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Educational Psychology

1992

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Articles 1 - 30 of 38

Full-Text Articles in Education

The Effects Of An Integrated Environment On Specific Target Behaviors In Severely Impaired Young Children, Rosemarie R. Smith Dec 1992

The Effects Of An Integrated Environment On Specific Target Behaviors In Severely Impaired Young Children, Rosemarie R. Smith

Master's Theses

Four severely impaired children, ages four to seven, were integrated in a non-handicapped preschool setting during a free play period. A multiple baseline design was used to study the environment's effect on specific target behaviors. No intervention, other than the classroom setting, was implemented to effect levels of these behaviors. The results were mixed with one student showing a marked increased in the desired behavior from.136 occurrences per minute to 1.73 occurrences per minute. However, a second subject's desired behavior decreased from 2.0 occurrences per minute to.194 occurrences per minute. The target behaviors of ...


Preschool Teachers’ Stated Approaches To Imaginary Companion Behavior Among Preschool Students, Sharon Rose Stevens Dec 1992

Preschool Teachers’ Stated Approaches To Imaginary Companion Behavior Among Preschool Students, Sharon Rose Stevens

Education and Human Development Master's Theses

The purpose of this study was to examine the responses of preschool teachers toward students with imaginary companions, in particular, their reactions to situations involving imaginary companions in the classroom settings.

Past research has focused on reflections of individuals who have had imaginary companions in childhood. Professional attitudes toward these children have ranged from very positive to suggestive of mental illness, requiring treatment.

The subjects were 27 female preschool teachers currently teaching nursery school in the western New York region. Eight hypothetical imaginary companion scenarios were devised. Each scenario was comprised of three to five short sentences. Subjects responded to ...


Preparation Of School Psychologists In Behavioral Consultation Service Delivery, Thomas R. Kratochwill, Pamela Carrington Rotto, Susan M. Sheridan, Diane Salmon Sep 1992

Preparation Of School Psychologists In Behavioral Consultation Service Delivery, Thomas R. Kratochwill, Pamela Carrington Rotto, Susan M. Sheridan, Diane Salmon

Educational Psychology Papers and Publications

Practicing school psychologists have reported that consultation generally has been a high priority in service delivery approaches in schools and other applied settings (e.g., Gutkin, Singer, & Brown, 1980; Lesiak & Lounsbury, 1977; Meacham & Peckam, 1978). Although many practitioners now receive didactic training, few school psychology programs may actually provide a field practicum or other supervised experience in consultation. Formal applied training in consultation is important for several professional and ethical reasons. In the last decade, there has been growing concern over the limitations of traditional psychoeducational services provided to children in school settings. For example, studies have demonstrated that psychologists using traditional assessment practices ...


Preparing Professionals For Educational Partnerships: An Interdisciplinary Approach, Marshall Welch, Susan M. Sheridan, Addie Fuhriman, Ann W. Hart, Michael L. Connell, Trish Stoddart Sep 1992

Preparing Professionals For Educational Partnerships: An Interdisciplinary Approach, Marshall Welch, Susan M. Sheridan, Addie Fuhriman, Ann W. Hart, Michael L. Connell, Trish Stoddart

Educational Psychology Papers and Publications

An interdisciplinary course was developed in the Graduate School of Education at the University of Utah, team taught by faculty members from the Departments of Educational Administration, Educational Psychology, Educational Studies, and Special Education. This unique course was designed to provide prospective teachers, special educators, school psychologists, counselors, and administrators insights into conceptual and practical components of collaborative problem solving and conflict management. This article describes the initial development and implementation, as well as content, activities, assignments, and evaluation procedures of this course.

The education of all youth is the shared responsibility of classroom teachers, special educators, administrators, related professionals ...


A Conceptual Model For The Expansion Of Behavioral Consultation Training, Susan M. Sheridan, Diane Salmon, Thomas R. Kratochwill, Pamela J. Carrington Rotto Sep 1992

A Conceptual Model For The Expansion Of Behavioral Consultation Training, Susan M. Sheridan, Diane Salmon, Thomas R. Kratochwill, Pamela J. Carrington Rotto

Educational Psychology Papers and Publications

In this article, a general model and specific program that expand traditional behavioral consultation training are presented. The training program involves five interrelated components: (a) procedural and content skills, (b) role and relationship considerations, (c) entry/systems issues, (d) field-based experience, and (e) peer supervision. As a system, each component is necessary but not sufficient in the development of consulting expertise. Likewise, each component is subsumed by one or more components that encompass this broader framework. A theoretical rationale, model for implementation, and future training and research directions are also presented.


What Do We Mean When We Say "Collaboration"?, Susan M. Sheridan Sep 1992

What Do We Mean When We Say "Collaboration"?, Susan M. Sheridan

Educational Psychology Papers and Publications

In the first of what certainly will be many thoughtful and provocative articles to appear in this column, Witt (1990) questioned the validity of the broadly accepted mandate that "our consultative interactions be collaborative” (p. 367). He continued with anecdotes illustrating ineffective teaching practices and deficient teacher skills which mitigated against the desirability of a "true" collaborative approach. The title of the article articulates Witt’s stated purpose: "Collaboration in School-Based Consultation: Myth in Need of Data." My purpose in this article is not to argue for or against Witt’s position. Rather, I suggest that we go beyond this ...


An Analysis Of The Relationship Between Power Style, And Locus-Of-Control For Selected Academic Deans, Carla E. Warner Aug 1992

An Analysis Of The Relationship Between Power Style, And Locus-Of-Control For Selected Academic Deans, Carla E. Warner

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The concept of locus of control, as an aspect of the human personality, has remained of interest to researchers since its identification by Julian Rotter in the 1960s. Beginning with the work of French and Raven in the 1950s, the concept of power and its interrelationship with leadership ability has also continued to be of interest to social scientists and educators. This study was completed in response to the lack of previous research on the relationship of locus of control to power style usage and preference. Four hundred and eighty academic deans from one hundred and nine Comprehensive II institutions ...


The Effectiveness Of Special Education Placement And Services: A Descriptive Study, Michelle D. Lewis Aug 1992

The Effectiveness Of Special Education Placement And Services: A Descriptive Study, Michelle D. Lewis

Master's Theses

This descriptive study evaluated the effectiveness of special education placement and services over a three year period o f time. The files of seventeen students were chosen for the study. The study took place in two school districts in Southwestern Michigan.

The findings from this study indicate that: (a) there was an increase in test scores in the area of Performance IQ, and (b) there was a significant decrease in test scores in the area o f Math Calculation. There was a general trend, although not significant, of a decrease in scores in all areas of ability and achievement except ...


The Effects Of Imagery On Competitive Anxiety In High School Wrestlers, Lynwood G. Vandenburg Jul 1992

The Effects Of Imagery On Competitive Anxiety In High School Wrestlers, Lynwood G. Vandenburg

Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education Master’s Theses

The purpose of this investigation was to study imagery as an effective tool for decreasing competitive anxiety in high school wrestlers. The investigation was conducted using 27 subjects from a high school wrestling team. The subjects were selected for a treatment or control group by a pretest SCAT score. Both groups consisted of high to low anxiety subjects. The treatment group received an imagery program designed to decrease competitive anxiety. The contact sessions were fifteen minutes in length, culminating into 22 sessions over a nine week period. Both groups were pretested and posttested using the Sport Competitive Anxiety Test (SCAT ...


Teacher Proximity As An Instructional Variable In The Use Of Interactive Video, Rosalie L. Kirsch Apr 1992

Teacher Proximity As An Instructional Variable In The Use Of Interactive Video, Rosalie L. Kirsch

Master's Theses

Teacher proximity during the use of the video disc Mastering Fractions produced by Systems Impact (1984) was investigated for effects on student on-task behavior. The study used a randomized multi-element design and was implemented in two classrooms at the junior high school level. In Phase 1, the 12 subjects were enrolled in a regular education mathematics classroom. The seven students in Phase 2 were enrolled in a special education classroom in the same school. During both phases, students were observed during teacher proximity and non-proximity conditions. Results of the study indicate no observable differences in student attending behavior when comparing ...


Consultation And Teaming: Problem Solving Among Educators, Parents, And Support Personnel, Stephen N. Elliott, Susan M. Sheridan Jan 1992

Consultation And Teaming: Problem Solving Among Educators, Parents, And Support Personnel, Stephen N. Elliott, Susan M. Sheridan

Educational Psychology Papers and Publications

This article examines the nature and use of consultation and in-school teams in the delivery of psychoeducational services for children experiencing difficulties in school. Underlying both consultation and school-based teams is an explicit problem-solving process that has been shown to facilitate problem resolution for a target child and can also advance the knowledge of the adults who participate in the process. Practical, step-by-step illustrations of problem solving within a consultative relationship are provided and extended to team problem solving. Research literature supporting these practices also is briefly reviewed.


The Effect Of Peer And Adult-Child Transactive Discussions On Moral Reasoning, Ann Cale Kruger Jan 1992

The Effect Of Peer And Adult-Child Transactive Discussions On Moral Reasoning, Ann Cale Kruger

Educational Psychology and Special Education Faculty Publications

Piaget (1932) hypothesized that children's interactions with peers during middle child hood are essential to their moral reasoning development. To test this hypothesis, 48 female focal subjects (M age = 8.6 years) were paired with either a female agemate or their mother. All focal subjects were pretested and posttested for moral reasoning abilities. In the intervention, the adult-child and peer dyads engaged in consensus-seeking discussions of two moral dilemmas. Focal subjects' moral reasoning at pretest and posttest and their use of reasoning (transacts) in the intervention discussions were measured. As predicted, focal subjects paired with peers showed significantly more ...


Preparing Trainers To Work With Culturally Diverse Groups, Sara Deturk Jan 1992

Preparing Trainers To Work With Culturally Diverse Groups, Sara Deturk

Master's Capstone Projects

No abstract provided.


Using Adult Learning Techniques In Adult Education Conferences, John A. Henschke Edd Jan 1992

Using Adult Learning Techniques In Adult Education Conferences, John A. Henschke Edd

IACE Hall of Fame Repository

Conversation abounds regarding the importance of conducing adult education conference through using adult learning techniques which are consistent with what is known about how adults learn. Many professionals already successfully implement this naturally, and experience very positive feedback and results. But many still struggle with the question, "Why don't we practice on ourselves what we say we believe about adult learning?" The question this paper seeks to explore is: Since the field is not very systematic in this, what needs to happen if it is to change? Much published literature suggests various designs and techniques for making the transition ...


Factors Related To The Amount Of Time Children Spend In Leisure Reading, Dorothy Doig Jan 1992

Factors Related To The Amount Of Time Children Spend In Leisure Reading, Dorothy Doig

Theses : Honours

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the amount of time children spend in leisure reading and the variables of reading achievement, reading attitude, amount of television viewed, access to interesting materials in the home, competing leisure interests and gender. The subjects were 115 Year 6 children from 4 classes in Perth's northern suburbs. Reading achievement was measured using PAT Comprehension and PAT Vocabulary, Form A, Part 5. The Elementary Reading Attitude Survey measured attitude to recreational reading and attitude to academic reading, The Leisure Activities Questionnaire provided information on the amount of time devoted ...


The Effects Of Gender And Prior Computing Experience On Computer Use And Attitudes To Computers In Pre-Primary Schools, Helen Blackley Jan 1992

The Effects Of Gender And Prior Computing Experience On Computer Use And Attitudes To Computers In Pre-Primary Schools, Helen Blackley

Theses : Honours

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of gender and prior computing experience on the attitudes of pre-primary age children to computers, and the extent and nature of their use of computers. The study involved 46 five-year old children from two pre-.primary schools in the Perth metropolitan area. The method incorporated three data-gathering approaches characteristic of the 'descriptive' method of research "- observation of the children; interviewing the children; and parental questionnaire. The major finding of the study concluded that, in this instance, gender and prior exposure to computers were not factors affecting pre-primary children's use ...


The Adoption Of Soil Conservation Practices In Burkina Faso: The Role Of Indigenous Knowledge, Social Structure And Institutional Support , Basga Emile Dialla Jan 1992

The Adoption Of Soil Conservation Practices In Burkina Faso: The Role Of Indigenous Knowledge, Social Structure And Institutional Support , Basga Emile Dialla

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In the West African country of Burkina Faso, soil erosion has long been a concern. The national government has perceived soil erosion a problem for over a quarter of a century. Although institutional support and practices to control the severity of soil erosion are available, attempts to address the problem have met with limited success. This limited success may be related to lack of consideration of the local indigenous knowledge as a restraining factor. Farmers may be reluctant to adopt conservation practices unfamiliar to them;This study, conducted in two villages in the northwestern Burkina Faso investigates the important role ...


Children's Academic Self-Perceptions: The Influences Of Social Comparison And Classroom Setting , Marilyn Sue Wilson Jan 1992

Children's Academic Self-Perceptions: The Influences Of Social Comparison And Classroom Setting , Marilyn Sue Wilson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study was designed to begin testing the proposition that returning or serving mildly handicapped students in the general classroom may jeopardize their academic self-perceptions and to assess students' preferences regarding extra academic assistance. Participants were regular (N = 287) and special education (N = 175) students in three midwestern cities. The students completed the Children's Self-Perception Profile for Learning Disabled Students (SPPLDS) and accompanying social comparison measure (Renick & Harter, 1988), as well as a measure of locus of control consisting of the cognitive section from Connell's (1985) Multidimensional Measure of Children's Perceptions of Control. Students also were asked to choose from whom and where they would prefer to receive extra academic assistance. Data on each student's educational handicapping condition, level of special education programming, curriculum modification, and extent of team teaching utilized were provided by classroom teachers;Initial analyses by district indicated differences in self-perceptions; for all academic self-perception areas regular education students in District A scored the same as the special education students (combined for all three districts ...


Children's Television Favorites And The Values They Portray: As Perceived By Children And Adults, Lori Perkins-Detrick Jan 1992

Children's Television Favorites And The Values They Portray: As Perceived By Children And Adults, Lori Perkins-Detrick

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Learner Characteristics And Hypermedia, Sara Joan Schafer Jan 1992

Learner Characteristics And Hypermedia, Sara Joan Schafer

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Critical Thinking In Teacher Education: A Process-Oriented Research Agenda, Paul Hager, Michael Kaye Jan 1992

Critical Thinking In Teacher Education: A Process-Oriented Research Agenda, Paul Hager, Michael Kaye

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

In recent years, critical thinking has become a central focus of education, especially in North America. Within this focus, there has been a major debate regarding the generalisability of specificity of critical thinking. The main issue in this connection appears to have been whether critical thinking needs to be closely linked with traditional disciplines. If critical thinking is really as vital as its proponents maintain, then it will also be important in applied fields such as teacher education. It is our intention in this paper to explore the implications, for teacher education, of taking critical thinking seriously.


Self Concept And Family Relations Of American-Lebanese Children: A Descriptive And Comparative Study, Tagrid T. Chartouni Jan 1992

Self Concept And Family Relations Of American-Lebanese Children: A Descriptive And Comparative Study, Tagrid T. Chartouni

Dissertations

Problem. There is a great current need to assist and understand American children, especially minorities, through their familial and cultural backgrounds. The purpose of the study was to examine the Kinetic Family Drawings of American-Lebanese children to gain information about their relationship with other family members while comparing them with American-Caucasian children.

Method. The Kinetic Family Drawing was administered to 150 American-Lebanese, and 150 American-Caucasian, age 4-17, through Christian church-activities in Connecticut and Massachusetts. The data were analyzed by t-tests and analysis of variance.

Results. (1) There are few differences between the family drawings of American-Lebanese males and females either ...


Evans, G. (Ed.) Learning And Teaching Cognitive Skills; And, Biggs. J. (Ed.) Teaching For Learning: The View From Cognitive Psychology., Denise Kirkpatrick Jan 1992

Evans, G. (Ed.) Learning And Teaching Cognitive Skills; And, Biggs. J. (Ed.) Teaching For Learning: The View From Cognitive Psychology., Denise Kirkpatrick

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

Evans, G. (Ed.) Learning and teaching cognitive skills. ACER, Melbourne, 1991. Biggs, J. (Ed.) Teaching for leaming: the view from cognitive psychology. ACER, Melbourne, 1991.


A Validation And Comparative Study Of Kinetic Family Drawings Of Native American Children, Sheryl A. Gregory Jan 1992

A Validation And Comparative Study Of Kinetic Family Drawings Of Native American Children, Sheryl A. Gregory

Dissertations

Problem. Research on how Native American (NA) children draw their families and how perceptions of their families are reflected in their family drawings is lacking. The purpose of the study was (1) to validate the Kinetic Family Drawing (KFD) as an appropriate instrument for use with this population, and (2) to compare Native American and Caucasian children's KFDs.

Method. The KFD and Semantic Differential Scales were administered to 52 Native American children from the Potawatomi and Iroquois tribes, ages 6-14. A matched sample of 104 KFDs of Caucasian children from Southern Michigan was used for comparison. The data were ...


Consultant And Client Outcomes Of Competency-Based Behavioral Consultation Training, Susan M. Sheridan Jan 1992

Consultant And Client Outcomes Of Competency-Based Behavioral Consultation Training, Susan M. Sheridan

Educational Psychology Papers and Publications

This article examines how despite increasing demands and empirical support for consultation, its actual practice in schools continues to be limited. One barrier to the systematic provision of consultation services in the schools may be the lack of applied training provided to preservice individuals in graduate preparation programs. A model of behavioral consultation training which extends previous competency- based programs is presented. Trained five doctoral students in school psychology in behavioral consultation procedures using written manuals, videotape models, behavioral rehearsal, performance feedback, self-monitoring, and generalization training. Following university-based practice with trained consultees and student teachers, consultants were assigned consultation cases ...


Reducing Teachers' Levels Of Stress: A Comparison Of Two Counseling Treatment Models, Andrew Charles Elgort Jan 1992

Reducing Teachers' Levels Of Stress: A Comparison Of Two Counseling Treatment Models, Andrew Charles Elgort

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Teachers are experiencing heightened levels of stress throughout the school day the impact of which may be seen in increased absenteeism, turnover, poor performance and waste. This study taught classroom teachers cognitive-behavioral methods to reduce and manage their professional stress comparing a Group Counseling (GC) approach with a Cooperative Professional Development (CPD) approach.;Participating classroom teachers were randomly selected for each treatment condition. The participants in the GC approach met for ten 2-hour consecutive weekly sessions. The CPD treatment initially met as a group for a {dollar}6{lcub}1\over2{rcub}{dollar} hour inservice. at the end of the ...


Elaboration Strategies And Individual Differences In Academic Achievement Among Adolescent Learners, Violet Kaspar Jan 1992

Elaboration Strategies And Individual Differences In Academic Achievement Among Adolescent Learners, Violet Kaspar

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

This study investigated the relative potency of four memory strategies for learning factual information. To examine the efficacy of the strategies in relation to academic ability, students were classified as low or average achievers based on their performance on a verbal skills measure. Tenth to twelfth grade students (62 females and 48 males) were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions: Elaborative Interrogation (BI, a "why" questioning strategy), Repetition of Provided Elaborations (PE), Repetition Control (RC), and Judgement/Analysis (J/A, where students evaluated provided elaborations and justified their judgement). Performance in the BI condition was greater than that ...


Adequate And Appropriate Intelligence Testing Of Moderately Mentally Retarded Children, Nancy Lynn Robertson Orrison Jan 1992

Adequate And Appropriate Intelligence Testing Of Moderately Mentally Retarded Children, Nancy Lynn Robertson Orrison

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The intelligence of moderately mentally retarded (MR) children is difficult to assess because they often have concurrent physical or sensory impairments which adversely affect their test performance. The purpose of this study was to determine if necessary adaptations are made when assessing children who are moderately MR for educational placement in the State of Virginia.;A survey was sent to public school psychologists in the State of Virginia as identified by the 1990-91 roster obtained from the Virginia Department of Education. The survey inquired as to their normal methods of intelligence testing used with the moderately mentally retarded population. The ...


An Analysis Of Virginia School Psychologists' Decisions Relative To Assessment Profiles And Recommended Handicapping Condition, Brian Alan Keith Jan 1992

An Analysis Of Virginia School Psychologists' Decisions Relative To Assessment Profiles And Recommended Handicapping Condition, Brian Alan Keith

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The purpose of this study was to investigate the classification congruency of Virginia school psychologists as it related to assessment profile analysis and, additionally, to examine assessment instrument rankings and demographic variables when classifying targeted handicapping conditions. The targeted conditions were learning disability, educable mentally handicapped, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder/attentional problems.;The seventy-two certified Virginia school psychologists who participated in the study were each mailed identical packets containing a letter of explanation, demographic questionnaire, the test profiles for each of the handicapping conditions, and a profile for a non-handicapped child.;The data were analyzed using a discriminant analysis ...


An Evaluation Of Personality-Environmental Factors Related To Job Satisfaction Of Secondary School Natural Science Teachers, George Newton Deshazo Jan 1992

An Evaluation Of Personality-Environmental Factors Related To Job Satisfaction Of Secondary School Natural Science Teachers, George Newton Deshazo

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among certain personality traits, vocational interests, and demographic factors with job satisfaction among secondary school natural science teachers. Implications for future research and educational practice were explored.;Volunteers teaching secondary school natural science classes in seven Virginia public school districts primarily in the Hampton Rhodes area were subjects for this study. Subjects completed the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, the Vocational Preference Inventory, The Job Descriptive Index, and a biographical informational questionnaire.;It was hypothesized that (1) there would be a positive correlation between the predominant basic preference, INTJ, and job satisfaction ...