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Full-Text Articles in Education

Students’ And Parents’ Perspectives On The Social Inclusion Of Secondary School Students With Learning Difficulties, Jennifer E. Richardson Nov 2018

Students’ And Parents’ Perspectives On The Social Inclusion Of Secondary School Students With Learning Difficulties, Jennifer E. Richardson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

For this integrated-article dissertation, I interviewed three groups of participants, one group for each of three studies, to elicit their perspectives on the social inclusion of secondary school students with learning difficulties in school. The three participant groups were (a) secondary school students without learning difficulties, (b) secondary school students with learning difficulties, and (c) parents of secondary school students with learning difficulties. All participants were asked the following focus prompt “Are high school students with learning difficulties sometimes left out at school? Why or why not?” Following Trochim’s (1989) concept mapping methodology, all unique statements that answered the ...


Third- And Fourth-Graders’ Perspectives On Social Exclusion: A Group Concept Mapping Study, Tsz-Wing Zita Lau Aug 2018

Third- And Fourth-Graders’ Perspectives On Social Exclusion: A Group Concept Mapping Study, Tsz-Wing Zita Lau

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The focus of the present study was to examine third- and fourth-graders’ thoughts on social exclusion of peers with learning difficulties; participants’ responses were expected to corroborate Aboud’s (1988, 2008) social-cognitive developmental theory of prejudice. Moreover, Trochim’s (1989) Group Concept Mapping method was applied to engage the children in the data collection and analysis processes. The second goal of this study was to observe the participants’ capabilities in completing the research tasks. Findings revealed four themes in children’s responses: (a) differences between children, (b) challenges experienced by children with learning difficulties, (c) others’ negative attitudes, and (d ...


Exploring Children’S Self-Regulation For Learning Within A Mindfulness-Based Social And Emotional Learning Program, Devon M. Trower Apr 2018

Exploring Children’S Self-Regulation For Learning Within A Mindfulness-Based Social And Emotional Learning Program, Devon M. Trower

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

A mixed-method, repeated measures research design was employed to explore (a) the psychometric properties of a shortened version of the Self -Regulation in School Inventory (SRISI), (b) young children’s development of SR/L within MindUP™, and the demographic and teacher factors implicated in opportunities provided for children to engage in SR/L. Data were gathered from 15 kindergarten teachers and eight ECEs (0 male) who provided teacher reports of children’s SR/L (N = 222 children, boys = 108, Junior Kindergarten = 109, Mean age = 4.57, SD = .57), and their teacher efficacy, burnout, and behavior attributions at Time A and ...


Empathy In Inclusive Classrooms: Exploring Prosocial Behaviour Through Children’S Academic Writing Skills, Erica J. Partridge Apr 2018

Empathy In Inclusive Classrooms: Exploring Prosocial Behaviour Through Children’S Academic Writing Skills, Erica J. Partridge

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Background. Empathy is a crucial means through which diversity is appreciated. Applying inclusivity at a young age and throughout the education curriculum is optimal for social and emotional development alongside academic development. Method. Nineteen students in Grade 5 participated in the language arts curriculum Shakespeare Can be Fun. Writing samples were collected before and after the perspective taking lesson and coded for empathy. Results. Independent t-tests comparing the pre-post writing categories of Organization, Creativity, Voice and Affect, and Grammar generated no significant results. Further t-tests were conducted within Voice and Affect and the item identifying Evidence for Empathy was significant ...


Empathy In Inclusive Classrooms: Exploring Prosocial Behaviour Through Children’S Academic Writing Skills, Erica J. Partridge Mar 2018

Empathy In Inclusive Classrooms: Exploring Prosocial Behaviour Through Children’S Academic Writing Skills, Erica J. Partridge

Western Research Forum

Background. Empathy is a crucial means through which diversity is appreciated. Students who are more empathic may be more willing to help other students, subsequently creating a successful inclusive classroom. Applying inclusivity at a young age and throughout the curriculum is optimal for social and emotional development in children. Often, increased development is found by using interactive methods. Narrative writing can improve affective dimension in their writing skills, but it is still unclear if writing skills translates into prosocial behaviour. Method. This study looked at 19 students in Grade 5 whose teacher implemented a language arts curriculum program. The Shakespeare ...


Examining Stigma Among Preservice Teachers Following The Completion Of A Mental Health Literacy Course, Nella Cautillo Mar 2018

Examining Stigma Among Preservice Teachers Following The Completion Of A Mental Health Literacy Course, Nella Cautillo

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This research examined whether a mental health literacy course for preservice teachers reduced mental health stigma and whether there were any meaningful differences in stigma based on gender, BEd program, previous degree, and previous learning about mental health. Preservice teachers from X University participated in a mental health literacy course for ten weeks, which involved education about various topics related to mental health. The teachers were asked to complete a pre-test (N=263) at the start of the course, which included an Opening Minds Stigma Scale (Modgill, Patten, Knaak, Kassam, & Szeto, 2014), measuring mental health stigma. Similarly, the teachers were ...


The Currents Of Learning Motivation: Learners’ Stories From Arts-Integrated, Regular Classroom Landscapes, Irene Melabiotis Feb 2018

The Currents Of Learning Motivation: Learners’ Stories From Arts-Integrated, Regular Classroom Landscapes, Irene Melabiotis

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Intrinsic learning motivation can facilitate learners’ meaningful scholarship, creativity, and interest in life-long learning. Over time, however, elementary learners’ intrinsic motivation can decline. To meet this challenge, some inclusive educators have turned to arts-integrated instruction, which can facilitate positive outcomes for diverse learners in various subject areas. Our understanding, however, of learners’ quality of motivation when learning through the arts is limited. Accordingly, I explored four research puzzles through a narrative inquiry methodological framework, two of which included, (a) What stories do learners tell about their motivation when learning through the arts in their inclusive classrooms? and (b) What do ...


The Impact Of A School Board’S One-To-One Ipad Initiative On Equity And Inclusion, Lori C. Kirkpatrick, Heather M. Brown, Michelle J. Searle, Adrienne E. Sauder, Eric Smiley Nov 2017

The Impact Of A School Board’S One-To-One Ipad Initiative On Equity And Inclusion, Lori C. Kirkpatrick, Heather M. Brown, Michelle J. Searle, Adrienne E. Sauder, Eric Smiley

Exceptionality Education International

This paper examines the impact of a school board’s one-to-one iPad initiative on equity and inclusion. Data include: questionnaires from Grade 7–9 students, teachers, and administrators; focus groups with inclusion coaches; and interviews with classroom teachers. The results show that the iPads have supported equity among students in the district; there is now less disparity in terms of access to technology on the basis of families’ socio-economic status. The results show that the iPads have also supported the academic and social inclusion of students with exceptionalities; themes that arose across the data sources include: differentiation of content, access ...


Understanding Student And Faculty Perceptions Of The Accommodation And Support Procedures For Students With Ld In Ontario Universities: A Mixed Methods Approach, Sarah Copfer Terreberry Oct 2017

Understanding Student And Faculty Perceptions Of The Accommodation And Support Procedures For Students With Ld In Ontario Universities: A Mixed Methods Approach, Sarah Copfer Terreberry

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

With recent advances in disability policies, practices, and inclusive education mandates, students with learning disabilities (LD) are choosing to attend higher education at a rate that is greater than ever before. Despite these positive advances, however, the transition from secondary to higher education and the adjustment to post-secondary environments for students with LD continues to present a number of unique academic, social, and emotional challenges for this population, especially as this relates to obtaining access to accommodation and support for their learning needs. This study investigated how the needs of students with learning disabilities (LD) are currently being met at ...


A Qualitative Study Of The Fidelity Of Implementation Of An Evidence-Based Healthy Relationships Program, Deborah G. Chiodo Mar 2017

A Qualitative Study Of The Fidelity Of Implementation Of An Evidence-Based Healthy Relationships Program, Deborah G. Chiodo

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This case study examined the factors that are important to successful implementation of a violence prevention program, The Fourth R Program, in one school district in a large, urban city in Alberta, Canada. Teachers, school administrators, and a school district program coordinator participated in a structured interview. Students in Fourth R classes participated in a focus group. The interview focused on potential facilitators and barriers to implementation and perspectives on fidelity and adaptation of the Fourth R program in the classroom. The focus group focused on students’ experience, responsiveness and self-reported knowledge of program content. Teachers completed a survey at ...


Anger Is Very Ugly: Results From A Classwide Socio-Emotional Skills Program, Kathleen Michelle Bond Feb 2017

Anger Is Very Ugly: Results From A Classwide Socio-Emotional Skills Program, Kathleen Michelle Bond

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In school-aged children, healthy development of socio-emotional processes improves cognitive, social, and psychological well-being and promotes school and life success (Goleman, 1997; Mayer & Cobb, 2000; Greenberg, 2004; Zins & Elias, 2006; Brackett, Rivers & Salovey, 2011; Durlak, Weissberg, Dymnicki, Taylor & Schellinger et al., 2011). However, despite the number of evidence-based socio-emotional programs, issues in implementation and sustainability are present among school boards and districts (Greenberg, Weissberg, O’Brien, Zins, Fredericks, et al., 2003). The purpose of this study was to explore the effectiveness of a socio-emotional skills program on emotional literacy in grade three students. Using applied thematic analysis, results indicated that the Anger Blanket program may increase ...


Exploring Mental Health In Justice Involved Youth: Relevance For Policy And Practice, Angelina Sarah Maclellan Jan 2017

Exploring Mental Health In Justice Involved Youth: Relevance For Policy And Practice, Angelina Sarah Maclellan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Over the past two decades, awareness of the prevalence of mental health problems in young offenders (ages 12 to 17 years) has grown, with estimates suggesting significantly higher rates compared to the general population. While experiencing poverty does not cause crime, recent research drawing from the Social Psychology of Crime suggests that individuals who experience poverty tend to live in adverse social environments, which can facilitate exposure to modeling and/or reinforcement that is related to antisocial behaviour. In the present study, archival data were drawn from 281 young offenders’ files from an urban-based court clinic to examine how the ...


Is Social Competence Achievable In Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder?, Monica Caldeira Aug 2016

Is Social Competence Achievable In Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder?, Monica Caldeira

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

A review of existing literature pertaining to the social skills of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder provides a mixed picture: some researchers argue that social skills are altogether lacking, while others indicate that, in some instances, individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder possess the same social skills as their typically developed peers. The purpose of this study was to examine the social competence of adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders, as well as the factors that contributed to or hindered adolescents’ social competence. A sample of 17 adolescents, with varying degrees of autism severity, together with their parents and teachers took part ...


Am I A Bully? A Mixed Methods Phenomenological Study Of The Perspectives And Experiences Of Girls Who Are Relationally Aggressive, Laura A. Hogarth Jun 2016

Am I A Bully? A Mixed Methods Phenomenological Study Of The Perspectives And Experiences Of Girls Who Are Relationally Aggressive, Laura A. Hogarth

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This explanatory mixed-methods, phenomenological study investigated how relationally aggressive females perceive and experience their social world. The first, quantitative phase of the study included 237 students (85 males, 152 females) in grades 6 to grade 8 from four different schools. All students completed the quantitative measures of the study; a peer nomination scale of relational aggression, the Basic Empathy Scale (Joliffe & Farrington, 2006), and a self-concept measure, the Self-Description Questionnaire Short Form (Marsh et al., 2005). Female students whose mean relational aggression score was greater than 1 SD about the class mean, and received votes from more than 30% of the class were identified as relationally aggressive. The second qualitative phase of the study included interviews with 18 females identified as relationally aggressive. To triangulate the data, seven of the students’ teachers were also interviewed. The theoretical framework for this study included resource control theory and symbolic interactionism. The results revealed the complexity of girls’ social environment; in particular the powerful social arena of drama. The results further found the girls’ highly competitive nature that stretched from their social relationships to their extracurricular activities and academics. Most participants had a very positive self-concept and self-esteem, and ...


Learning About Teaching Science: Improving Teachers' Practice Through Collaborative Professional Learning, Sarah E. Cloutier Jun 2016

Learning About Teaching Science: Improving Teachers' Practice Through Collaborative Professional Learning, Sarah E. Cloutier

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This single, descriptive qualitative case study provides a snapshot of elementary teachers and their school principal’s multiple and competing views about personal and contextual factors affecting teacher engagement in collaborative professional learning (CPL) related to science education within the school environment. This study was viewed through the lens of Situated Learning Theory primarily by Lave and Wenger (1991) because viewing knowledge as situated has implications for understanding teacher learning and the design of instructional activities.

Data were collected from three female elementary teachers and their school principal in Ontario for a period of six months. The data included: five ...


Examining Internalizing Symptoms In Child And Youth Victims Of Emotional Abuse And Bullying: The Mediating Effects Of Individual And Family Strength Factors In Clinical Samples, Amani M. Elrofaie Apr 2016

Examining Internalizing Symptoms In Child And Youth Victims Of Emotional Abuse And Bullying: The Mediating Effects Of Individual And Family Strength Factors In Clinical Samples, Amani M. Elrofaie

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Child and youth experiences of emotional abuse and bullying are harmful interactions by caregivers and peers, which produce adverse mental health and social outcomes (Glaser, 2011). This study examined the relationships between trauma exposure and internalizing outcomes through individual and parenting level strength factors. The study comprised 1,297 child and youth participants, aged 4 to 18, from inpatient and outpatient mental health facilities across Ontario, who were administered the interRAI Child and Youth Mental Health assessment (ChYMH; Stewart, Hirdes et al., 2015) with their parents/caregivers. Generalized linear modelling (Nelder & Wedderburn, 1972) was used to determine the relationships between ...


A Study Of Risk Factors Of School Disengagement: Evidence From The Interrai Child And Youth Mental Health Instrument (Chymh), Li Sun Apr 2016

A Study Of Risk Factors Of School Disengagement: Evidence From The Interrai Child And Youth Mental Health Instrument (Chymh), Li Sun

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

School disengagement (SD) places students at risk of dropout, academic failure and other negative psychological outcomes. Based on the data derived from a sample of southern Ontario children, this exploratory study aims to identify a wide context of risk factors associated with SD among 1298 school-aged students. Logistic regression model revealed that substance use, family functioning, Attention Distractibility Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and victim of bullying significantly predicted SD. Externalizing problem was slightly stronger than internalizing problem in predicting SD. Females, compared to males, were at lower risk for SD. Implications to decrease the likelihood of premature school termination were also ...


Accessibility And Self-Disclosure Of The Journey Through Mental Health: Youth Sharing Their Lived Experience, Caryl-Anne Stordy Apr 2016

Accessibility And Self-Disclosure Of The Journey Through Mental Health: Youth Sharing Their Lived Experience, Caryl-Anne Stordy

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Using the lived experiences of youth in Southwestern Ontario, the current project explores the decision of youth to self-disclose their status of mental illness and disability. To explore the process of disclosure, three research questions were asked: (1) what are the youth’s expectations of disclosing their story to others?; (2) what is the experience of youth with mental illness and disabilities in choosing to disclose their story to others?; and (3) what is important to youth about the decision to disclose or choosing to make their experiences public? Participants' experience of disclosing was documented over four group sessions, one ...


Bullying Experiences Among First Nations Youth: Identifying Effects On Mental Health And Potential Protective Factors, Caely I. Dunlop Apr 2016

Bullying Experiences Among First Nations Youth: Identifying Effects On Mental Health And Potential Protective Factors, Caely I. Dunlop

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Bullying represents a substantial issue facing Canadian youth, and is associated with negative outcomes across domains of function throughout the lifespan. Despite significant literature examining bullying involvement among adolescents in Canada, a paucity of research explores the bullying experiences of First Nations, Metis and Inuit (FNMI) youth. This is particularly concerning, as these youth may be at higher risk for bullying and its related consequences due to the cultural marginalization and systemic inequalities experienced by Indigenous peoples nationwide. The present study aims to address this gap in the literature, examining the bullying experiences of FNMI youth, the effects of these ...


High School Boys' Experiences Of A Violence Against Women Prevention Program, Mark Wa Henshaw Apr 2016

High School Boys' Experiences Of A Violence Against Women Prevention Program, Mark Wa Henshaw

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Violence against women and girls is a global burden that requires increased action, especially among males. Although the engagement of males in violence prevention programs have recently spiked, there is minimal evidence that outlines positive changes in males’ attitudes and behaviours when addressing violence against women and girls. The present study examined high school boys’ experiences of a one-day violence against women prevention program with respect to their attitudes and intentions to address violence against women and girls. Guided by the Transtheoretical Model for Behaviour Change and the theory of Moral Disengagement, a pre-event questionnaire was utilized to assess 156 ...


Teachers’ Mental Health: The Relevance Of Emotional Intelligence In Burnout And Quality Of Life, Rebecca Hsiang Apr 2016

Teachers’ Mental Health: The Relevance Of Emotional Intelligence In Burnout And Quality Of Life, Rebecca Hsiang

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Increasing emotional labour demands in the educational profession have negatively impacted teacher’s mental health resulting in high levels of stress, burnout, and subsequently leaving the profession altogether. The desire to improve the mental health well-being and retention rates in educators has given rise to research efforts examining individual factors that may assist in buffering the effects of an adverse occupational environment. Of particular research interest were the potential effects of self-perceived competence in emotional intelligence and individuals’ appraisal of their quality of life, on coping with occupational stressors. The current research was designed as a correlational descriptive field study ...


Exploring And Training Spatial Reasoning Via Eye Movements: Implications On Performance, Victoria A. Roach Dec 2015

Exploring And Training Spatial Reasoning Via Eye Movements: Implications On Performance, Victoria A. Roach

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This dissertation sought to determine if eye movements could serve as an indicator of success in spatial reasoning, and if eye movements associated with successful completion could be applied to strategically improve spatial reasoning.

Using the line images of Shepard and Metzler, an electronic test of mental rotations ability (EMRT) was designed. Two versions of the test were created, allowing for both a timed (6 seconds per question) and untimed testing environment. Four experiments were designed and completed to relate mental rotation ability (MRA) scores from the EMRT, to patterns in chrononumeric and visual salience data. In each experiment, participants ...


Training The Dragon: Facilitating English Language Learner (Ell) Students' Persuasive Writing Through Dictation, Nina Arcon Oct 2015

Training The Dragon: Facilitating English Language Learner (Ell) Students' Persuasive Writing Through Dictation, Nina Arcon

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Writing is working memory intensive for all students, including English language learners (ELLs). Cognitive processes in writing such as transcription compete for limited resources in working memory (Bourdin & Fayol, 1994; Hayes, 2012). Previous research has shown that, when compared to handwriting, students who dictated produced better quality compositions (De La Paz & Graham, 1997; Higgins & Raskind, 1995; MacArthur & Cavalier, 2004). The goal of the present study was to investigate whether dictation would also facilitate better compositions in elementary ELL students. Using a within-subjects design, the effects of handwriting, dictation to a scribe, and dictation to a speech-to-text software were investigated on the persuasive writing of 16 elementary ...


An Exploration Of A Community-Based Lego® Social-Skills Program For Youth With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Jeffrey W H Maccormack Mr., Ian A. Matheson, Nancy L. Hutchinson Sep 2015

An Exploration Of A Community-Based Lego® Social-Skills Program For Youth With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Jeffrey W H Maccormack Mr., Ian A. Matheson, Nancy L. Hutchinson

Exceptionality Education International

Clinical interventions have been effective at increasing social skills of youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, generalization of those skills to non-clinical environments is often low. To reduce this generalization gap, community-based programs have been designed to help youth develop social skills in naturalistic settings. This paper describes a community-based social-skills intervention for youths with ASD aged 7–12, which was designed to build on the findings of a previous study. In this program, youths with ASD co-operated with siblings and peers in structured and unstructured play over the course of four weeks. The researchers conducted extensive observations of ...


Pearl Harvesting Autism, Mariya Gruntovskaya May 2015

Pearl Harvesting Autism, Mariya Gruntovskaya

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis addresses the difficulties of on-line information searching as it relates to the topic of autism. A review of existing search strategies is presented and their limitations are discussed. A new method for deriving a set of search-terms for comprehensive searching, Pearl Harvesting, was tested here to determine the necessary search terms (i.e., synonym ring) for ERIC and PsycINFO databases. Once discovered and validated, a synonym ring can be copied and pasted directly into the search box of the database, providing a simple, thorough and time saving way of conducting on-line research in the field. This easily used ...


Caregivers' Experiences Raising A Child With Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, Aamena Kapasi Mar 2015

Caregivers' Experiences Raising A Child With Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, Aamena Kapasi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The purpose of this study was to identify challenges and strengths of caregivers to a child with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). Thirty-two caregivers raising a child with FASD participated in phone interviews that included the questions: "What challenges do you face in making your household function well?" and "What strengths do you have to make your household function well?" Responses to the questions were sorted by participants and the data was analyzed using multi-dimensional scaling and cluster analysis. In response to the question about challenges, seven concepts emerged: 1) Extra Responsibility on Caregivers, 2) Difficulty Keeping Daily Routine, 3 ...


Mental Health Promotion Efforts For Children And Youth In Canada And Beyond: Evidence In Research, Policy And Practice, Jessica Whitley, Suzanne Gooderham Mar 2015

Mental Health Promotion Efforts For Children And Youth In Canada And Beyond: Evidence In Research, Policy And Practice, Jessica Whitley, Suzanne Gooderham

Exceptionality Education International

terms of both psychological and academic outcomes. Growing numbers of students are placed “at risk” as a result. A mental health promotion approach suggests that students can develop a number of skills and competencies, namely those related to social-emotional learning (SEL), which can reduce their chance of developing mental health difficulties. In Canada, a wide range of curricula, frameworks, initiatives, and programs have been put in place that address elements of SEL. In this paper, a sampling of these drawn from across the country is described. The emphasis on SEL apparent in many provinces and territories is evidence of the ...


Goal Setting Support In Alternative Math Classes: Effects On Motivation And Engagement, Dawn C. Buzza, Melissa Dol Mar 2015

Goal Setting Support In Alternative Math Classes: Effects On Motivation And Engagement, Dawn C. Buzza, Melissa Dol

Exceptionality Education International

Helping low-achieving students with learning disabilities and/or emotional-behavioural difficulties to develop the component skills for Self-Regulated Learning (SRL), such as setting and monitoring learning goals, is important for their success, both in and beyond school. This study examined the effects of a goal setting intervention on self-efficacy, motivational beliefs, and academic engagement in alternative Grade 10 mathematics classes for learners with special needs. The teacher modeled and scaffolded students’ writing of daily learning goals throughout a one-semester mathematics course, with the goal of increasing student engagement and self-efficacy in mathematics. Research questions focused on changes in students’ engagement, learning ...


The Emotional Experience And Expression Of Anger: A Child's Perspective, Craig A. Oolup Mar 2015

The Emotional Experience And Expression Of Anger: A Child's Perspective, Craig A. Oolup

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The purpose of this study was to explore and identify key themes related to a child’s experience of anger. The existing literature on children’s emotional experiences stems from adult perceptions and interpretations; this study was envisioned to investigate the experience of anger among children using their own words. Participants were male and female students, aged 8-9 and in a general grade three classroom within a community school. Through the use of semi-structured interview focus groups conducted over a span of 10 weeks, participants were invited to disclose their understandings of anger and how they experienced it. Results were ...


Effects Of Persuasion And Discussion Goals On Writing, Cognitive Load, And Learning In Science., Perry Klein, J. S. Eharhardt Jan 2015

Effects Of Persuasion And Discussion Goals On Writing, Cognitive Load, And Learning In Science., Perry Klein, J. S. Eharhardt

Education Publications

Argument writing is challenging for elementary students. Previous experimental research has focused on scaffolding rhetorical goals, leaving content goals relatively unexplored. In a randomized experiment, 73 students in Grades 5, 6, and 7 wrote persuasive texts about difficult-to-classify vertebrates. Each student received one of three sets of writing prompts: a persuasive goal only (control); persuasive goal + rhetorical subgoal prompts; or persuasive goal + content subgoal prompts. Rhetorical subgoals increased text quality, variety of rhetorical moves, number of complex propositions, and classification knowledge. Content subgoals increased the number of simple propositions in text. A path analysis indicated that content subgoal prompts and ...