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Targeting Trauma: Improving School Outcomes For Students In Out-Of-Home Care, Anna Benton May 2019

Targeting Trauma: Improving School Outcomes For Students In Out-Of-Home Care, Anna Benton

Theses and Dissertations

The central purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of The Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools (CBITS; Jaycox, 2002) program as implemented with students residing in out-of-home care (OHC) placements in an urban public high school in the Midwest United States. Utilizing single-case design methodology, CBITS was implemented. Six students (three in the treatment group and three in the waitlist control group) participated in this study, alongside their classroom teachers and parents/guardians. Three key school outcomes were assessed: traumatic stress symptomology, problematic classroom behaviors, and academic disengagement.

Screening results suggested that rates of exposure to ...


Dominant Leadership Dynamics Of School Administrators Leading Non-Instructional Personnel, Michael Ewton May 2019

Dominant Leadership Dynamics Of School Administrators Leading Non-Instructional Personnel, Michael Ewton

Theses and Dissertations

With the literature and many schools and school districts advocating for enhanced communication and engagement with parents, families, and the community at large, it is advisable that school-level administrators consider the manner in which they engage the non-instructional employees who serve their schools. This dissertation explores the dominant leadership dynamics experienced by high school principals responsible for supervising non-instructional support services and leading non-instructional operations personnel in their schools. Trained and expected to be instructional leaders, principals must still ensure their students receive the basic services necessary to maintain a safe and effective learning environment. Ensuring students receive the benefit ...


Social Emotional Learning Through Depression Education In A High School Setting, Antonette Minniti Mar 2019

Social Emotional Learning Through Depression Education In A High School Setting, Antonette Minniti

Theses and Dissertations

Education on depression is an important part of social emotional learning. Lacking emotion regulation skills tend to lead to larger problems, such as academic struggles, disconnect from peers, strife at home and trouble in interpersonal relationships. Research in depression education or educational programs connected to mental health literacy are minimal, especially at the high school level. The purpose of this research will focus on examining the impact of one depression education program, John Hopkins Hospital’s Adolescent Depression Awareness Program (ADAP). ADAP is a three-day program that informs students about the facts of depression, how it is treated, and what ...


Variable- And Person-Centered Approaches To Examining Construct-Relevant Multidimensionality In Writing Self-Efficacy, Morgan Debusk-Lane Jan 2019

Variable- And Person-Centered Approaches To Examining Construct-Relevant Multidimensionality In Writing Self-Efficacy, Morgan Debusk-Lane

Theses and Dissertations

Writing self-efficacy is a vital component to a students’ motivation and will to succeed towards writing. The measurement of writing self-efficacy over the past 40 years, despite its development, continues to largely be represented by Confirmatory Factor Analysis models that are limited due to their restricted item to factor constraints. These constraints, given prior literature and the theoretical understanding of self-efficacy, do not adequately model construct- relevant psychometric multidimensionality as a product of conceptual overlap or a hierarchical or general factor. Given this, the present study’s purpose was to examine the adapted Self-efficacy for Writing Scale (SEWS) for the ...


An Adaptation And Psychometric Evaluation Of The Teacher Attribution Measure For Early Elementary (Tam-Ee), Shannon L. Nemer Jan 2019

An Adaptation And Psychometric Evaluation Of The Teacher Attribution Measure For Early Elementary (Tam-Ee), Shannon L. Nemer

Theses and Dissertations

This study examined the reliability and validity of the Teacher Attribution Measure for Early Elementary (TAM-EE), a measure adapted from the Preschool Teaching Attributions (PTA) measure, to assess the challenging behavior attributions of early elementary teachers. Like the PTA, the TAM-EE uses a series of student-specific behavior scenarios as prompts for teachers who then rate statements aligned with dimensions of attribution theory on a 6-point scale. A sample of 41 teachers completed the TAM-EE on 79 students in grades K-3 screened for risk of emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). Teachers also completed reports of student behavior, self-efficacy, and perceptions of ...


Investigating Daily Writing Emotions, Attention Regulation, And Productivity: An Intensive Longitudinal Study, Eric Ekholm Jan 2019

Investigating Daily Writing Emotions, Attention Regulation, And Productivity: An Intensive Longitudinal Study, Eric Ekholm

Theses and Dissertations

Emotions pervade academic situations and influence the ways that learners think, behave, and achieve (Pekrun, 2006; Schutz & Lanehart, 2002). Writing may be a particularly emotion-laden activity, and especially so for students concentrating in fields that value writing production. However, very few studies have quantitatively investigated writers’ emotional experiences. The goal of the current study was to examine the writing-related emotions of graduate students enrolled in writing-intensive disciplines as well as how these emotions related to writers’ daily productivity and attention-regulation behaviors. To do so, the study employed a daily diary design (Gunthert & Wenze, 2012) in which participants completed brief daily ...


A Support Program For College Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Functioning Of Participants Versus Non-Participants And The Role Of Program-Sponsored Mentoring, Ayla Raven Mapes Dec 2018

A Support Program For College Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Functioning Of Participants Versus Non-Participants And The Role Of Program-Sponsored Mentoring, Ayla Raven Mapes

Theses and Dissertations

Increasingly more students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are attending college. In response, many colleges are now offering these students the extra support of an Autism Support Program (ASP), many of which include a mentoring component. This study is one of only a handful of attempts to examine these programs empirically. Using a small sample of college students who identified as having ASD, I compared participants and non-participants of a university ASP. An online survey was used to assess demographic characteristics and pre-college academic performance, as well as students’ functioning across the following domains: social, adaptive, academic, emotional, and having ...


Teacher Perception And Their Understanding Of Progress Monitoring Throughout A Longitudinal Assessment System, Rena A. Duewel Dec 2018

Teacher Perception And Their Understanding Of Progress Monitoring Throughout A Longitudinal Assessment System, Rena A. Duewel

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the phenomenon of teacher perception and their understanding of progress monitoring throughout a longitudinal assessment system. This monitoring of student progress is to enhance their academic skills in mathematics and provide necessary interventions for growth as measured on a longitudinal assessment system through fidelity of implementation of interventions processed through progress monitoring. Data was collected from participant responses through interviews, a demographic survey, and focus groups. Interview respondents participated in a closed-door, face-to-face interview. The survey was used to collect specific demographic data to provide a concise snapshot of each individual ...


Evaluating Mode Comparability In Early Elementary Grades, Ye Lin Dec 2018

Evaluating Mode Comparability In Early Elementary Grades, Ye Lin

Theses and Dissertations

With the widespread use of technology in the assessment field, many testing programs use both computer-based tests (CBTs) and paper-and-pencil tests (PPTs). Both the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing (AERA, APA, & NCME, 2014) and the International Guidelines on Computer-Based and Internet Delivered Testing (International Test Commission, 2005) have called for studies on the equivalence of scores from different modes to support the uses and interpretations of scores across modes. Studies of administration mode effects, however, are quite limited and have found mixed results in the early childhood literature. In addition, little research has focused on both construct comparability and ...


Learning On The Open Road: Examining The Effect Of Non-Sequential User Choice On Learning From Oers, Ethan Philip Valentine Dec 2018

Learning On The Open Road: Examining The Effect Of Non-Sequential User Choice On Learning From Oers, Ethan Philip Valentine

Theses and Dissertations

In recent decades, open, online learning environments have become progressively more popular and well-funded. An integral aspect of this open learning movement is the transition of a substantial amount of control of the learning process from designers and instructors to the users engaging with the environment. With heavy investments coming from both the public and private sectors, and an ever-growing market of online learners, it is crucial that we better understand how the provision of user control over the learning process affects the quality of that learning process.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of one ...


Academic Achievement Among High School Students With Adhd And Internalizing Symptoms And Their Response To A Multicomponent Treatment Intervention, Maria Elena Golden Aug 2018

Academic Achievement Among High School Students With Adhd And Internalizing Symptoms And Their Response To A Multicomponent Treatment Intervention, Maria Elena Golden

Theses and Dissertations

ADHD is a common disorder in youth, with core deficits that impair important areas of functioning, most notably academic achievement. Existing school-based interventions may not be as effective in improving long-term academic outcomes for adolescents with comorbid ADHD and internalizing disorders. The purpose of this study was to explore the association between ADHD and internalizing symptoms in adolescents and the impact of anxiety and depression symptom severity on their academic outcomes after engaging in a multicomponent school-based intervention (BEST Project). The BEST Project was implemented in several high schools, with 126 participants included in this study. All participants met DSM-5 ...


Effects Of A Mindfulness-Based Program On Children’S Social Skills, Problem Behavior, And Emotion Regulation, Jessica Bartley Willenbrink Aug 2018

Effects Of A Mindfulness-Based Program On Children’S Social Skills, Problem Behavior, And Emotion Regulation, Jessica Bartley Willenbrink

Theses and Dissertations

This quasi-experimental wait-list control study examined the effects of a mindfulness-based program on students in two open-enrollment public charter schools located in a mid-sized urban city. Participants (n=176) were 3rd through 6th grade students. Students were identified as 54% Hispanic/Latino, 39% African American, and 7% other (e.g., White, Asian, American Indian). Three classrooms at each school served as the treatment group, and three classrooms at each school served as the control group, for a total of 12 participating classrooms. Students and teachers reported on students’ social skills, problem behavior, emotion regulation, and mindfulness before and after the ...


Examining The Effectiveness Of An Online Suicide Prevention Gatekeeper Training, Kevin Joseph Yeates Aug 2018

Examining The Effectiveness Of An Online Suicide Prevention Gatekeeper Training, Kevin Joseph Yeates

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of the study was to identify the effectiveness of an online suicide prevention gatekeeper training at the University of Iowa compared to previous research, other gatekeeper trainings, and to assess differences between faculty and staff trainees. Participants were faculty, staff, and students at the University of Iowa that completed the Kognito College Students or the Kognito Faculty and Staff module. To determine the effectiveness, participants completed program evaluation surveys at pre-training, immediate post-training, and six-months after completion of the training. The surveys assessed four gatekeeper appraisal scales: Gatekeeper Knowledge and Beliefs, Gatekeeper Reluctance, Gatekeeper Self-Efficacy, and Gatekeeper Experiences ...


Psychopathy: Correlates Of The Mmpi-2-Rf And The Three-Factor Model Of Psychopathy, Katherine Achsah Lisa Hall Aug 2018

Psychopathy: Correlates Of The Mmpi-2-Rf And The Three-Factor Model Of Psychopathy, Katherine Achsah Lisa Hall

Theses and Dissertations

Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by antisocial deviance in the context of interpersonal and emotional detachment. The study of psychopathy in non-forensic samples is an area of growing interest, but one that is limited by the fact that most large-scale epidemiological studies, which collect a wealth of data that could further elucidate the phenotypic correlates, constructs, assessments, and etiologic mechanisms in psychopathy, typically do not include direct assessment of psychopathy construct or measurements. However, if facets of psychopathy could be predicted from other measures, such as broadband inventories of normal personality that are often administered in large-scale investigations, data ...


Ethical Considerations For The Information Age: A Qualitative Study Of Doctoral Psychology Trainees' Preparation And Decision Making For Technology Use, Samuel David Lustgarten Aug 2018

Ethical Considerations For The Information Age: A Qualitative Study Of Doctoral Psychology Trainees' Preparation And Decision Making For Technology Use, Samuel David Lustgarten

Theses and Dissertations

Psychologists now use and interact with a mélange of technology for client care, including (but not limited to) email (Delsignore et al., 2016; Eysenbach, 2000), text messaging (Bradley & Hendricks, 2009; Elhai & Frueh, 2016), electronic medical records (Harrison & Palacio, 2006; Steinfeld & Keyes, 2011), telemental health/televideo (Richardson, Frueh, Grubaugh, Egede, & Elhai, 2012), and digital assessments (Jellins, 2015; Pearson Education Inc., 2015b). Amidst this technological revolution, threats to ethical obligations and regulations exist that might hinder effective client care (Elhai & Hall, 2016b; Lustgarten, 2015; Lustgarten & Colbow, 2017). Literature suggests that individuals, organizations, companies, and government actors have targeted individuals and nations for their data (Elhai & Hall, 2016b; Greenwald, 2014; Lustgarten, 2015). Despite concerns for protecting client information, little is known about the education and training opportunities present in APA-accredited clinical and/or counseling psychology doctoral programs around technology competence. Researchers have recommended trainees receive technology training for use within psychotherapy (Colbow, 2013 ...


The Impact Of Sleep Hygiene And Daytime Sleepiness On Academic Functioning Among Adolescents With Adhd, Kristina Puzino Aug 2018

The Impact Of Sleep Hygiene And Daytime Sleepiness On Academic Functioning Among Adolescents With Adhd, Kristina Puzino

Theses and Dissertations

Adolescents with ADHD are likely to have poor sleep hygiene and experience heightened daytime sleepiness. Given that the combination of poor sleep hygiene and heightened daytime sleepiness is likely to result in functional impairment in school settings for healthy adolescents, it was hypothesized that adolescents with ADHD, who present with poor sleep hygiene and/or heightened daytime sleepiness, as well as educational difficulties, are an even more vulnerable population for experiencing academic impairment. The purpose of the current study was to better understand the role of daytime sleepiness in the association between sleep hygiene and academic functioning among high school ...


Investigating Friendship Qualities In High Ability Or Achieving, Typically-Developing, Adhd, And Twice-Exceptional Youth, Staci Fosenburg Aug 2018

Investigating Friendship Qualities In High Ability Or Achieving, Typically-Developing, Adhd, And Twice-Exceptional Youth, Staci Fosenburg

Theses and Dissertations

Current gaps in knowledge about twice-exceptional youth relative to those with only one exceptionality (e.g., high ability or ADHD) include how twice-exceptional students perceive their friendships (Foley Nicpon et al., 2010). Some researchers have found friendship qualities to be less positive for youth with ADHD (Humphrey et al., 2007), yet others have found friendships to be rated more positively by gifted youth (Field et al., 1998). The current investigation sought to determine how friendships are perceived by twice-exceptional youth compared to peers with ADHD or high ability or achievement, and those with average ability or achievement and no diagnosis ...


Community- Versus School-Based Mentoring Matches: Do Mentees’ Parents Differ In Family Risk, Perceived Support Or Reasons For A Mentor?, Meredith Sourk May 2018

Community- Versus School-Based Mentoring Matches: Do Mentees’ Parents Differ In Family Risk, Perceived Support Or Reasons For A Mentor?, Meredith Sourk

Theses and Dissertations

This study explores whether the parents or guardians of youth participating in community-based (CBM) and school-based (SBM) mentoring programs differ in their level of family stress, economic adversity and perceived social and community support. Participants were 131 parents of youth in either CBM (n = 79) or SBM (n = 52) programs sponsored by Big Brothers Big Sisters of Canada (BBBS-Canada). Parents completed an online survey that assessed demographic characteristics and involvement in BBBS-C programs. Additional measures assessed family stress, economic adversity, perceived support (interpersonal, community), and reasons for wanting a mentor. Parents of youth in CBM matches were less likely to ...


Simple Structure Mirt Equating For Multidimensional Tests, Stella Yun Kim May 2018

Simple Structure Mirt Equating For Multidimensional Tests, Stella Yun Kim

Theses and Dissertations

Equating is a statistical process used to accomplish score comparability so that the scores from the different test forms can be used interchangeably. One of the most widely used equating procedures is unidimensional item response theory (UIRT) equating, which requires a set of assumptions about the data structure. In particular, the essence of UIRT rests on the unidimensionality assumption, which requires that a test measures only a single ability. However, this assumption is not likely to be fulfilled for many real data such as mixed-format tests or tests composed of several content subdomains: failure to satisfy the assumption threatens the ...


Differences In Spatial Visualization Ability And Vividness Of Spatial Imagery Between People With And Without Aphantasia, Anita Crowder Jan 2018

Differences In Spatial Visualization Ability And Vividness Of Spatial Imagery Between People With And Without Aphantasia, Anita Crowder

Theses and Dissertations

Mathematics education researchers have examined the relationship between visualization and mathematics for decades (e.g., Arcavi, 2003; Bishop, 1991; Duval, 1999; Fennema & Tartre, 1985; Presmeg, 1986). Studies have linked spatial visualization ability, such as measured in mental rotation tasks, directly to mathematics self-efficacy (Pajares & Kranzler, 1995; Weckbacher & Okamoto, 2014), which in turn influences mathematics achievement (Casey, Nuttall, & Pezaris, 1997). With the important role that spatial visualization plays in learning mathematics, the recent identification of congenital aphantasia (Zeman, Dewar, & Della Sala, 2015), which is the lack of mental imagery ability, has raised new questions for mathematics education researchers. This study investigated the differences in mental ...


Secondary Student Information Literacy Self-Efficacy Vs. Performance, Jen Spisak Jan 2018

Secondary Student Information Literacy Self-Efficacy Vs. Performance, Jen Spisak

Theses and Dissertations

The amount of information in the world has grown exponentially in the last generation. Students often believe that growing up as digital natives means they have advanced information literacy skills. However, school librarians are not seeing evidence of this in their schools. The purpose of this study was to determine if secondary students overestimate their information literacy (IL) abilities, if relationships exist between IL self-efficacy and performance, and if grade level or self-efficacy level changes those relationships. To accomplish this, data were collected from two middle schools and three high schools from a total of 397 students in grades 6 ...


Academic Self-Concept And Master Adaptive Learning In First Year Medical Students: A Validation And Scale Construction Study, Jk Stringer Iv Jan 2018

Academic Self-Concept And Master Adaptive Learning In First Year Medical Students: A Validation And Scale Construction Study, Jk Stringer Iv

Theses and Dissertations

Students’ academic self-concepts (ASC) and their orientation towards self-regulated learning are important elements of success. Despite this fact, little work has been conducted exploring these areas medical students. Given the shifting priorities of medical education toward competency-based education and self-directed learning, the goals of this study were to validate an existing measure of ASC and to improve our measurement capabilities for understanding the Master Adaptive Learner (MAL). Evidence for validity and scale reliability was collected for the ASCS with this novel population and a range of motivational and self-regulative variables (Goal orientation, academic emotion regulation, and lifelong learning) were analyzed ...


Athletic And Academic Identity, Motivation And Success: An Examination Of Diii Student-Athletes, Savanna M. Love Jan 2018

Athletic And Academic Identity, Motivation And Success: An Examination Of Diii Student-Athletes, Savanna M. Love

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine athletic and academic identity and athletic and academic motivation in DIII student-athletes. An additional purpose of the study was to explore the extent to which identity and motivation variables could predict GPA. This study also qualitatively explored students’ perceptions of their success, identity and motivation. Using Expectancy-Value and Identity theories as a theoretical framework, participants (n = 358) were administered an online survey that included AAIS and SAMSAQ scales along with open-ended qualitative questions. Quantitative data were used to conduct confirmatory factor analyses, bivariate correlations, hierarchical multiple regression, and multivariate analyses of variance ...


Unpacking Students’ Writer Identity In The Transition From High School To College: A Mixed Methods Study, Marcie J. Walsh Jan 2018

Unpacking Students’ Writer Identity In The Transition From High School To College: A Mixed Methods Study, Marcie J. Walsh

Theses and Dissertations

Since the 1975 publication of Newsweek’s article asserting that “Johnny” can’t write, many have continued to support the claim that students graduating from American high schools and universities can’t write. This criticism has led many students to believe the problem lies exclusively with them. Efforts to improve students’ writing have had little effect, as reflected in continually concerning scores on the National Assessment of Educational Progress. Recently, researchers have begun to suggest that the problem should be addressed by working to change students’ identification as a bad writer. Two constructs have emerged from these efforts: writer and ...


Examining The Association Between Therapeutic Factors And Outcomes Of Academic Enhancement Seminars, Kristin G Wurster Jan 2018

Examining The Association Between Therapeutic Factors And Outcomes Of Academic Enhancement Seminars, Kristin G Wurster

Theses and Dissertations

Many colleges have devoted institutional resources to retention initiatives, particularly those targeting students who have been placed on academic probation, but assessment of academic enhancement courses for students on academic probation has generally been limited to correlational studies in which the entire intervention serves as the independent variable. This study, guided by that of Kivlighan et al. (2018), applied knowledge of therapeutic factors related to positive outcomes in group psychotherapy to academic enhancement seminars in order to determine whether the same factors might also be associated with positive outcomes, as measured by semester grade point average (GPA) and participants’ reported ...


Academic Motivation Profiles Of 10th Grade Students: Exploring A Relationship With Socioeconomic Level Using A Person Oriented Approach, Sandra Lynn Rogelberg Jan 2018

Academic Motivation Profiles Of 10th Grade Students: Exploring A Relationship With Socioeconomic Level Using A Person Oriented Approach, Sandra Lynn Rogelberg

Theses and Dissertations

Motivation is an important predictor of educational success, as is socioeconomic status. This study used Expectancy Value Theory (EVT) and a person oriented approach as the framework to explore how motivation profiles may be related to context, namely socioeconomic status (SES), and the roles these profiles have in predicting education outcomes. Five motivation variables: math self-efficacy, reading self-efficacy, control expectation, action control, and utility value (instrumentation motivation) were used in latent profile analysis to determine four latent motivation profiles from a national sample of 10,981 10th grade students using ELS:2002 data. Family income and education level (SES) were ...


Integrating Self-Determination And Expectancy-Value Theories In Examining The Achievement Of First-Generation College Students: A Latent Profile Analysis Examining Relations Between Perceived Choice, School Valuing, And Perceived Competence And Academic Achievement, Angela Starrett Jan 2018

Integrating Self-Determination And Expectancy-Value Theories In Examining The Achievement Of First-Generation College Students: A Latent Profile Analysis Examining Relations Between Perceived Choice, School Valuing, And Perceived Competence And Academic Achievement, Angela Starrett

Theses and Dissertations

First-generation students, who represent more than 40% of entering college freshmen, have lower academic achievement and struggle to persist compared to their continuing-generation peers. Although previous studies have repeatedly shown a deficit model for first-generation students, there is still a lack of clear understanding about the heterogeneity that exists among these college students. While some do struggle to persist, others show marked resilience. Thus, drawing on Self-Determination Theory and Expectancy-Value Theory, this short-term longitudinal study examined whether perceived competence, perceived choice, and positive school value could moderate the risk of being a first-generation college student. A latent profile analysis on ...


The Influence Of Perfectionism On Mental Health In Gifted And Twice-Exceptional Students, Margaret Mary Candler Dec 2017

The Influence Of Perfectionism On Mental Health In Gifted And Twice-Exceptional Students, Margaret Mary Candler

Theses and Dissertations

Although a long-standing interest in the abilities of gifted students exists, researchers and clinicians have only recently focused on specific factors that may impact the likelihood of mental health diagnoses, such as anxiety and depression, within this population. This is especially true for gifted students with co-existing disabilities, or twice-exceptional students, who may have unique experiences that differ from those of gifted students without disabilities. Perfectionism is one factor that may be important to consider when examining factors that impact the development of anxiety and depression within these populations.

The current study examined how perfectionism differs within gifted and twice-exceptional ...


Promoting Persuasion Knowledge In Third And Fourth Graders Through Advertising Literacy And Argumentation Interventions, Susan Locke Stanley Aug 2017

Promoting Persuasion Knowledge In Third And Fourth Graders Through Advertising Literacy And Argumentation Interventions, Susan Locke Stanley

Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this study was to promote the development of persuasion knowledge in third and fourth graders by examining children’s interpretation and production of persuasive messages through an instructional intervention. Two interventions were delivered to students that focused on the skills associated with critical thinking (e.g., evaluating effectiveness of arguments, writing a persuasive argument using valid reasoning, and understanding the persuasive intentions and tactics of advertisements). One intervention used advertising as the instructional tool, such that students were taught about the purpose of advertising, advertising tactics, and the companies and advertisers behind the ads. Students learned that ...


The Relationship Between Teacher Accountability Measures And Self-Efficacy, Charisse Ann Kroner Aug 2017

The Relationship Between Teacher Accountability Measures And Self-Efficacy, Charisse Ann Kroner

Theses and Dissertations

This study was designed to critically analyze teacher accountability and evaluation systems that are being utilized nation-wide, to discover how the systems impact teacher self-efficacy. One hundred thirty-two teachers from a large, diverse Wisconsin school district participated in a longitudinal study. The participants completed surveys at two time points (fall and spring) including collective efficacy, teacher self-efficacy, and sources of efficacy measures. A 2 x 2 mixed ANOVA showed no significant interaction between summary year status and changes in teacher self-efficacy. A multiple regression analysis revealed that sources of teacher self-efficacy included in the evaluation system positively predicted teacher self-efficacy ...