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Full-Text Articles in Education

Pain Acceptance Potentially Mediates The Relationship Between Pain Catastrophizing And Post-Surgery Outcomes Among Compensated Lumbar Fusion Patients, Cassie Dance, M. Scott Deberard, Jessica Gundy Cuneo Nov 2016

Pain Acceptance Potentially Mediates The Relationship Between Pain Catastrophizing And Post-Surgery Outcomes Among Compensated Lumbar Fusion Patients, Cassie Dance, M. Scott Deberard, Jessica Gundy Cuneo

Psychology Faculty Publications

Purpose: Chronic low back pain is highly prevalent and often treatment recalcitrant condition, particularly among workers’ compensation patients. There is a need to identify psychological factors that may predispose such patients to pain chronicity. The primary aim of this study was to examine whether pain acceptance potentially mediated the relationship between pain catastrophizing and post-surgical outcomes in a sample of compensated lumbar fusion patients.

Patients and methods: Patients insured with the Workers Compensation Fund of Utah and who were at least 2 years post-lumbar fusion surgery completed an outcome survey. These data were obtained from a prior retrospective-cohort study that ...


Using Multigroup-Multiphase Latent State-Trait Models To Study Treatment-Induced Changes In Intra-Individual State Variability: An Application To Smokers' Affect, Christian Geiser, Daniel Griffin, Saul Shiffman Jul 2016

Using Multigroup-Multiphase Latent State-Trait Models To Study Treatment-Induced Changes In Intra-Individual State Variability: An Application To Smokers' Affect, Christian Geiser, Daniel Griffin, Saul Shiffman

Psychology Faculty Publications

Sometimes, researchers are interested in whether an intervention, experimental manipulation, or other treatment causes changes in intra-individual state variability. The authors show how multigroup-multiphase latent state-trait (MG-MP-LST) models can be used to examine treatment effects with regard to both mean differences and differences in state variability. The approach is illustrated based on a randomized controlled trial in which N = 338 smokers were randomly assigned to nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) vs. placebo prior to quitting smoking. We found that post quitting, smokers in both the NRT and placebo group had significantly reduced intra-individual affect state variability with respect to the affect ...


Stress-Induced Executive Dysfunction In Gdnf-Deficient Mice, A Mouse Model Of Parkinsonism, Mona Buhusi, Kaitlin Olsen, Benjamin Z. Young, Catalin V. Buhusi May 2016

Stress-Induced Executive Dysfunction In Gdnf-Deficient Mice, A Mouse Model Of Parkinsonism, Mona Buhusi, Kaitlin Olsen, Benjamin Z. Young, Catalin V. Buhusi

Psychology Faculty Publications

Maladaptive reactivity to stress is linked to improper decision making, impulsivity, and discounting of delayed rewards. Chronic unpredictable stress alters dopaminergic function and re-shapes dopaminergic circuits in key areas involved in decision making, and impairs prefrontal-cortex dependent response inhibition and working memory. Glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is essential for regulating dopamine release in the basal ganglia and the survival of dopaminergic neurons, and GDNF-deficient mice are considered an animal model for aging-related Parkinsonism. Recently, GDNF expression in the striatum has been linked to resilience to stress. Here we investigated the effects of chronic unpredictable stress on decision making in GDNF-heterozygous ...


Epistemic Beliefs Of Middle And High School Students In A Problem-Based, Scientific Inquiry Unit: An Exploratory, Mixed Methods Study, Jiangyue Gu May 2016

Epistemic Beliefs Of Middle And High School Students In A Problem-Based, Scientific Inquiry Unit: An Exploratory, Mixed Methods Study, Jiangyue Gu

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Epistemic beliefs are individuals’ beliefs about the nature of knowledge, how knowledge is constructed, and how knowledge can be justified. This study employed a mixed-methods approach to examine: (a) middle and high school students’ self-reported epistemic beliefs (quantitative) and epistemic beliefs revealed from practice (qualitative) during a problem-based, scientific inquiry unit, (b) How do middle and high school students’ epistemic beliefs contribute to the construction of students’ problem solving processes, and (c) how and why do students’ epistemic beliefs change by engaging in PBL.

Twenty-one middle and high school students participated in a summer science class to investigate local water ...


Effects Of A Self-Management Procedure Using Student Feedback On Staff Members' Use Of Praise In An Out-Of-School Time Program, Cade T. Charlton May 2016

Effects Of A Self-Management Procedure Using Student Feedback On Staff Members' Use Of Praise In An Out-Of-School Time Program, Cade T. Charlton

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Out-of-school time (OST) programs are under increasing pressure to improve student achievement. However, OST program administrators face a number of challenges to improving program effectiveness including inconsistent student participation, inexperienced staff members, and a lack of high-quality professional development. OST program administrators can address these challenges by implementing staff development practices that encourage the use of effective instructional strategies.

Specific praise is a simple and effective instructional strategy that has been linked to improved student engagement, enhanced academic achievement, and stronger student-teacher relationships. Unfortunately, there have been very few studies examining the effects of interventions designed to increase OST staff ...


Dropout Rates In Exposure With Response Prevention For Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: What Do The Data Really Say?, Clarissa W. Ong, Joseph W. Clyde, Ellen J. Bluett, Michael E. Levin, Michael P. Twohig Ph.D. May 2016

Dropout Rates In Exposure With Response Prevention For Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: What Do The Data Really Say?, Clarissa W. Ong, Joseph W. Clyde, Ellen J. Bluett, Michael E. Levin, Michael P. Twohig Ph.D.

Psychology Faculty Publications

The purposes of this review were to: 1) determine the attrition rates for exposure with response prevention (ERP) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), 2) compare them to those in other treatments for OCD, and 3) identify predictors of ERP attrition. A systematic literature search of randomized controlled trials for ERP for OCD yielded 21 studies, representing 1400 participants. Attrition data were extracted for individual treatment conditions. The weighted mean dropout rate for ERP was 14.7% (95% CI [11.4%, 18.4%]). This figure was not statistically different from that of comparison conditions (e.g., cognitive therapy; OR = 0.67-2.22 ...


Experience With Dynamic Reinforcement Rates Decreases Resistance To Extinction, Andrew R. Craig, Timothy A. Shahan Mar 2016

Experience With Dynamic Reinforcement Rates Decreases Resistance To Extinction, Andrew R. Craig, Timothy A. Shahan

Psychology Faculty Publications

The ability of organisms to detect reinforcer-rate changes in choice preparations is positively related to two factors: the magnitude of the change in rate and the frequency with which rates change. Gallistel (2012) suggested similar rate-detection processes are responsible for decreases in responding during operant extinction. Although effects of magnitude of change in reinforcer rate on resistance to extinction are well known (e.g., the partial-reinforcement-extinction effect), effects of frequency of changes in rate prior to extinction are unknown. Thus, the present experiments examined whether frequency of changes in baseline reinforcer rates impacts resistance to extinction. Pigeons pecked keys for ...


Web-Based Acceptance And Commitment Therapy For Mental Health Problems In College Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial, Michael E. Levin, Jack A. Haeger, Benjamin Pierce, Michael P. Twohig Jan 2016

Web-Based Acceptance And Commitment Therapy For Mental Health Problems In College Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial, Michael E. Levin, Jack A. Haeger, Benjamin Pierce, Michael P. Twohig

Psychology Faculty Publications

There are significant challenges in addressing the mental health needs of college students. The current study tested an acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) web-based self-help program to treat a broad range of psychological problems students struggle with. A sample of 79 college students were randomized to web-based ACT or a waitlist condition, with assessments at baseline and posttreatment. Results indicated adequate acceptability and program engagement for the ACT website. Relative to waitlist, participants receiving ACT improved on overall distress, general anxiety, social anxiety, depression, academic concerns, and positive mental health. There were no between group effects on eating concerns, alcohol ...


Examining The Role Of Psychological Inflexibility, Perspective Taking And Empathic Concern In Generalized Prejudice, Michael E. Levin, Jason B. Luoma, Roger Vilardaga, Jason Lillis, Richard Nobles, Steven C. Hayes Jan 2016

Examining The Role Of Psychological Inflexibility, Perspective Taking And Empathic Concern In Generalized Prejudice, Michael E. Levin, Jason B. Luoma, Roger Vilardaga, Jason Lillis, Richard Nobles, Steven C. Hayes

Psychology Faculty Publications

Research to-date on generalized prejudice has focused primarily on personality factors. Further work is needed identifying manipulable variables that directly inform anti-prejudice interventions. The current study examined three such variables: empathic concern, perspective taking, and psychological inflexibility/flexibility with prejudiced thoughts, as a test of the flexible connectedness model. A sample of 604 undergraduate students completed online surveys. A model indicated prejudice measures loaded onto a latent variable of generalized prejudice. In a second model, psychological inflexibility, flexibility, empathic concern and perspective taking were all significant, independent predictors of generalized prejudice. Psychological inflexibility also predicted prejudice above and beyond personality ...


Web-Based Self-Help For Preventing Mental Health Problems In Universities: Comparing Acceptance And Commitment Training To Mental Health Education, Michael E. Levin, Steven C. Hayes, Jacqueline Pistorello, John R. Seeley Jan 2016

Web-Based Self-Help For Preventing Mental Health Problems In Universities: Comparing Acceptance And Commitment Training To Mental Health Education, Michael E. Levin, Steven C. Hayes, Jacqueline Pistorello, John R. Seeley

Psychology Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


The Effects Of Financial Education On Impulsive Decision Making, William B. Dehart, Jonathan E. Friedel, Jean M. Lown, Amy L. Odum Jan 2016

The Effects Of Financial Education On Impulsive Decision Making, William B. Dehart, Jonathan E. Friedel, Jean M. Lown, Amy L. Odum

Psychology Faculty Publications

Delay discounting, as a behavioral measure of impulsive choice, is strongly related to substance abuse and other risky behaviors. Therefore, effective techniques that alter delay discounting are of great interest. We explored the ability of a semester long financial education course to change delay discounting. Participants were recruited from a financial education course (n = 237) and an abnormal psychology course (n = 80). Both groups completed a delay-discounting task for $100 during the first two weeks (Time 1) of the semester as well as during the last two weeks (Time 2) of the semester. Participants also completed a personality inventory and ...


Examining The Role Of Implicit Emotional Judgements In Social Anxiety And Experiential Avoidance, Michael Levin, Jack Haeger, Gregory S. Smith Jan 2016

Examining The Role Of Implicit Emotional Judgements In Social Anxiety And Experiential Avoidance, Michael Levin, Jack Haeger, Gregory S. Smith

Psychology Faculty Publications

This study sought to examine the relationship of implicit emotional judgments with experiential avoidance (EA) and social anxiety. A sample of 61 college students completed the Emotional Judgment – Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (EJ-IRAP) as well as a public speaking challenge. Implicit judgments were related to greater self-reported EA, anxiety sensitivity, emotional judgments and social anxiety as well as lower performance ratings and willingness in the public speaking challenge. Effects differed by trial type with “Anxiety is bad” biases related to greater EA/anxiety, while “calm is bad” biases related to lower EA/anxiety (“Good” biases were generally unrelated to outcomes ...


Perspectives On The Use Of Acceptance And Commitment Therapy Related Mobile Apps: Results From A Survey Of Students And Professionals, Benjamin Pierce, Michael P. Twohig, Michael E. Levin Jan 2016

Perspectives On The Use Of Acceptance And Commitment Therapy Related Mobile Apps: Results From A Survey Of Students And Professionals, Benjamin Pierce, Michael P. Twohig, Michael E. Levin

Psychology Faculty Publications

Although mobile apps have proliferated as self-help or adjunctive therapy supports, scant research has explored their implementation among mental health practitioners. Little is known about uses and perceptions of mental health apps among applied practitioners, nor are agreed-upon criteria for evaluating and choosing apps available. The present survey study examined the uses and perceptions of mental health apps among 356 professionals and students familiar with Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), as indicated by being a member of the Association for Contextual Behavioral Science. The survey found that practitioners are interested in using ACT-related apps, but that use of and familiarity ...