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Full-Text Articles in Education

The Effects Of Peer Tutoring On A Direct Instruction Reading Program, Robert Schuyler Brooks Aug 1991

The Effects Of Peer Tutoring On A Direct Instruction Reading Program, Robert Schuyler Brooks

Master's Theses

This study evaluated the effectiveness of peer tutoring with a direct instruction reading program prior to teacher-directed instruction. Six upper level elementary students participated in the peer tutoring program and two students participated in a control group.

The findings from this study indicate that: (a) pre-exposure to direct instruction in reading lessons with peer tutoring improves student reading rate without increasing error rate, and (b) the instructional time for a teacher-directed lesson decreases when peer tutoring is a part of the reading routine. It was concluded that peer tutoring prior to teacher-directed instruction increases student reading rates without sacrificing accuracy ...


The Effects Of Goal Setting And Supervisory Feedback On Staff Performance In A Human Service Setting, Michael D. Mack Aug 1991

The Effects Of Goal Setting And Supervisory Feedback On Staff Performance In A Human Service Setting, Michael D. Mack

Master's Theses

Goal setting and supervisory feedback were examined to determine their relative effects on the performance of direct care staff. The performance of five staff from a day treatment program for developmentally disabled adults was measured. The specific performance measure of interest was staff implementation rates of daily training programs with clients. The results demonstrated that adding performance feedback to goal setting had minimal impact on staff performance. Yet, goal setting alone as an initial technique was effective in improving the performance of staff. Unfortunately, the long-term effects of goal setting alone may be less desirable than these initial data indicate ...


Cocaine And Timing: Drug Effects Under A Mixed Fixed-Interval Extinction Schedule, Vincent O. Hodge Aug 1991

Cocaine And Timing: Drug Effects Under A Mixed Fixed-Interval Extinction Schedule, Vincent O. Hodge

Master's Theses

The effects of cocaine hydrochloride (3.2-56.2 mg/kg) were determined in rats performing under a mixed fixed-interval 60-seconds extinction 120-seconds schedule of food delivery. Responses were recorded in successive 5-second bins. With the exception of the highest dose (56.2 mg/kg), cocaine did not significantly affect rate of responding under the fixed-interval component or extinction component, or the time of peak responding under the extinction component. The highest dose significantly reduced response rates and shifted the time of peak responding leftward to quicker and earlier moments. Results are discussed in terms of possible rate- and time-dependent effects ...


Repeated Acquisition With Developmentally Disabled Adults: Some Methodological Improvements, Thomas M. Rueber Aug 1991

Repeated Acquisition With Developmentally Disabled Adults: Some Methodological Improvements, Thomas M. Rueber

Master's Theses

This study obtained repeated-acquisition data from four developmentally disabled adults. The procedure was a refinement of one used earlier by Madsen (1988) and a comparison was made between the two. Verbal praise, edibles, and money were used to reinforce correct responding. In addition, an informal comparison was made between individual repeated-acquisition performance and IQ scores. The refinements of the Madsen procedure included: (1) using a 10-second timeout as the consequence of an error, (2) placing poker chips in die-cut holes, (3) using different colored construction paper backgrounds, (4) limiting each session to one sequence, (5) using percent correct responses as ...


Behavioral Consultation As A Process For Linking The Assessment And Treatment Of Social Skills, Susan M. Sheridan, Stephen N. Elliott Apr 1991

Behavioral Consultation As A Process For Linking The Assessment And Treatment Of Social Skills, Susan M. Sheridan, Stephen N. Elliott

Educational Psychology Papers and Publications

There has been recent interest in social skills assessment and treatment among researchers and practitioners. The research bases in these areas are expanding rapidly, and the identification of valid assessment methods and effective intervention strategies is promising. However, few researchers have identified ways in which social skills assessment and intervention can be linked in a practical manner. Likewise, the process by which services are delivered is rarely addressed. The purpose of this article is to present a model by which the interaction between social skills assessment and intervention can be enhanced, with a focus on the problem-solving process. One effective ...


The Halo Effect And Self-Fulfilling Prophecy In The Classroom: A Study Of Teachers' Influence On The Intellectual Development Of Physically Unattractive Students, Trena Minudri Apr 1991

The Halo Effect And Self-Fulfilling Prophecy In The Classroom: A Study Of Teachers' Influence On The Intellectual Development Of Physically Unattractive Students, Trena Minudri

Communication Studies Undergraduate Theses

The role students' attractiveness plays in teachers' perceptions and attitudes was first discovered by Dion in the early 1970's. The educational arena, already torn by evidence of discrimination by race and gender, was now faced with yet another controversy. The possibility of children being disadvantaged in the classroom because they lacked personal beauty instilled fear and curiosity in the minds of educators, psychologists and parents. This fear lead to two decades of research, with even more controversial findings. This study synthesizes literature from the late 1960's to the late 1980's in the disciplines of educational, social, and ...


Activity Between Supervisors And Supervisees Outside Of Their Supervisory Sessions, Paul R. Ginter Apr 1991

Activity Between Supervisors And Supervisees Outside Of Their Supervisory Sessions, Paul R. Ginter

Dissertations

The present study explores non-sexual activities between supervisors and supervisees outside the context of psychotherapy supervision. The two general questions posed in this study are (1) what is the nature of non-sexual activity between supervisors and supervisees outside of supervision, and (2 ) what is the perceived impact (if any) on the supervision process?

Questionnaires were distributed to matched pairs of supervisory dyads at APA-approved predoctoral internship sites. The two types of internships included in the study were counseling centers at universities, and psychiatric hospitals. Sixty-six supervisory dyads were included in the analysis, selected from 152 returned questionnaires. The respondents represented ...


A Comparison Of Functional Equivalence Training And Timeout Procedures In The Reduction Of Disruptive Behavior, Steven D . Goodman Apr 1991

A Comparison Of Functional Equivalence Training And Timeout Procedures In The Reduction Of Disruptive Behavior, Steven D . Goodman

Master's Theses

The use of nonaversive or aversive procedures continues to be debated regarding treatment of behavior problems of persons with developmental disabilities. This study compared the efficacy of a punishment and a nonaversive procedure in the reduction of problem behavior. The nonaversive technique involved the teaching of alternative, functionally equivalent, responses. Timeout was employed as the punishment procedure. The functional equivalence training included a functional analysis to identify the motivating conditions for the disruptive behavior of three boys with severe mental retardation. Treatment conditions were evaluated on rate of disruption, effects on learning trials, and time engaged in training. Results indicate ...


A Contribution To Cross-Cultural Child Development Research. Review Of Gustav Jahoda And I.M. Lewis (Eds.), Acquiring Culture: Cross Cultural Studies In Child Development, Daniel A. Wagner, Laurel Diana Puchner Jan 1991

A Contribution To Cross-Cultural Child Development Research. Review Of Gustav Jahoda And I.M. Lewis (Eds.), Acquiring Culture: Cross Cultural Studies In Child Development, Daniel A. Wagner, Laurel Diana Puchner

Journal Articles (Literacy.org)

The field now termed cultural psychology has begun to take on more importance in theories of child development and psychology as we have come to better understand the Eurocentric bias of Western science. However, cross-cultural studies that combine both psychological and anthropological methods are still rare. This book attempts to show the value of such a combined approach to research in child development.


On Being An Adolescent In Zawiya. Review Of Susan S. Davis And Douglas A. Davis, Adolescence In A Moroccan Towan: Making Social Sense, Daniel A. Wagner, Laurel Diana Puchner Jan 1991

On Being An Adolescent In Zawiya. Review Of Susan S. Davis And Douglas A. Davis, Adolescence In A Moroccan Towan: Making Social Sense, Daniel A. Wagner, Laurel Diana Puchner

Journal Articles (Literacy.org)

Although adolescence is a well-accepted stage of life in Western society, the issue of whether it exists as a separate life stage in all cultures remains an open and important question. As part of the cross-cultural Harvard Adolescence Project directed by Beatrice and John Whiting, this book is an assessment of traditional concepts of adolescence in Morocco. Based on 11 months of intensive fieldwork, as well as multiple years of work in the same village, the authors used ethnographic observation, interviews, and psychological testing to collect a wide array of data on about 50 families including 150 children in the ...


School Psychology At The University Of Utah, William R. Jenson, Elaine Clark, Susan M. Sheridan, Howard N. Sloane, Thomas J. Kehle Jan 1991

School Psychology At The University Of Utah, William R. Jenson, Elaine Clark, Susan M. Sheridan, Howard N. Sloane, Thomas J. Kehle

Educational Psychology Papers and Publications

The article describes the history of the school psychology program at the University of Utah from 1978, and discusses responsibilities of a school psychologist: utilizing and disseminating the knowledge base of psychology in educational problem solving; operating from a scientist-practitioner model, wherein practices prescribed are based on research-validated procedures and a sound theoretical framework. School psychologists are generalists and specialists and function as researchers, diagnosticians, interventionists, assessors, consultants, and advocates for children. Professionally, school psychologists are identified with the overarching goals of enhancing the academic, social, and emotional well-being of students.


Universals, Necessities, And Social Contexts, David Moshman Jan 1991

Universals, Necessities, And Social Contexts, David Moshman

Educational Psychology Papers and Publications

Elbers* does an excellent job of integrating, analyzing, and extending recent theoretical and empirical work concerning the relation of learning and development. The purpose of this commentary is to challenge Elbers to address the difficult question of universal sequences in human development. In order to focus the issue, a specific sequence in the development of logical reasoning is proposed.


A Longitudinal Study Of College Students' Attitudes Toward Suicide, Richard Allen Stevens Jr. Jan 1991

A Longitudinal Study Of College Students' Attitudes Toward Suicide, Richard Allen Stevens Jr.

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Self-Efficacy And Expectancy-Value Influences On University Students' Selection Of Scientific Majors And Careers , Julie Madison Corkery Jan 1991

Self-Efficacy And Expectancy-Value Influences On University Students' Selection Of Scientific Majors And Careers , Julie Madison Corkery

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The study was an investigation of the influences of mathematics achievement, mathematics self-efficacy, and life-styles orientation on university students' career choices. The first group of 249 subjects rated 83 occupations representing Holland's six general occupational themes for their compatibility with meeting leisure and relationship needs both inside and outside the job. The second group of 241 subjects identified the college major and occupation they were considering most and completed the Mathematics Self-Efficacy Scale (MSE) (Betz & Hackett, 1982) and the Life-styles Inventory - Relationship scale (LSI) (Epperson, Lucas, & Zytowski, 1983). They rated the extent of consideration they give to entering 83 occupations representing Holland's six themes. American College Tests - Mathematics (ACT-Math) scores were accessed for 166 of these subjects;Results of the first study confirmed that the three gender-stereotyped Holland themes of particular interest received relationship-compatibility ratings in descending order: Social, Investigative, and ...


Mother-Father-Child Play: Investigations Of Preschoolers' Home Play Behavior, Parental Involvement And Home Environment , Chittinun Tejagupta Jan 1991

Mother-Father-Child Play: Investigations Of Preschoolers' Home Play Behavior, Parental Involvement And Home Environment , Chittinun Tejagupta

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Relatively few studies have documented the nature of mother-father-child play interactions at home, especially during the preschool years. Based on the ecological approach regarding the relationship of play behavior as a function of the playing child and the play environment (Darvill, 1982), this study investigated the play of 48 3- and 5-year-old boys and girls with their parents in their home. The mother-father-child play was videotaped for 10 minutes and later coded for child's social-cognitive play behaviors and the parental involvement of mother and father. Quality of home environment was measured using the HOME Inventory scale (preschool version);Differences ...


Guided Instruction With Logo Programming And The Development Of Cognitive Monitoring Strategies Among College Students , Mi Ok Cho Lee Jan 1991

Guided Instruction With Logo Programming And The Development Of Cognitive Monitoring Strategies Among College Students , Mi Ok Cho Lee

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

As our society changes and becomes more complex, and as new knowledge and technology emerge, the need for teaching students to be independent thinkers and problem solvers increases more rapidly than ever before. Responding to the ever increasing societal demands, educators have sought for proper learning tools and methodologies to improve students' higher-order thinking and problem solving skills. In particular, cognitive monitoring has been a primary concern of educators and cognitive psychologists. Cognitive monitoring has been regarded as one of the most important strategies in efficient thinking and problem solving. Logo programming has been considered a powerful tool to help ...


Predicting Educational And Occupational Attainment Among Male And Female Teacher Education Students: An Examination Of High School Extracurricular Participation And Other Selected Characteristics , Alyce Ann Holland Jan 1991

Predicting Educational And Occupational Attainment Among Male And Female Teacher Education Students: An Examination Of High School Extracurricular Participation And Other Selected Characteristics , Alyce Ann Holland

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The current study had two components: Study 1 and Study 2. The purpose of Study 1 was to examine variables that predict graduation from the Iowa State University Teacher Education Program among 2,008 prospective teacher education students who were enrolled in a beginning education course. The analyses were conducted separately for male and female students;College grade point average when enrolled in a beginning education course was the strongest predictor of graduation in teacher education for both male and female students. For females, the three best predictors of graduation in teacher education following college grades, were participation in teacher ...


Assessing Moral Reasoning And Career Decision-Making Among Intellectually Precocious Youth , Cheryl E. Wiles Sanders Jan 1991

Assessing Moral Reasoning And Career Decision-Making Among Intellectually Precocious Youth , Cheryl E. Wiles Sanders

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Two separate research projects were conducted to investigate the moral reasoning and career decision-making of intellectually precocious youth. Moral reasoning was examined among 523 highly gifted youth. Two studies were conducted, with Study 2 serving as a replication of Study 1. Results obtained from the Defining Issues Test (DIT), a test purporting to measure moral reasoning, revealed that gifted individuals earned significantly higher moral reasoning scores than did their average ability peers; they also scored higher than college freshmen, 4 to 5 years older. Also examined among the highly gifted were possible correlates of principled moral reasoning: ability (SAT-M, SAT-V ...


The Reduction Of Computer Anxiety: Its Relation To Relaxation Training, Previous Computer Training, Achievement And Need For Cognition , Matthew M. Maurer Jan 1991

The Reduction Of Computer Anxiety: Its Relation To Relaxation Training, Previous Computer Training, Achievement And Need For Cognition , Matthew M. Maurer

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study examined computer anxiety and its relationship to four areas: computer literacy training, relaxation exercises, achievement and the personality variable "need for cognition." Subjects were college students in a semester long computer literacy course that was part of a teacher preparation program. Computer anxiety was measured using the Computer Anxiety Index (CAIN). The CAIN was taken by students at three times in the semester, at the beginning of the course, after six weeks, and at the end of the course. Need for cognition was measured using the Need for Cognition Scale and it was taken by students during the ...


Eating And Exercising: Nebraska Adolescents' Attitudes And Behaviors, Ian Newman Jan 1991

Eating And Exercising: Nebraska Adolescents' Attitudes And Behaviors, Ian Newman

Educational Psychology Papers and Publications

Prevention Center Papers are occasional publications of the Nebraska Prevention Center for Alcohol and Drug Abuse. Their purpose is to make available information that would not otherwise be easily accessible.

This Prevention Center Paper should be considered a working document and does not reflect the official policy or position of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, The U.S. Centers for Disease Control, the Nebraska Department of Education, or Health Education, Inc.

Prevention Center Papers are produced for a limited readership to stimulate discussion and generate a flow of communication between the Prevention Center and those interested in the broad field of ...


Coping With Siblings And Peers: How College Students Deal With Stress On Interpersonal And Individual Bases, Deborah J. Kennerson Jan 1991

Coping With Siblings And Peers: How College Students Deal With Stress On Interpersonal And Individual Bases, Deborah J. Kennerson

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.


The Utility Of A Computerized Assessment Battery To Evaluate Cognitive Functioning And Attention, Carl Richard Ellis Jan 1991

The Utility Of A Computerized Assessment Battery To Evaluate Cognitive Functioning And Attention, Carl Richard Ellis

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

In recent years much attention has been given to the application of computer technology to psychometric methods, but researchers have concentrated on adapting traditional methods of psychological testing to the new technology instead of utilizing it to develop innovative methods of assessment. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a computerized assessment battery designed to evaluate cognitive functioning and attention could demonstrate reliability and validity. The Computerized Cognitive Assessment Battery (CCAB) was developed according to the PASS Model of Cognitive Functioning and administered via a Macintosh computer and test results included response style variables (mouse movement and response ...


Siblings Of Elementary Gifted Students: The Sibling Relationship, Self-Concept And Classroom Behavior, Karen Elizabeth Poe West Jan 1991

Siblings Of Elementary Gifted Students: The Sibling Relationship, Self-Concept And Classroom Behavior, Karen Elizabeth Poe West

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

This study was undertaken for the purpose of determining if the siblings of gifted elementary students differ significantly from siblings of non-gifted elementary students in sibling affection, self-concept, or observable classroom behavior; and to investigate the relationship between sibling affection and self-concept, sibling affection and observable classroom behavior, and self-concept and observable classroom behavior.;The sample was selected from a large, urban school district located in the Mid-South. Thirty-eight pairs of siblings were selected from two-sibling families in which both children were enrolled in grades 3 through 6. Group 1 (Gifted/Siblings) consisted of first-born children who were state certified ...


Effectiveness Of Training Peer Tutors To Scaffold Instruction, Judith L. Macvicar Jan 1991

Effectiveness Of Training Peer Tutors To Scaffold Instruction, Judith L. Macvicar

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

The present study examined the effects of training child-tutors to scaffold instruction. Scaffolding is a metaphorical structure which teachers implement to provide temporary support aiding children to learn new skills. Grade seven and eight tutors were taught to apply the contingent shift rule (the CS rule) of giving more support when their grade five tutees failed and less support when tutees succeeded. Tutors were randomly assigned to one of three training groups: (1) an experimental group trained to use the CS rule, (2) a control group trained to consistently use moderate levels of support and (3) a control group given ...


The Quality Of Student Life At Wilfrid Laurier University: Recommendations For Change (Ontario), Marie Molloy Jan 1991

The Quality Of Student Life At Wilfrid Laurier University: Recommendations For Change (Ontario), Marie Molloy

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Three methods were employed to obtain information related to the quality of student life at Wilfrid Laurier University (WLU) in Waterloo, Ontario: (1) a quantitative Survey, (2) a qualitative Focus Group, and (3) Follow-up interviews. The research was guided by an action-oriented approach and followed a process- consultation model in which students, managers and administrators were interviewed and consulted for their recommendations on how the quality of student life at Laurier could be enhanced. Based on the knowledge gained from the survey and interview data, a working group, The WLU Quality of Student Life (QSL) Committee, compiled and presented a ...


An Investigation Of The Effects Of Breach Of Confidentiality Of Adolescents' Level Of Trust, Carolyn Bosta Warrick Jan 1991

An Investigation Of The Effects Of Breach Of Confidentiality Of Adolescents' Level Of Trust, Carolyn Bosta Warrick

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of breach of confidentiality on adolescents' level of trust using a pretest/posttest control group experimental design. The study used a normal population of eighth grade middle school students enrolled in average regular education classes in the Hampton Public School System. The initial sample consisted of 162 students (123 of which completed the entire study), designated as high or low trusters based on their scores on Rotter's Interpersonal Trust Scale, who were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups, and the groups randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment ...


An Investigation Of The Effects Of Personal Mastery Counseling On Goal Attainment, Self-Concept, Locus-Of-Control, And Behavior Ratings Of Junior High School Students, Lawrence Edward Sutton Jan 1991

An Investigation Of The Effects Of Personal Mastery Counseling On Goal Attainment, Self-Concept, Locus-Of-Control, And Behavior Ratings Of Junior High School Students, Lawrence Edward Sutton

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

This study focused on the effectiveness of Personal Mastery Counseling (PMC), a small-group cognitive-behavioral approach to counseling. Thirty 7th grade male volunteers were assigned, 10 subjects per group, to a PMC group, a bibliotherapy group, or a No-Treatment Control group. The PMC group participated in ten 55-minute counseling sessions. The PMC group leader helped the subjects identify and eliminate self-defeating behaviors by teaching them how to set behavioral goals, accept personal responsibility, practice new behaviors, and monitor improvement. The bibliotherapy group participated in ten 55-minute sessions with assigned readings and discussions on eliminating self-defeating behaviors and improving self-concept. The No-Treatment ...


Effects Of A Cognitive-Behavioral Program Designed To Increase The Reading Comprehension Skills Of Learning-Disabled Students, Jane Pindar Reilly Jan 1991

Effects Of A Cognitive-Behavioral Program Designed To Increase The Reading Comprehension Skills Of Learning-Disabled Students, Jane Pindar Reilly

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral approach to reading comprehension instruction. An important component of the intervention was a training course for teachers designed to communicate a conceptual framework for understanding the comprehension deficits of learning disabled (LD) children.;The sample included 39 elementary and middle school students who were identified as learning disabled. Intact classes were assigned to the treatment or control group. The nonequivalent control-group design was used, and data was examined using analysis of covariance. Dependent variables were reading comprehension as measured by the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests and locus of ...


Efficacy Of Self-Instructional Training In The Management Of Test Anxiety: A Primary Prevention Model, Rita Schreyer Wagner Jan 1991

Efficacy Of Self-Instructional Training In The Management Of Test Anxiety: A Primary Prevention Model, Rita Schreyer Wagner

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a program of self-instructional training, presented as part of the regular classroom guidance curriculum, in the reduction of test anxiety and improvement of test performance in third grade children.;The sample consisted of 88 third grade students enrolled in regular education in an elementary school. Intact classes were randomly assigned to treatment and control groups. A nonequivalent control group research design was used. Dependent variables were test anxiety, academic achievement, and test performance and were measured by the Test Anxiety Scale for Children, the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement ...


The Personal Motivation System Of Hispanic Female Students As Measured By The Picture Identification Test, Martha Lazcano Muguira Jan 1991

The Personal Motivation System Of Hispanic Female Students As Measured By The Picture Identification Test, Martha Lazcano Muguira

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

This study explored the qualities that distinguished a select group of college freshmen women (National Hispanic Scholars) from a general sample of Hispanic women as assessed by the PIT (Picture Identification Test) a semi-projective systems-oriented instrument that measures motivation (Chambers, 1988). The PIT was mailed to 496 Women Scholars, and administered to self-identified Hispanic freshmen women who attended four universities in the United States for the first time in the Fall of 1990. Results were based on the responses of 99 Ss (Select Group), and 57 Ss (Regular Group) who completed the PIT and fulfilled the criteria.;The specific hypothesis ...