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Full-Text Articles in Education

Alcohol Use And Drinking-Related Eating Restriction Behaviors Among College Students, Peter Preonas Aug 2020

Alcohol Use And Drinking-Related Eating Restriction Behaviors Among College Students, Peter Preonas

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

The combination of eating restrictions and alcohol use is a prevalent problem on college campuses. Some students engage in eating restrictions prior to drinking to limit their overall caloric intake or to enhance intoxication effects. To date, limited research suggests that drinking-related eating restriction behaviors are associated with additional and unique health risks relative to high-risk drinking or eating restrictions alone. As such, additional research examining this unique, risky set of behaviors is warranted. Consequently, the present study aimed to address gaps in the literature by further examining the risks associated with drinking-related eating restrictions and testing trait factors related ...


Mindfulness And Its Impact On Adaptive Coping And Psychological Well-Being: An Intervention For Undergraduate Students, Charles Bradley Freligh Aug 2020

Mindfulness And Its Impact On Adaptive Coping And Psychological Well-Being: An Intervention For Undergraduate Students, Charles Bradley Freligh

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

The concept of mindfulness has been shown to positively impact psychological well-being, and one application of mindfulness-based interventions has been the development and implementation of courses specifically for college students, a population that has been shown to be particularly vulnerable to the negative impacts of stress. While these interventions have displayed beneficial outcomes, the mechanisms of how mindfulness exerts its impact remain unclear. One potential mechanism of mindfulness’ enhancement of well-being may be through its cultivation of an adaptive coping style in which an individual becomes more likely to approach and investigate stressors rather than avoid them. In this study ...


Incivility As A Barrier To Embeddedness Among Engineering Students: Does Gender Matter?, Katelyn R. Reynoldson Apr 2018

Incivility As A Barrier To Embeddedness Among Engineering Students: Does Gender Matter?, Katelyn R. Reynoldson

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

To meet the current demand for engineers, research has focused on how to attract and retain qualified candidates in the field, especially those that are underrepresented (e.g., women; NSB, 2016). The present study investigates incivility and embeddedness, which have been found to be antecedents of retention in both the workplace (Cortina, Magley, Williams, & Langhout, 2001; Mitchell, Holtom, Lee, Sablynski, & Erez, 2001) and the collegiate setting (Caza & Cortina, 2007; Major et al., 2015). To extend previous research, both constructs were examined simultaneously among undergraduate engineering students. Undergraduate, first-year engineers completed an online survey indicating the extent to which they experienced incivility in engineering, the primary source of the uncivil treatment, and ...


The Impact Of Trainee Characteristics On Transfer Of Training Over Time, Kristina N. Bauer Jul 2013

The Impact Of Trainee Characteristics On Transfer Of Training Over Time, Kristina N. Bauer

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Given that organizations invest a considerable amount of time and money into the training and development function, it is imperative that trainees transfer the learned material back to the job and continue to use the knowledge/skills. Yet, most studies have not assessed the transfer process over time (i.e., maintenance). Based on the lack of empirical investigation of maintenance, the current study had two goals: (1) to identify which factors are most important for skill maintenance (2) to identify when factors are most important to skill maintenance. To these ends, a model was developed and tested that examines the ...


Relationships Between Religious Orientation And Academic Attitudes, Lauren Everitt Jul 2011

Relationships Between Religious Orientation And Academic Attitudes, Lauren Everitt

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

The goal of this study was to examine whether there is an underlying consistency between college students' approaches to religion and their approaches to higher education. A sample of 234 undergraduate students completed the Religious Life Inventory (Batson, Schoenrade, & Ventis, 1993), which assesses orientation to religion, and the Academic Attitude Scale (Wong, 1998), which identifies factors that motivate students to pursue higher education. The three dimensions (Means, End, and Quest) extracted from the Religious Life Inventory were compared to the six subscales (Intrinsic, Instrumental, Personal Development, External Pressure, Social Interest, No Better Option) of the Academic Attitude Scale to determine ...


Understanding The Relationship Between Peer Mentoring And Undergraduate Capitalization, Jonathan M. Holland Apr 2010

Understanding The Relationship Between Peer Mentoring And Undergraduate Capitalization, Jonathan M. Holland

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Research has demonstrated the importance of various forms of mentoring across multiple contexts. However, the topic of informal peer mentors has not been sufficiently explored. This study investigated the role of peer mentors in encouraging participation in voluntary development activities (i.e., capitalization). An online survey was completed by 288 undergraduate students. As hypothesized, mentoring was positively related to high levels of participation in capitalization activities and intentions to mentor in the future, and capitalization participation was positively related to higher levels of student satisfaction, continuance commitment, and career involvement. Contrary to expectations, capitalization participation was not significantly related to ...


Test Anxiety And Other Factors As Predictors Of Outcome For An Undergraduate University's Examination Of Writing Competency, Carrie D. Smith Jul 2009

Test Anxiety And Other Factors As Predictors Of Outcome For An Undergraduate University's Examination Of Writing Competency, Carrie D. Smith

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Testing in American schools has increased dramatically in recent years (Cizek & Burg, 2006), increasing the need for research in test anxiety (TA). Writing apprehension, a subcategory of TA, may be of particular concern among students at all levels of education given the recent addition of writing assessments on the SAT and GRE tests.

Very few recent studies have examined demographic correlates of TA and the demographics of students in higher education have been changing for some time. These changes include an increase in all categories of nontraditional students. Nontraditional students, by definition, face a particular set of challenges in attending college. They tend to have significant family responsibilities, work and/or other obligations beyond those of traditional students (Ryan, 2003), leaving less time and energy to focus on academics. The research findings on age trends have been variable. However, some research shows a slight decline in the prevalence of TA in the college years (Hembree, 1988; Zeidner, 1998). Early studies have shown that African American students, in general, show higher levels of TA than Caucasian students (Payne, Smith, & Payne, 1983; Rhine & Spaner, 1983).

There is minimal research that examines TA specifically for writing exams, or writing apprehension. Earlier studies found that writing apprehension is highly negatively correlated with performance on writing competency assessments and general essays (Daly, 1978; Faigley, Daly, & White, 1981). Given this, it is important to consider the factors that impact writing competency. Graham and Harris (2000) noted much support in the literature for the impact of transcription, or handwriting abilities, on writing competency but also point to self-regulation as another key factor in writing competency. They observed that skilled writers tend to have better self-regulation skills than less skilled writers. In ...


A Model Of Responses To Race-Based And Gender-Based Stereotype Threat In Computer Science, Lara Tedrow Jan 2009

A Model Of Responses To Race-Based And Gender-Based Stereotype Threat In Computer Science, Lara Tedrow

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

The perception of stereotype threat among computer science students was examined at two universities. A model of stereotype threat was developed and tested among students enrolled in three undergraduate computer science courses at two universities. The goal of this model was to provide an understanding of the underlying mechanisms through which stereotype threat works.

The study tested relationships among the following variables: race-based stereotype threat, gender-based stereotype threat, goal orientation, CS self-efficacy, active coping, behavioral disengagement, effort, and performance. Structural equation modeling was used to test the measurement model and a series of nested structural models. Findings supported the proposed ...


Achievement Motivation In African American College Students, April Michelle Muldrow Oct 2008

Achievement Motivation In African American College Students, April Michelle Muldrow

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

This study investigated the relationship between academic performance and stereotype threat (ST), achievement motivation, and racial socialization for African American (AA) students at an historically black university. Participants were 108 students randomly assigned to high or low ST condition. Students completed a performance measure, Noncognitive Questionnaire (NCQ), and Teenager Experience of Racial Socialization Scale (TERS) (Sedlacek, 2004; Stevenson et al., 2002). Results indicated that performance was not dependent upon threat, p = .63. Appreciation of AA culture was negatively associated with performance, p = .05. Drive toward academic self-development was positively related to performance, p = .05. Limitations and implications are discussed.


Motivation And Performance In Computer Science: Test Of An Integrative Theory, Katherine A. Selgrade Jul 2007

Motivation And Performance In Computer Science: Test Of An Integrative Theory, Katherine A. Selgrade

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to design and empirically test a parsimonious integrative motivation theory. The theory integrates aspects of expectancy theory, social cognitive theory, goal-setting theory, and commitment theory. The theory was tested with 170 undergraduate, students in an introductory computer science (CS) course.

The study tested relationships among the following variables: CS self-efficacy, mathematics ability, affective commitment to the CS class, goal orientation, effort, and performance. The study also tested the interactive effects of effort and ability on performance. Structural equation modeling was used to test the measurement model and a series of nested structural models. Findings ...


Teacher Factors That Influence Student Achievement: A Study Of Third And Fifth Grade Teachers, Jewelle L. Harmon Jul 2006

Teacher Factors That Influence Student Achievement: A Study Of Third And Fifth Grade Teachers, Jewelle L. Harmon

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Student achievement is of the highest concern for the government, educational administrators and parents. Researchers have looked at several possible student factors that affect student achievement. However, very little research has been done on teacher factors and their relationship with student achievement. The current study looked at the relationships among teacher absence, teacher job satisfaction, work-family conflict, family/work conflict, teachers' attitudes towards achievement measures, and their correlation with Virginia's standardized measure of student achievement; the Standards of Learning (SOLs). District differences in student achievement were also examined. Three school districts in southeastern Virginia accepted the invitation to ...


Social Support, Prior Interracial Experiences, And Network Orientation: Factors Related To Later Adjustment Among Black Freshmen At A Predominantly White University, Calvin Graham Jan 1997

Social Support, Prior Interracial Experiences, And Network Orientation: Factors Related To Later Adjustment Among Black Freshmen At A Predominantly White University, Calvin Graham

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

African-American students (mostly Freshmen) enrolled for the first year at a four-year university completed information about the racial composition of their high school, family income, living arrangements, and stressor prior to entering school. At two times during the first semester they completed measures of social support, network orientation and adaptation to college. Information about Grade Point Average (GPA) for the following term and attendance at the University one year later were also obtained. Racial composition of high school had some affect on social support at the university: Students from integrated and mainly Black high schools reported more social support satisfaction ...


Gender Differences In The Relation Between Locus Of Control And Physiological Responses, Monique C. Grelot Jan 1989

Gender Differences In The Relation Between Locus Of Control And Physiological Responses, Monique C. Grelot

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

The relationship between locus of control and the physiological responses of heart rate (HR) and electrodermal activity (EDA) was investigated in 30 males and 31 females during an arithmetic task. The Levenson's Internal, Powerful Others and Chance (IPC) scales (Levenson, 1974) were used to assess the various degrees of internality for each subject. Additionally, to determine each subject's physiological Lability or Stability (LS), EDA was measured by recording spontaneous skin conductance responses during a ten minute rest period and to a tone (an Orienting Response (OR) task). A simple difficulty effect was found on the performance scores across ...


Category Test And Wais Scores: Sex And Age Inter-Relationships, Julia Ann Shelton Jul 1987

Category Test And Wais Scores: Sex And Age Inter-Relationships, Julia Ann Shelton

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

The current study investigated sex and age differences on the WAIS and Category Test in a sample of 218 persons, half male and half female, between the ages of 16 and 39. The sample was composed of well educated diabetics without neurological symptomatology and of above average intelligence.

Three types of statistical analyses were performed. The first of these were factor analyses of structural composition of WAIS and Category tests as influenced by sex. Results suggested that males and females exhibit different patterns of performance. The second analyses were regression analyses to predict Category Test performance from WAIS scores and ...


A Study Of The Robustness Of The Three-Parameter Item Response Model, James B. Flynn Jan 1984

A Study Of The Robustness Of The Three-Parameter Item Response Model, James B. Flynn

Psychology Theses & Dissertations

Simulation techniques were employed to investigate the use of the three-parameter item response model on psychological test data which violated the model's assumptions of large sample sizes, long tests and test unidimensionality. The accuracy of the person ability and item characteristic curve parameter estimates derived by the three-parameter item response model was evaluated. Data sets and distributions of person ability and item characteristic curve parameters were generated using a computer-based algorithm, AVRAM (Ree, 1980), which employs the three-parameter logistic probability equation described by Birnbaum (1968). A computer software package, LOGIST5 (Wingersky, Burton & Lord, 1982), which utilizes the three-parameter logistic probability equation, was used to derive the parameter estimates for the person response and the item characteristic curves.

The present study based its analyses on the unedited person-item data matrix. As such, the findings are somewhat inconsistent with those reported by studies employing an edited data matrix (e.g., Ree, 1979). However, these findings are much more consistent with the types of test situations likely to occur in industrial-organizational research, where the focus of research will be the evaluation of differences in individual and group test scores as opposed to the design and construction of tests.

The results showed that the item discrimination, ai, and lower asymptote, ci, parameters of the item characteristic curve were both accurately recovered when small sample sizes and short tests were used, and conditions of item bias existed. The person ability parameter, Bv was also accurately recovered. The recovery of bi, the item difficulty parameter, was most affected. The average absolute differences and root-mean-square errors obtained on bi were extremely large relative to those obtained on ai and ci, as well as, those reported for bi elsewhere in the literature (Ree, 1979). Not only were the individual parameter estimates for bi not accurately recovered, but also, changes in the means of the distributions of bi were observed.

When the samples available for item analysis are comprised of less than 2,000 examinees, and conditions of item bias exist, the practitioner of industrial-organizational psychology should consider the following: (1) Use the three-parameter model, but proceed with caution; or (2) adopt an alternative item response ...