grades. We have achieved these goals by means of the highly interactive World Wide Web (WWW)-based learning environment provided by MallardTM, 1,2 and by the development of several java applets within the Mallard environment to enhance the learning process. These Java applets are the subject of this paper. They include the ability to draw timing ...


An Effective Investment: Teaching Study Skills To Usaf Allied Health Professionals Prior To Extended Training, John C. Griffith Sep 1998

An Effective Investment: Teaching Study Skills To Usaf Allied Health Professionals Prior To Extended Training, John C. Griffith

John Griffith

In the school of Aerospace Medicine, the average cost to train one student in the three month Aeromedical Apprentice course in 1998 was $12,500. In this course, students are trained to become medical technicians who are able to effectively support Air Force Flight Surgeons in emergency situations. Students who failed the course of study were eliminated from the program at a cost of thousands of taxpayer dollars with no realized gain by the government or the student. A recent study examined the effects of a study skills training intervention course on U.S. Air Force Aeromedical Apprentices with five ...


Health Risk Behaviors Among Maine Youth : Results Of The 1997 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, Grades 7-12, Chuck Rhoades Jun 1998

Health Risk Behaviors Among Maine Youth : Results Of The 1997 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, Grades 7-12, Chuck Rhoades

Maine Collection

Health Risk Behaviors Among Maine Youth : Results of the 1997 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, Grades 7-12

Prepared for the Maine Department of Education by Chuck Rhoades of CERES Associates, Inc., Survey Administered by Pan Atlantic Consultants / Strategic Marketing Services (June, 1998).

Contents: Introduction / Methodology / Demographics / Safety, Violence & Suicide / Alcohol, Drug & Tobacco Use / Sexual Behaviors / Health Care, Physical Activity & Nutrition / References


Preparation For The Gre, Corina Groeger Jun 1998

Preparation For The Gre, Corina Groeger

Dissertations

The present research consisted of two empirical studies and a literature review. The first study was a systematic replication of the studies by Miller, Goodyear-Orwart, and Malott (1996) and Vunovich and Malott (1997). Fourteen undergraduate students and one graduate student participated in four intensive, extensive, structured Graduate Record Examination (GRE) preparation courses that met for seven weeks and lasted between 99 and 140 hours. The courses offered a monetary reward for students who met a minimum of 92% for attendance and participation during the course. The results of this study showed statistically significant mean improvements of 145 points for the ...


Parental Involvement And Its Impact On Student Performance In The Primary Grades, Charlene G. Bundy May 1998

Parental Involvement And Its Impact On Student Performance In The Primary Grades, Charlene G. Bundy

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to determine if parental involvement increased the school performance of students in the primary grades. Research shows that parents who are supportive, monitor their child's activities, help their child, and participate with their child's school positively impact their child's school performance. The independent variable was parental involvement and the dependent variable was school performance. The sample consisted of 20 students in first, second, and third grade. A parent questionnaire was completed by parents who also provided their child's school grades in math and reading. The questionnaire asked parents to rate ...


The Effects Of Musical Training On Academic Achievement, John Schiavo May 1998

The Effects Of Musical Training On Academic Achievement, John Schiavo

Theses and Dissertations

This study was designed to look at the cognitive development of students who have formal musical training and compare them to students who lack any musical ability. The purpose of the study was to lend support to the positive effect that musical training has on space relations and mathematical abilities.

The sample consisted of twenty students enrolled in an undergraduate psychology course at a major university and twenty students enrolled in a high level music class at the same institution. Most of the subjects came from middle class backgrounds and live in New Jersey. The Differential Aptitude Test, form C ...


Empathy And Self-Acceptance: Necessary Qualities Of A Peer Helper, William T. Sharp May 1998

Empathy And Self-Acceptance: Necessary Qualities Of A Peer Helper, William T. Sharp

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis is a preliminary study of the qualities of people who chose to be peer helpers. A review of the literature on helping theories led to the conclusion that empathy and self-acceptance were necessary elements of a helper. This study hoped to lend support to this theory. The hypothesis stated that students electing to take a peer helping training course would have different levels of empathy and self-acceptance than those in a cooking class. These qualities were measured using a psychological inventory, and the scores of 115 adolescent subjects (n=115) were compared. There was no significant difference between ...


A Study Of Self-Esteem In Learning Disabled Students Across Placements, Constance Occhetti May 1998

A Study Of Self-Esteem In Learning Disabled Students Across Placements, Constance Occhetti

Theses and Dissertations

This study set out to offer support for inclusion by analyzing learning disabled students in an inclusive environment and their pull-out program counterparts. The analysis focused on an examination of student self-esteem, a variable central to student success. A hypothesis stating that learning disabled students who were served in an inclusive environment will achieve higher scores of self-esteem than learning disabled students who were served in a traditional pull-out program was proposed. This hypothesis was based on previous research on the practice of inclusion, which showed positive effects for learning disabled students. The practice of inclusion has been supported throughout ...


A Comparison Of The Home And School Behaviors Of Pre-School Age Autistic And Pdd Children, Debra L. Ribatsky May 1998

A Comparison Of The Home And School Behaviors Of Pre-School Age Autistic And Pdd Children, Debra L. Ribatsky

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the kinds of behaviors that were displayed in school and at home by autistic and PDD children of pre-school age. A group of twenty children were selected for this study. The children's parents and teachers answered questionnaires regarding different types of behavior exhibited by the children at different times. T-tests were conducted to compare the total amount of autistic type behaviors shown in the home environment versus in the school setting. The sub-tests of the questionnaire were also analyzed using t-tests. A significant difference was found between the overall amount of ...


A Descriptive Analysis Comparing The Academic Success Of Student Athletes And Non-Student Athletes, Daniel P. Crowe May 1998

A Descriptive Analysis Comparing The Academic Success Of Student Athletes And Non-Student Athletes, Daniel P. Crowe

Theses and Dissertations

This study was undertaken to measure and compare the academic success of student athletes and non-student athletes. The suggested hypothesis was that student athletes would perform better academically because of factors relating to accomplished goal setting and discipline. This study implies that student athletes are more prepared for academic success because of their goal oriented behaviors.

206 students participated in the experiment. There were 141 athletes and 65 non athletes. Those who were described as an athlete were a participating member of a varsity sport. The students were all members of a local Catholic high school. With the permission of ...


Prevalence And Psychological Correlates Of Eating Disorders Among College Women, Lisa M. Lyons May 1998

Prevalence And Psychological Correlates Of Eating Disorders Among College Women, Lisa M. Lyons

Theses and Dissertations

Eating disordered behaviors of fasting, binge-eating, and vomiting and purging have increased in prevalence and are approaching epidemic proportions. It is estimated that 1 in 100 females age 12 to 18 are anorexic, while as many as 1 in 4 college-age women are thought to be bulimic or engage in other forms of disturbed eating. Research indicates that those who are eating disordered are more dissatisfied with their bodies, have lower self-esteem, and have a greater tendency to endorse sociocultural mores regarding thinness and attractiveness. The present study investigated a) the prevalence of eating disorders among college women, and b ...


Social Engagement: Depressogenic Factors In The Elderly, Joell P. Worster May 1998

Social Engagement: Depressogenic Factors In The Elderly, Joell P. Worster

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine whether those elderly nursing home residents who maintained social engagement would be less depressed then those elderly nursing home residents who did not maintain social engagement. The study consist of 21 residents who resided in a nursing home. All subjects were given the Geriatric Depression Scale and asked to respond to the 30 question by yes or no. A Mann Whitney Test was performed on the depression scores from the results of the Geriatric Depression Scale. The results were significant with the prediction of the study. Those elderly residents in the nursing ...


A Study Analyzing The Ability Of The Yellow Brick Road Screening Test To Predict Future Academic Achievement, Nancy Lazzaro May 1998

A Study Analyzing The Ability Of The Yellow Brick Road Screening Test To Predict Future Academic Achievement, Nancy Lazzaro

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the ability of the Yellow Brick Road kindergarten screening instrument to predict future academic achievement using CAT scores as indicators of student performance. There were 31 subjects used in this study. Subjects were selected randomly from the respective elementary school population. The study followed a longitudinal design. Yellow Brick Road scores were obtained, in addition to CAT scores in grades 2, 4, and 6. All scores were recorded anonymously with the permission of the respective school Board of Education.

The data was analyzed using a paired sample T test. Based on the ...


A Study Of The Formal Operational Thought Ability Of College Students, Justin J. Williams May 1998

A Study Of The Formal Operational Thought Ability Of College Students, Justin J. Williams

Theses and Dissertations

This study was undertaken to measure the formal operational thought capacity of the college student and unveil any gender differences regarding this ability. Formal operational thought is important to the success of every student because it implies the ability of humans to reason scientifically and analytically and to think abstractly.

34 male and 40 female college students were selected from an on-campus apartment facility to be part of the study. The sample ranged in age from 17 to 21 and represented class standings from the freshman to senior level. The subjects included 45 Caucasians, 9 Hispanics, 17 African-Americans, and 3 ...


The Effects Of School-Based Mentoring On At-Risk Youth, Barbara Dobzanski May 1998

The Effects Of School-Based Mentoring On At-Risk Youth, Barbara Dobzanski

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of school-based mentoring on at-risk youth. The study was conducted on a group of clients from a Big Brothers/Big Sisters organization. The clients were individuals who are at risk of academic and social failure or difficulty. The experimental group consisted of 21 students who were receiving mentoring services on a weekly basis. The control group consisted of 18 students who remained on a waiting list to be mentored. The variables examined were self-concept, behavioral and developmental issues, and academic performance. The extent, if any, to which mentoring benefits an ...


A Study Examining The "I Like Me" Program And Its Effects On Self Esteem, Julie Ridgway May 1998

A Study Examining The "I Like Me" Program And Its Effects On Self Esteem, Julie Ridgway

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the "I Like Me" Program and determine if the implementation and use of the "I Like Me" Program, in addition to the standard curriculum, in a second grade classroom will significantly increase the students' levels of self esteem as compared to students who are only exposed to the standard health and social studies curricula.

Two samples of students were pretested using the Piers-Harris Children's Self- Concept Scale. The "I Like Me" Program was implemented into one of the two classrooms (Sample B) over a 20 week period of time. The program ...


Can A Specific Personality Type Predict Positive Rape Attitudes?, Elisha Wilkinson May 1998

Can A Specific Personality Type Predict Positive Rape Attitudes?, Elisha Wilkinson

Theses and Dissertations

Despite increased societal awareness, negative reactions are still common experiences for women disclosing incidents of sexual assault to social network members. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to try to identify one personality type that may be compassionate and empathetic to the victim of a rape. The participants of the study were eighty-two Freshmen, from a Northeastern College. The population contained approximately half males and half females, ages ranging from eighteen to forty-five, with a wide variety of racial backgrounds. The Understanding Scale from the PRF was used to test the participants' levels of compassion, and the Rape Attitudes ...


A Study Of Self-Concept As It Relates To Academic Achievement And Gender In Third Grade Students, Grace S. Woods May 1998

A Study Of Self-Concept As It Relates To Academic Achievement And Gender In Third Grade Students, Grace S. Woods

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to determine if a positive relationship exists between self-concept, academic achievement, and gender. The subject sample consisted of fifty-two students from a suburban public school district in southern New Jersey. Twenty-seven females and twenty-five males participated in the study. The Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale was used to evaluate self-perception. Academic achievement was evaluated with the use of math and reading grades from the students' report cards. The correlation coefficient results indicated that a significant relationship between self-concept and both reading (.291) and math (.307) achievement exists. Frequency polygons were used to display the ...


Increasing Sensitivity Toward Handicapped Children Through Inclusion, Christine Nicole Brookbank May 1998

Increasing Sensitivity Toward Handicapped Children Through Inclusion, Christine Nicole Brookbank

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to observe the benefits for non-handicapped students in an inclusive setting. The hypothesis suggested that regular education students would be more sensitive and aware of handicapped individuals when they are read stories about handicapped individuals and participate in a sensitivity program than regular education students who do not receive this form of intervention. The Acceptance Scale for Kindergarten-Revised (ASK-R) helped to assess fifty-eight second graders' perceptions of handicapped individuals. The difference between the pre-test and post-test scores of Classroom B (experimental group given sensitivity program and read stories regarding individual differences; has included child ...


The Effects Of Elementary Peer Mediation Program On Disciplinary Action In The Schools, Elizabeth Anne Haws May 1998

The Effects Of Elementary Peer Mediation Program On Disciplinary Action In The Schools, Elizabeth Anne Haws

Theses and Dissertations

Peer mediation programs offer students options. Students can choose mediation instead of name-calling, yelling, or letting conflicts grow until they explode into violence. Little is known about the effectiveness or manner of implementing these programs. This study examines 62 black male students in grades 4, 5, and 6 from a Burlington County, New Jersey, suburban, public K-6 elementary school. Some data suggest disciplinary action is decreased with a cadre approach to peer mediation established in the school. More attention should be paid to evaluating peer mediation and conflict resolution programs. Under peer mediation programs, students in conflict and peer mediators ...


The Effects Of Conjoint Behavioral Consultation And A Structured Homework Program On Math Completion And Accuracy In Junior High Students, Robin K. Weiner, Susan M. Sheridan, William R. Jenson May 1998

The Effects Of Conjoint Behavioral Consultation And A Structured Homework Program On Math Completion And Accuracy In Junior High Students, Robin K. Weiner, Susan M. Sheridan, William R. Jenson

Educational Psychology Papers and Publications

The effects of conjoint behavioral consultation (CBC) and a structured homework program on math homework completion and accuracy in junior high school students (grades seven through nine) who were at risk for academic failure were investigated. A multiple baseline design across five participants was utilized. Follow-up data were collected approximately one month after CBC was completed, to assess maintenance over time. Four of the five students improved their completion rates during treatment. Accuracy rates increased during treatment, but to a lesser degree. At follow-up, three of the five students maintained or improved gains they made during treatment. One student who ...


Collaborative Reasoning: Evidence For Collective Rationality, David Moshman, Molly Geil May 1998

Collaborative Reasoning: Evidence For Collective Rationality, David Moshman, Molly Geil

Educational Psychology Papers and Publications

Reasoning may be defined as a deliberate effort to coordinate inferences so as to reach justifiable conclusions. Thus defined, reasoning includes collaborative as well as individual forms of cognitive action. The purpose of the present study was to demonstrate a circumstance in which collaborative reasoning is qualitatively superior to individual reasoning. The selection task, a well known logical hypothesis-testing problem, was presented to 143 college undergraduates—32 individuals and 20 groups of 5 or 6 interacting peers. The correct (falsification) response pattern was selected by only 9% of the individuals but by 75% of the groups. The superior performance of ...


The Predictability Of The Sat, Melissa Mickiewicz May 1998

The Predictability Of The Sat, Melissa Mickiewicz

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study is to look at the correlation of overall freshman grade point average and SAT scores to overall junior grade point average and SAT scores. Research has shown that SAT scores have a high correlation with freshman grade point average, but there are conflicting results to the correlations of grade point average beyond the freshman year. Data was collected from two graduating classes from a private religious university. SAT scores, overall freshman grade point average and overall junior grade point average were obtained from the university for 148 students. The data was analyzed using the Pearson ...


Attitudes Toward Inclusion: A Survey Of General And Special Educators, Debra M. Shinn May 1998

Attitudes Toward Inclusion: A Survey Of General And Special Educators, Debra M. Shinn

Theses and Dissertations

Whether or not the attitudes toward inclusion differ between regular educators and special educators was investigated. From the current literature reviewed, it was hypothesized that special educators would have a more favorable attitude toward inclusion than regular educators. Forty-nine regular educators and sixty-three special educators responded to a questionnaire. The results of an independent groups t test did confirm a statistically significant difference between the two groups. However, the significant difference revealed that, overall, regular educators had a more favorable attitude toward inclusion than special educators.

Over half of the regular educators believed that the challenge of a regular class ...


Factors That Influence Academic Achievement, Leah Georgene Shaffer May 1998

Factors That Influence Academic Achievement, Leah Georgene Shaffer

Theses and Dissertations

Does environment affect academic achievement? The dispute over environmental influences has been the topic of numerous debates. This study was designed to investigate the relationship between academic achievement and the following environmental factors: family structure, ethnic background, socioeconomic circumstances and family size. The 1,500 participants of this study were collected from a large, extremely diverse elementary school population. From this general population, 134 students were selected for the control group based on participation in the Basic Skills Program. Data was collected using teacher surveys and parent contact information. State and federal guidelines were used when identifying children for Basic ...


What Is The Correlation Between Risk-Taking Behaviors And Letter Recognition In Kindergarten Students?, Michelle Delong May 1998

What Is The Correlation Between Risk-Taking Behaviors And Letter Recognition In Kindergarten Students?, Michelle Delong

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

This study attempted to determine whether there was a significant correlation between the letter recognition ability of kindergarten students and their risk-taking characteristics in the classroom. To achieve this purpose, letter recognition scores from November report cards were used, along with teacher input regarding risk-taking behaviors. One hundred ten kindergarten students from an upstate New York suburban community were the subjects for this study. Eleven participating teachers listed the five students in their class who exhibited the most risk-taking behaviors in the academic setting and the five students in their class who exhibited the fewest risk-taking behaviors in the academic ...


The Effects Of Parental Values On The Prosocial Behaviors Of Preschoolers In A Private Vs. District-Funded Preschool, Janet Baratta May 1998

The Effects Of Parental Values On The Prosocial Behaviors Of Preschoolers In A Private Vs. District-Funded Preschool, Janet Baratta

Theses and Dissertations

Earlier studies have shown that parental modeling and communication of values are significant factors in promoting prosocial behavior in young children. The current study was conducted to determine whether a relationship existed between preschoolers' prosocial behaviors and the importance their parents attributed to such behaviors. The prosocial behaviors of twenty preschoolers from a private preschool were compared to the behaviors of twenty preschoolers from a public, district-funded preschool. The preschool teachers from both schools rated the prosocial behaviors of the children based on how often they observed each child engaging in various behaviors. The parents rated how valuable they believed ...


Assumptions Of Behavioral Consultation: After All Is Said And Done More Has Been Done Than Said, Thomas R. Kratochwill, John R. Bergan, Susan M. Sheridan, Stephen N. Elliot Mar 1998

Assumptions Of Behavioral Consultation: After All Is Said And Done More Has Been Done Than Said, Thomas R. Kratochwill, John R. Bergan, Susan M. Sheridan, Stephen N. Elliot

Educational Psychology Papers and Publications

The purpose of our article is to provide a reaction to the article by Noell and Witt (1996) regarding five fundamental assumptions underlying behavioral consultation, as well as react to a manuscript by Witt, Gresham and Noell (1996a) pertaining to their critique of some aspects of behavioral consultation. We provide a reaction to the alleged fundamental assumptions pertaining to consultation, specifically that (a) consultation is a superior use of resources when compared to direct intervention/therapy; (b) consultation is conducted collaboratively; (c) talking to teachers is sufficient to cause them to change their behavior; (d) teachers will generalize problem-solving skills ...


Conjoint Behavioral Consultation And Social Skills Training: Enhancing The Play Behaviors Of Boys With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Denise L. Colton, Susan M. Sheridan Jan 1998

Conjoint Behavioral Consultation And Social Skills Training: Enhancing The Play Behaviors Of Boys With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Denise L. Colton, Susan M. Sheridan

Educational Psychology Papers and Publications

In this study, we demonstrate the use of conjoint behavioral consultation (CBC) as a model to join parents and educators in the shared development and implementation of interventions for students. A behavioral social skills intervention was delivered in the context of CBC to enhance the cooperative peer interactions of young boys diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A multiple probe design across participants was used. The mothers and teachers of 3 boys between the ages of 8 and 9 years who were diagnosed with ADHD and who were exhibiting performance deficits in their cooperative play behaviors served as consultation ...