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Full-Text Articles in Education

Pedagogical Agents, Yanghee Kim Jan 2015

Pedagogical Agents, Yanghee Kim

Yanghee Kim

No abstract provided.


Pedagogical Agents, Yanghee Kim Jan 2015

Pedagogical Agents, Yanghee Kim

Yanghee Kim

No abstract provided.


Playing With A Robot To Learn English Vocabulary, Yanghee Kim Jan 2014

Playing With A Robot To Learn English Vocabulary, Yanghee Kim

Yanghee Kim

A robot-based English curriculum called The Missing Code has been developed to teach English vocabulary to young children whose home language is one other than English. Guided by theories in children’s learning and motivation, the curriculum was designed to be developmentally appropriate and engaging for children that were 3-5 years old, carefully balancing the familiar and the new. The development process was characterized by iterative cycles of initial design, user testing, and refinement. Through multiple observations of child-robot play in situ, it was noted that children easily learned how to interact with the robot and showed sustained interest and ...


Promoting And Evaluating Online Learner-Instructor Relationships, Yanghee Kim, R Burdo, T Chen Jan 2014

Promoting And Evaluating Online Learner-Instructor Relationships, Yanghee Kim, R Burdo, T Chen

Yanghee Kim

Emotions that a learner brings to the learning context can influence engagement, self-regulation, and achievement. Recently, researchers have called for examination on the impact of learner emotions in online learning environments. This study examines how to incorporate learner/instructor relationship aspects in online instruction and promote affective relationships with the learners. Participants enrolled in a college statistics course took a weeklong video-based module covering Normal Distribution. Learner attitudes, learner self-efficacy, learner/instructor relationship, and learning gains were evaluated. The relationship building strategies were found to have positive impacts on learner attitudes and self-efficacy. The inclusion of the relationship building strategies ...


Playing With A Robot To Learn English Vocabulary, Yanghee Kim, Diantha Smith, Namju Kim, Tianyu Chen Jan 2014

Playing With A Robot To Learn English Vocabulary, Yanghee Kim, Diantha Smith, Namju Kim, Tianyu Chen

Yanghee Kim

A robot-based English curriculum called The Missing Code has been developed to teach English vocabulary to young children whose home language is one other than English. Guided by theories in children’s learning and motivation, the curriculum was designed to be developmentally appropriate and engaging for children who were 3-5 years old, carefully balancing the familiar and the new. The development process was characterized by iterative cycles of initial design, user testing, and refinement. Through multiple observations of child-robot play in situ, it was noted that children easily learned how to interact with the robot and showed sustained interest and ...


Promoting And Evaluating Online Learner-Instructor Relationships, Yanghee Kim, R Burdo, T Chen Jan 2014

Promoting And Evaluating Online Learner-Instructor Relationships, Yanghee Kim, R Burdo, T Chen

Yanghee Kim

Emotions that a learner brings to the learning context can influence engagement, self-regulation, and achievement. Recently, researchers have called for examination on the impact of learner emotions in online learning environments. This study examines how to incorporate learner/instructor relationship aspects in online instruction and promote affective relationships with the learners. Participants enrolled in a college statistics course took a weeklong video-based module covering Normal Distribution. Learner attitudes, learner self-efficacy, learner/instructor relationship, and learning gains were evaluated. The relationship building strategies were found to have positive impacts on learner attitudes and self-efficacy. The inclusion of the relationship building strategies ...


Gendered Socialization With An Embodied Agent: Creating A Social And Affable Mathematics Learning Environment For Middle-Grade Females, Yanghee Kim, J. Lim Nov 2013

Gendered Socialization With An Embodied Agent: Creating A Social And Affable Mathematics Learning Environment For Middle-Grade Females, Yanghee Kim, J. Lim

Yanghee Kim

This study examined whether or not embodied-agent-based learning would help middle-grade females have more positive mathematics learning experiences. The study used an explanatory mixed-methods research design. First, a classroom-based experiment was conducted with one hundred and twenty 9th-graders learning introductory algebra (53% male and 47% female; 51% Caucasian and 49% Latino). The results revealed that learner gender was a significant factor in the learners’ evaluations of their agent (η2 = .07), the learners’ task-specific attitudes (η2 = .05), and their task-specific self-efficacy (η2 = .06). In-depth interviews were then conducted with 22 students selected from the experiment participants. The interviews revealed that Latina ...


Digital Peers To Help Children's Text Comprehension And Perception, Yanghee Kim Jan 2013

Digital Peers To Help Children's Text Comprehension And Perception, Yanghee Kim

Yanghee Kim

Affable Reading Tutor (ART) is an online reading lesson designed for children who start reading to comprehend. A digital, human-like character (virtual peer) in ART serves as a peer model that demonstrates the use of the reading comprehension strategy questioning to help improve the learners’ comprehension of expository texts. This study, with 141 boys and girls in the fourth and fifth grades in the United States, examined the effects of virtual-peer presence (presence vs. absence vs. control) on learners’ text comprehension and also the effects of learner gender and virtual-peer attributes (human-like male vs. human-like female vs. robot still image ...


The Effect Of The Visual Gender Of An Embodied Agent: A Cross-Cultural Comparison, Yanghee Kim, A Guiz, A Silveryarg, M Haake, T Chen, N Kim Jan 2013

The Effect Of The Visual Gender Of An Embodied Agent: A Cross-Cultural Comparison, Yanghee Kim, A Guiz, A Silveryarg, M Haake, T Chen, N Kim

Yanghee Kim

This study explored if the visual gender representations (androgynous, male, or female) of an embodied agent would influence students’ perceptions of their agent and their attitudes toward the agent as their conversational partner. The study also explored if students’ gender and cultural background would interact with the agent’s visual gender to influence their perceptions and attitudes. Participants were 208 early-teen students sampled from US and South Korea. The results revealed that student gender was a significant factor for influencing students' perceptions and attitudes and that the students showed positive attitudes toward an androgynous agent more than toward a gendered ...


Digital Peers To Help Children's Text Comprehension And Perception, Yanghee Kim Jan 2013

Digital Peers To Help Children's Text Comprehension And Perception, Yanghee Kim

Yanghee Kim

Affable Reading Tutor (ART) is an online reading lesson designed for children who start reading to comprehend. A digital, human-like character (virtual peer) in ART serves as a peer model that demonstrates the use of the reading comprehension strategy questioning to help improve the learners’ comprehension of expository texts. This study, with 141 boys and girls in the fourth and fifth grades in the United States, examined the effects of virtual-peer presence (presence vs. absence vs. control) on learners’ text comprehension and also the effects of learner gender and virtual-peer attributes (human-like male vs. human-like female vs. robot still image ...


Can A Pedagogical Agent Help Reduce Mathematics Anxiety?, Q. Wei, Yanghee Kim Apr 2012

Can A Pedagogical Agent Help Reduce Mathematics Anxiety?, Q. Wei, Yanghee Kim

Yanghee Kim

No abstract provided.


The Role Of Student Gender For Determining The Impact Of A Pedagogical Agent, Yanghee Kim, J. Lim Apr 2011

The Role Of Student Gender For Determining The Impact Of A Pedagogical Agent, Yanghee Kim, J. Lim

Yanghee Kim

This study was to understand how male and female teenage students reacted differently to the presence of a pedagogical agent (an animated human-like character) in a computer-based algebra-learning environment. The study first examined, in classroom experiments, if learner gender would be a determining factor for the effectiveness of a pedagogical agent on learner attitudes and learning. Next, in-depth interviews inquired into the two groups of students’ perspectives of their agent’s role for their learning and affect.


The Impact Of User Attributes And User Choice In An Agent-Based Environment, Yanghee Kim, Quan Wei Feb 2011

The Impact Of User Attributes And User Choice In An Agent-Based Environment, Yanghee Kim, Quan Wei

Yanghee Kim

This study examined the impact of learners’ attributes (gender and ethnicity) on their choice of a pedagogical agent and the impact of the attributes and choice on their perceptions of agent affability, task-specific attitudes, task-specific self-efficacy, and learning gains. Participants were 210 high-school male and female, Caucasian and Hispanic students who worked at computer-based algebra integrated with pedagogical agents. The results indicated, first, that students preferentially chose a same-gender agent and a same-ethnicity agent, supporting similarity-attraction theory. Second, males who chose an agent showed more positive attitudes toward working at the learning environment than did males who were assigned to ...


The Impact Of User Attributes And User Choice In An Agent-Based Environment, Yanghee Kim, Quan Wei Jan 2011

The Impact Of User Attributes And User Choice In An Agent-Based Environment, Yanghee Kim, Quan Wei

Yanghee Kim

This study examined the impact of learners’ attributes (gender and ethnicity) on their choice of a pedagogical agent and the impact of the attributes and choice on their perceptions of agent affability, task-specific attitudes, task-specific self-efficacy, and learning gains. Participants were 210 high-school male and female, Caucasian and Hispanic students who worked at computer-based algebra integrated with pedagogical agents. The results indicated, first, that students preferentially chose a same-gender agent and a same-ethnicity agent, supporting similarity-attraction theory. Second, males who chose an agent showed more positive attitudes toward working at the learning environment than did males who were assigned to ...


Toward Creating Computer-Based Math Learning Favoring High-School Females, Yanghee Kim Jun 2009

Toward Creating Computer-Based Math Learning Favoring High-School Females, Yanghee Kim

Yanghee Kim

Research indicates that teenage females prefer to work and perform better at the learning environment that supports frequent interactions and allows them to build relationships with others. This paper will introduce a computer-based algebra-learning environment MathGirls equipped with pedagogical agents (digital life-like characters) that simulate real-world social interactions and relations. The goal of MathGirls is to help young women of high-school age build positive attitudes toward and self-efficacy in math learning through this simulated social context. To investigate the efficacy of MathGirls, a classroom experiment was conducted with 83 high-school females. The experiment examined the effects of agent attributes (female ...


The Role Of Learner Attributes And Affect Determining The Impact Of Agent Presence, Yanghee Kim Jan 2009

The Role Of Learner Attributes And Affect Determining The Impact Of Agent Presence, Yanghee Kim

Yanghee Kim

This paper introduces two experimental studies that examined the potential of animated virtual peers (VP) to build social relations with learners in online learning environments. VP emotions and learner characteristics were foci of interest. Study I investigated the impact of VP emotional expressions (positive vs. negative vs. neutral) and gender and learner gender on college students’ perceptions of agent persona, motivation, and learning. Study II investigated the interaction effects of VP presence and learner gender and learner sociability on high-school students’ task-related attitudes, self-efficacy beliefs, and learning. Overall, the results revealed the interaction effects of VP/learner attributes on the ...


Creating Pedagogical Agents As Social Models In An Online Learning Environment Mathgirls, Yanghee Kim, B. Xu, A. Sharif Jan 2008

Creating Pedagogical Agents As Social Models In An Online Learning Environment Mathgirls, Yanghee Kim, B. Xu, A. Sharif

Yanghee Kim

This paper introduces the learning environment MathGirls for high school girls learning fundamentals of algebra. Grounded in social cognitive theories of learning, MathGirls utilizes pedagogical agents to create a girl-friendly virtual learning environment. The design constituents of pedagogical agents are reviewed. These constituents are likely to influence building agent/learner relations. The agent design and system architecture of the MathGirls environment are developed to integrate some of the design constituents. Empirical findings from MathGirls deployment in classrooms support the efficacy of the presence of pedagogical agents in shaping affective and cognitive characteristics of the learner. The paper concludes with the ...


Pedagogical Agents As Learning Companions: The Impact Of Agent Emotion And Gender, Yanghee Kim, A. L. Baylor, E. Shen Jan 2007

Pedagogical Agents As Learning Companions: The Impact Of Agent Emotion And Gender, Yanghee Kim, A. L. Baylor, E. Shen

Yanghee Kim

The potential of emotional interaction between human and computer has recently interested researchers in human–computer interaction. The instructional impact of this interaction in learning environments has not been established, however. This study examined the impact of emotion and gender of a pedagogical agent as a learning companion (PAL) on social judgements, interest, self-efficacy, and learning. Two experiments investigated separately the effects of a PAL's emotional expression and empathetic response. Experiment 1 focused on emotional expression (positive vs. negative vs. neutral) and gender (male vs. female) with a sample of 142 male and female college students in a computer ...


Mathgirls: Toward Developing Girls’ Positive Attitude And Self-Efficacy Through Pedagogical Agents, Yanghee Kim, Q Wei, B Xu, Y Ko, V Ilieva Jan 2007

Mathgirls: Toward Developing Girls’ Positive Attitude And Self-Efficacy Through Pedagogical Agents, Yanghee Kim, Q Wei, B Xu, Y Ko, V Ilieva

Yanghee Kim

MathGirls is a pedagogical-agent-based environment designed for high-school girls learning introductory algebra. Since females are in general more interested in interactive computing and more positive about the social presence of pedagogical agents, the environment provides a girl-friendly social learning environment, where pedagogical agents encourage the girls to build constructive views of learning math. This study investigated the impact of agent presence on changes in the girls’ math attitude, their math self-efficacy, and their learning; on the girls’ choice of their agents; and, on their perceptions of agent affability. The results revealed that the girls with an agent developed a more ...


A Social-Cognitive Framework For Designing Pedagogical Agents As Learning Companions, Yanghee Kim, Amy L. Baylor Jan 2006

A Social-Cognitive Framework For Designing Pedagogical Agents As Learning Companions, Yanghee Kim, Amy L. Baylor

Yanghee Kim

Teaching and learning are highly social activities. Seminal psychologists such as Vygotsky, Piaget, and Bandura have theorized that social interaction is a key mechanism in the process of learning and development. In particular, the benefits of peer interaction for learning and motivation in classrooms have been broadly demonstrated through empirical studies. Hence, it would be valuable if computer-based environments could support a mechanism for a peer-interaction. Though no claim of peer equivalence is made, pedagogical agents as learning companions (PALs) -- animated digital characters functioning to simulate human-peer-like interaction -- might provide an opportunity to simulate such social interaction in computer-based learning ...


Content-Based English Learning Through Pedagogical Agents, Yanghee Kim, P. Punahm, Y. Ko Jan 2006

Content-Based English Learning Through Pedagogical Agents, Yanghee Kim, P. Punahm, Y. Ko

Yanghee Kim

This paper suggests how an advanced technology called pedagogical agents can be applied to English education to benefit learners across ages through computer-assisted language learning (CALL) and content-based language learning (CBLL). CALL, when designed appropriately, has positively influenced the development of a learner’s linguistic proficiency and communicative competence (Chun, 1994; Fotos & Browne, 2004). CBLL integrates language learning with subject-matter learning to make language learning more meaningful (Snow, 2001; Swain, 1998). However, the conventional CALL programs are often criticized for the lacking a social context, considered essential for successful language learning ( Warschauer, 2004). Also, CBLL seems rarely applied to EFL contexts, especially Korean English Education, mainly due to the lack of resources. Pedagogical agents (PAs), defined as ...


Pedagogical Agents As Learning Companions: The Role Of Agent Competency And Type Of Interaction, Yanghee Kim, Amy L. Baylor, Pals Group Jan 2006

Pedagogical Agents As Learning Companions: The Role Of Agent Competency And Type Of Interaction, Yanghee Kim, Amy L. Baylor, Pals Group

Yanghee Kim

This study was designed to examine the effects of the competency (low vs. high) and interaction type (proactive vs. responsive) of pedagogical agents as learning companions (PALs) on learning, self-efficacy, and attitudes. Participants were 72 undergraduates in an introductory computer-literacy course who were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: Low-Proactive, Low-Responsive, High-Proactive, and High-Responsive. Results indicated a main effect for PAL competency. Students who worked with the high-competency PAL in both proactive and responsive conditions achieved higher scores in applying what they had learned and showed more positive attitudes toward the PAL. However, students who worked with the low-competency ...


Pedagogical Agents As Learning Companions: Building Social Relations With Learners, Yanghee Kim Jan 2005

Pedagogical Agents As Learning Companions: Building Social Relations With Learners, Yanghee Kim

Yanghee Kim

This study examined the potential of pedagogical agents as learning companions (PALs) to build social relations with learners and, consequently, to motivate learning. The study investigated the impact of PAL affect (positive vs. negative vs. neutral), PAL gender (male vs. female), and learner gender (male vs. female) on learners’ social judgments, motivation, and learning in a controlled experiment. Participants were 142 college students in a computer-literacy course. Overall, the results indicated the interaction effects of PAL affect, PAL gender, and learner gender on learners’ social judgments (p < .001). PAL affect impacted learners’ social judgments (p < .001) and motivation (p < .05). PAL gender influenced motivation (p < .01) and recall of learning (p < .05). Learner gender influenced recall of learning (p < .01). The implications of the findings are discussed.


Pedagogical Agents’ Personas: Which Affects More, Image Or Voice?, Yanghee Kim, A. L. Baylor, G. Reed Oct 2004

Pedagogical Agents’ Personas: Which Affects More, Image Or Voice?, Yanghee Kim, A. L. Baylor, G. Reed

Yanghee Kim

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of image and voice of pedagogical agents on student perception and learning. Pedagogical agents were developed with differing image (expert-like vs. mentor-like) and voice (strong vs. calm vs. computer-generated), but with identical gesture, affect, comments, and gender. 109 undergraduates in a computer literacy course were randomly assigned to one of the six conditions. The results revealed a significant main effect for agent image on role perception: the mentor-like image was perceived as more motivating, as hypothesized. Also, there was a significant main effect for voice: the strong voice was overall ...