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Full-Text Articles in Education

Monasteries Of The Future, Miles G. Bukiet Aug 2018

Monasteries Of The Future, Miles G. Bukiet

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

For millennia, monasteries have been at the forefront of training virtues such as compassion, transcendence, service, gratitude, forgiveness, and grit, as well as foundational psychological capacities such as self-regulation, sustained, voluntary attention, emotional intelligence, and meta-cognitive awareness. Monasteries of the Future are modern institutions, both secular and religious, designed to provide the requisite financial, social, intellectual, and instructional support necessary to train a new generation of contemplative adepts. Forming a network of centers which collaborate and compete, Monasteries of the Future will establish and uphold the highest standards in the contemplative field. By partnering with modern science, most notably positive ...


Impact Of The Future Project On Student Motivation: Meeting Basic Psychological Needs To Improve Academic Dispositions, Jessica Koehler Jan 2018

Impact Of The Future Project On Student Motivation: Meeting Basic Psychological Needs To Improve Academic Dispositions, Jessica Koehler

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Student motivation in high school is a long-standing topic of interest considering the widespread problem of low academic engagement and relatively high dropout rates, which are predicted by low attendance. This prevailing problem is indicative that previous interventions have not been sufficient. One hypothesis is that interventions may be too targeted towards outcomes and neglect what motivation researchers in psychology have learned over decades. Motivation researchers, specifically self-determination theorists, have identified three underlying psychological needs (autonomy, competence, relatedness) that are critical to fostering intrinsic motivation. This study hypothesizes that these needs are not being met in the school setting even ...


Exploring Diverse Profiles Of Identity, Risk Taking, And Health Risk In Urban Black Emerging Adult Men, Lloyd Matthew Talley Jan 2018

Exploring Diverse Profiles Of Identity, Risk Taking, And Health Risk In Urban Black Emerging Adult Men, Lloyd Matthew Talley

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Young adult African-American men face some of the most challenging social and health disparities compared to other age, race, and gender groups. They must endure the stress of emerging adulthood through the intense and clashing demands of race and masculinity politics.  An unaddressed question in the literature is “Do distinct racial-gender identity subgroups of Black emerging adult men experience different patterns of risk taking and health risk?” Drawing on the baseline data of a “Barbershop-Based HIV/STD Risk Reduction for African American Young Men” (Jemmott, Jemmott, Coleman, Stevenson, & Ten Have, 2009; Jemmott, Jemmott, Lanier, Thompson, & Baker, 2017), a cluster-randomized comparison of two risk-reduction interventions (sexual health risk and violence retaliation) with 597 African American men aged 18 to 24, this secondary analysis study was conducted. Using the method of latent profile analysis, the results of this study found (a) four distinct identity profiles of Black men based on three key identity factors (manhood stress, hypermasculinity, and awareness of Black manhood vulnerabilities) representing distinct subgroups of Black men (diffuse, 4.5%; balanced, 62%; strained, 30%; and distressed, 3%); (b ...


Young Children’S Understanding Of Learning And Its Relation To Their Own Learning, Jeein Jeong Jan 2018

Young Children’S Understanding Of Learning And Its Relation To Their Own Learning, Jeein Jeong

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The current dissertation examines how young children aged from 3 to 6 years come to understand learning from a mentalistic perspective, and how this understanding is related to their own learning. Study 1 found that preschoolers’ prediction of learning is influenced by the informant’s knowledge state, and that there is an age-related increase in the expectation of learning from another and sensitivity to an informant’s knowledge state. Children’s prediction of another’s learning was applied to their actual learning in Study 2, showing that children’s perception of an informant’s knowledge state affects how much information ...


Posttraumatic Growth And Residential Therapy: Cultivating Environments That Support And Facilitate Posttraumatic Growth And Positive Well-Being., Tracey Bachrach Jan 2018

Posttraumatic Growth And Residential Therapy: Cultivating Environments That Support And Facilitate Posttraumatic Growth And Positive Well-Being., Tracey Bachrach

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

Residential therapy is intended for those needing mental health crisis intervention. The well-being of these people cannot be overlooked and should take an active role in the treatment process, especially for those struggling with the symptomology of posttraumatic stress. By utilizing both positive psychology and posttraumatic growth theory and practice, participants in residential therapy may strengthen personal well-being thus encouraging the posttraumatic growth process. Focusing on positive affect, engagement, relationships, meaning, and achievement can stimulate and support posttraumatic growth in an intentional setting such as residential therapy. This will shift treatment goals and outcomes away from deficit diagnosis and recovery ...


Minority Teacher Recruitment, Employment, And Retention: 1987 To 2013, Richard M. Ingersoll, Henry May, Greg Collins Sep 2017

Minority Teacher Recruitment, Employment, And Retention: 1987 To 2013, Richard M. Ingersoll, Henry May, Greg Collins

GSE Publications

This study examines and compares the recruitment, employment, and retention of minority and nonminority school teachers over the past quarter century. Our objective is to empirically ground the debate over minority teacher shortages. The data we analyze are from the National Center for Education Statistics' nationally representative Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) and its longitudinal supplement, the Teacher Follow-Up Survey (TFS).1


Saving The World The Right Way: Altruistic Education, Supakorn Laohasongkram Aug 2017

Saving The World The Right Way: Altruistic Education, Supakorn Laohasongkram

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

Intelligence and passion are not enough for humans to become all that they can be. Hitler and the Nazis too had a lot of intelligence and passion. But what they did not have is the wisdom of how to use their intelligence and passion for the good of mankind. Nevertheless, the question of developing how we, humans, ought to use our intelligence and passion is often neglected in modernity when compared with the obsession we have of increasing our grit and wit. This obsession reflects the current state of education whereby the function of education today is often cheapened to ...


Teacher Well-Being And Resilience: Podcasts As A Tool For Global Reach, Sophia Kokores, Anne Johnstone, Julia King, Amanda Jones May 2017

Teacher Well-Being And Resilience: Podcasts As A Tool For Global Reach, Sophia Kokores, Anne Johnstone, Julia King, Amanda Jones

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Service Learning Projects

Teachers are under increasing pressure inside and outside the classroom, at work and at home. There is a growing need for resilience training and tools to help increase teacher well- being. As part of their global support for teachers, the International Positive Education Network (IPEN) is keen to develop a program to help teachers learn about and develop their resilience. Team Indigo, (four teachers and MAPP students), have developed a plan for a podcast approach to teaching resilience to teachers that includes empirically based strategies and case study interviews with real teachers. A podcast platform has been chosen for ease ...


Building Resilience In Mba Students: Bouncing Back And Forward Through Challenges, Denitsa Marinova Jan 2017

Building Resilience In Mba Students: Bouncing Back And Forward Through Challenges, Denitsa Marinova

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

The raison d'être for MBA programs is to prepare students to lead and manage effectively in the real world. An overview of the unique challenges awaiting MBAs, however, reveals a blind spot in business education: It doesn’t necessarily prepare MBA students to operate effectively in the VUCA (volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous) world of today. This paper suggests that resilience training can help fill the void by enhancing the capacity of MBAs to bounce back and forward through and despite adversity. The objective of the paper is to propose a conceptual design of an evidence-based, relevant, and applicable ...


Epistemic Practices In Adults And Adolescents, Sarah Emlen Metz Jan 2017

Epistemic Practices In Adults And Adolescents, Sarah Emlen Metz

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Being epistemically responsible requires an appreciation for both the power and the limitations of human knowledge, forming and adjusting one’s beliefs in a way that is responsive to the right criteria. Epistemic responsibility is needed among the populace as well as the elite for a functional democracy. It is also crucial for the understanding of science. However, without clear, shared norms of how best to form, adjust, and justify beliefs, we cannot hold each other epistemically accountable. In this dissertation, I explore how adolescents and adults conceive of the best practices for forming beliefs. Chapter 1 asks what criteria ...


Joshua A. Fishman: A Scholar Of Unfathomable Influence, Nancy H. Hornberger Jan 2017

Joshua A. Fishman: A Scholar Of Unfathomable Influence, Nancy H. Hornberger

GSE Publications

In personal tribute to Joshua A. Fishman, I tell a few stories about this remarkable scholar as I got to know him – a glimpse of the person behind the great ideas that have so powerfully shaped our thinking. My many vivid memories of things Fishman said or wrote in my personal encounters with him – often pithy one-liners – are testimony to the power of his mind and voice, his spirit and soul. From my first year of Ph.D. study when I took his course Sociology of Bilingual Education at the 1980 Linguistic Society of America Summer Institute at the University ...


The Impact Of Attitudes Toward Science And Core Self-Evaluation On Science Achievement And Career Outcomes: A Trajectory-Based Approach, Jessica Lena Chao Jan 2017

The Impact Of Attitudes Toward Science And Core Self-Evaluation On Science Achievement And Career Outcomes: A Trajectory-Based Approach, Jessica Lena Chao

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

A talented, innovative workforce in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) is a critical component of sustained economic growth and global competitiveness. The development of this workforce is a primary concern among policymakers, industry leaders, and academics. Although many students express an interest in STEM in secondary school, many of them eventually choose not to pursue a degree or career in a STEM field. This trend has been linked to inadequate achievement, but also to lack of confidence, inconsistent interest, and shifting motivation. It is important that we understand the development of precollege socialcognitive factors affecting persistence to help identify ...


Review Of The World Bank World Development Report, Mind, Society, And Behavior, Daniel A. Wagner, Katharine W. Buek, Alejandro Adler, Nathan M. Castillo, Fatima T. Zahra, Jinsol Lee, Deepti Chittamuru, Selene S. Lee Aug 2016

Review Of The World Bank World Development Report, Mind, Society, And Behavior, Daniel A. Wagner, Katharine W. Buek, Alejandro Adler, Nathan M. Castillo, Fatima T. Zahra, Jinsol Lee, Deepti Chittamuru, Selene S. Lee

Journal Articles (Literacy.org)

The World Development Report is an annual World Bank publication that highlights the latest research and trends in international development programming. This major review carries substantial weight in setting the policy and program agenda for donor and recipient agencies around the world. The 2015 Mind, Society, and Behavior report is remarkable in that, in a field typically driven by economic principles and interventions, it focuses on the human cognitive processes that underlie social and economic decision making. This important, but often neglected, perspective is a substantial contribution to the development discussion. The report represents a noteworthy effort in identifying and ...


Non-Cognitive Dissonance: Clarifying The Theoretical Dimensions, Practical Value, And Empirical Horizons Of Non-Cognitive Skills In Teachers And Students, Adam C. Siler Aug 2016

Non-Cognitive Dissonance: Clarifying The Theoretical Dimensions, Practical Value, And Empirical Horizons Of Non-Cognitive Skills In Teachers And Students, Adam C. Siler

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

Academic literature has begun to explore the connection between so-called, non-cognitive skills (e.g. emotional intelligence, resilience, motivation, etc.) and traditional markers of student success. The literature has also begun to examine the relationship between non-cognitive skills and non-traditional markers of student success like wellbeing. Despite academic interest, there is little agreement – across a range disciplines in the humanities and social sciences - as to the theoretical dimensions of these non-cognitive skills. This is problematic at the level of theory and practice. Moreover, proponents of non-cognitive skills that invoke the conceptually flawed and self-limiting characterization may find themselves in a state ...


Revisiting Orientations In Language Planning: Problem, Right, And Resource As An Analytical Heuristic, Francis M. Hult, Nancy H. Hornberger Jan 2016

Revisiting Orientations In Language Planning: Problem, Right, And Resource As An Analytical Heuristic, Francis M. Hult, Nancy H. Hornberger

GSE Publications

In 1984, Richard Ruiz set forth three orientations to language planning: language as problem, language as right, and language as resource. Since that time, the orientations have only become more powerful, rising to the level of paradigm in the field of language policy and planning (LPP). In this paper, we revisit Ruiz’s orientations. By drawing upon Ruiz’s own work as well as the work of other scholars who have been inspired by him, we unpack the ideas aligned with each orientation in order to reflect upon the application of the three orientations as a heuristic for LPP. In ...


Daring To Dream The Impossible Dream: An Identity-Based Motivation And Goal Setting Intervention For Aspiring First Generation College Students, Erin M. Hearn Aug 2015

Daring To Dream The Impossible Dream: An Identity-Based Motivation And Goal Setting Intervention For Aspiring First Generation College Students, Erin M. Hearn

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

Little can be predicted about what the jobs of the future may look like. The most likely path to success, though, is through a college education. College not only provides graduates high salaries and more job stability, it also develops critical thinking, enhances relationship skills, and is correlated with increased well-being. Unfortunately, college access is not equal. First generation college students, students of color, and students living in poverty are not as likely to attend and graduate from college. GPA and test scores can predict 25% of college success; the remaining 75% is unknown. This paper posits that part of ...


Review Of Michel Anteby, Manufacturing Morals: The Values Of Silence In Business School Education, Nicolas Cornell Sep 2014

Review Of Michel Anteby, Manufacturing Morals: The Values Of Silence In Business School Education, Nicolas Cornell

Legal Studies and Business Ethics Papers

How can we teach people to be moral? It is a difficult, deep, and terribly important question. Michel Anteby's Manufacturing Morals aims to make a contribution to answering that question by studying the inner workings of Harvard Business School (HBS).


A Novel Calling Intervention For Career Development And Well-Being, Susanna Wu-Pong Aug 2014

A Novel Calling Intervention For Career Development And Well-Being, Susanna Wu-Pong

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

Callings describe work that serves a cause greater than oneself and provides meaning and purpose in life. Living a calling at work has been linked with a number of positive outcomes including well-being, intrinsic motivation, and life satisfaction. In this capstone, I describe a career and professional development class at a major university designed to help professional, graduate and postdoctoral students, predominantly in biomedical disciplines, find more meaning and purpose through callings. The class incorporates classic career counseling concepts with a calling framework that includes self-awareness, authentic purpose, and strengths. This capstone provides an overview of the course and a ...


Teaching Beautiful Questions: Using Literature To Teach Youth Appreciative Inquiry (Ai), Shira R. Reicher Aug 2014

Teaching Beautiful Questions: Using Literature To Teach Youth Appreciative Inquiry (Ai), Shira R. Reicher

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

Learning to ask the right questions and being empowered to dream is essential to 21st century education. In an effort to create innovative citizens who are able to compete in our increasingly diverse and competitive world, youth can be taught how to discover and build on successful aspects of the past, dream creatively about the future, ask positive questions to design plans, and deliver action. These four components, discovering, dreaming, designing, and delivering, are the mainstays of Appreciative Inquiry (AI), a positive approach to organizational development. In recent years, AI has been increasingly utilized with youth. Teaching AI facilitates ...


Magic At The Movies: Positive Psychology For Children, Adolescents And Families, Linda Jones Rufer Md Aug 2014

Magic At The Movies: Positive Psychology For Children, Adolescents And Families, Linda Jones Rufer Md

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

Children learn in part from what they see and hear, whether modeling parents’ or peers’ behavior, reading books, or viewing movies. Parents and their children share the same and often unspoken goal—to live “the good life”—in a state of well-being. Character strengths are foundational to well-being, and movies are a rich source with which to build character strengths and hence flourishing. However, even though movies are considered efficacious (and more rigorous studies are needed), there are minimal resources for parents on how to use this powerful tool with their children and teenagers. Movies are presented here as an ...


Teachers' Motivational Responses To New Teacher Performance Management Systems: An Evaluation Of The Pilot Of Aldine Isd's Invest System, Claire Robertson-Kraft Jan 2014

Teachers' Motivational Responses To New Teacher Performance Management Systems: An Evaluation Of The Pilot Of Aldine Isd's Invest System, Claire Robertson-Kraft

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Research has shown that some teachers are dramatically more effective than others and further, that these differences are among the most important schooling factors affecting student learning. Accordingly, shifts in policy have resulted in the development of new performance management systems with the goal of improving teacher effectiveness. Although a growing body of research has begun to examine the impact of recent systems, we have very limited knowledge on how these systems influence teachers' motivation and improvement. This dissertation moves the body of research forward by using expectancy-value theory and mixed-methods analysis to examine the impact of INVEST, a new ...


Towards Positive Education: A Mindful School Model, Chin Leng Ong Aug 2013

Towards Positive Education: A Mindful School Model, Chin Leng Ong

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

In a world of increasing emphasis on well-being, positive education, articulated as the teaching of skills of well-being alongside academic ones, can be a vehicle for educating both the mind and heart. The Singapore education system is moving towards a future curricula, C2015, fostering student-centric and values-driven education. This demands continued engagement of the whole-child through a co-constructive journey, a school ecosystem that encompasses total curricula and whole-school approach, and a future-oriented perspective with multiple pathways of excellence. Mindfulness is a crucial lever for enacting qualitative transformation by enabling individuals and systems to be skilful architects of internal and external ...


No School Left Uncorrupted: How Cheating, High-Stakes Testing, And Declining Budgets Affected Student Achievement In Philadelphia, James R. Sadler Apr 2013

No School Left Uncorrupted: How Cheating, High-Stakes Testing, And Declining Budgets Affected Student Achievement In Philadelphia, James R. Sadler

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

The No Child Left Behind education act, signed by President Bush in 2002, imposed high-stakes testing standards on all schools in the nation. A decade later, amidst a cheating scandal and a budget crisis, the School District of Philadelphia experienced dramatic standardized test score declines after nine years of increases. This study aims to place these declines in the context of national, state, and local education policy and provide statistical evidence for the cause of the declines. School climate among schools flagged for cheating and budget decreases experienced by all Philadelphia schools significantly contributed to the declines. Nevertheless, the major ...


Éire Higher Education: What American Can Learn From Ireland, Joni E. Finney, Laura W. Perna Dec 2012

Éire Higher Education: What American Can Learn From Ireland, Joni E. Finney, Laura W. Perna

GSE Publications

In July 2012, the executive doctoral class of 2013 from the University of Pennsylvania’s Higher Education Management Program in the Graduate School of Education conducted an in-depth comparative study of higher education in Ireland. The international study, an important component of the executive doctoral program, was structured to model research that we completed on the relationship between public policy and performance in five U.S. states: Georgia, Illinois, Maryland, Texas and Washington (http://www.gse.upenn.edu/irhe/srp). This research provided the foundation for the students’ research. Students examined four performance areas related to Irish higher education: 1 ...


Building A Foundation For School Leadership: An Evaluation Of The Annenberg Distributed Leadership Project, 2006-2010, Jonathan A. Supovitz, Matthew Riggan Aug 2012

Building A Foundation For School Leadership: An Evaluation Of The Annenberg Distributed Leadership Project, 2006-2010, Jonathan A. Supovitz, Matthew Riggan

CPRE Research Reports

Leading school change is a challenging endeavor. Successful leadership requires strategic and sustained effort, particularly in the shifting and uncertain environment of urban public schools. The concept of distributed leadership—in which multiple actors tackle the challenges of school leadership in concert—is a promising way to strengthen professional practice and thereby improve the educational experiences of all students. The Annenberg Distributed Leadership (DL) project was one of the first efforts in the nation to deliberately take on the challenge of designing and implementing a concerted effort to build distributed leadership capacity in a diverse set of urban schools to ...


Temperament In The Classroom, Angela Lee Duckworth, Kelly M. Allred Jul 2012

Temperament In The Classroom, Angela Lee Duckworth, Kelly M. Allred

Departmental Papers (Psychology)

Some students fare better than others, even when researchers control for family background, school curriculum, and teacher quality. Variance in academic performance that persists when situational variables are held constant suggests that whether students fail or thrive depends on not only circumstance but also relatively stable individual differences in how children respond to circumstance. More academically talented children, for instance, generally outperform their less able peers. Indeed, general intelligence, defined as the "ability to understand complex ideas, to adapt effectively to the environment, to learn from experience, to engage in various forms of reasoning, to overcome obstacles by taking thought ...


Relational Education: Applying Gergen’S Work To Educational Research And Practice, Stanton Wortham, Kara Jackson Jun 2012

Relational Education: Applying Gergen’S Work To Educational Research And Practice, Stanton Wortham, Kara Jackson

GSE Publications

This article sketches the implications of Gergen’s relational approach for educational research and practice. Gergen suggests that we envision education as a set of processes intended to enhance relationships. This is a radical departure from most mainstream educational research and practice, which is designed to enhance the individual’s mind. We first examine three key assumptions about individuals and about knowledge that undergird mainstream educational research and practice—an emphasis on the individual as separate from the world, an account of knowledge as decontextualized and a tendency towards hierarchies which favor purified knowledge over lesser forms. We then describe ...


The Minority Teacher Shortage: Fact Or Fable?, Richard M. Ingersoll, Henry May Sep 2011

The Minority Teacher Shortage: Fact Or Fable?, Richard M. Ingersoll, Henry May

GSE Publications

For several decades, shortages of minority teachers have been a big issue for the nation's schools. Policy makers and recent presidents have agreed that our elementary and secondary teaching force "should look like America." But the conventional wisdom is that as the nation's population and students have grown more diverse, the teaching force has done the opposite —grown more white and less diverse.


Wondering About Dialogic Theory And Practice, Stanton Wortham Mar 2011

Wondering About Dialogic Theory And Practice, Stanton Wortham

GSE Publications

This commentary engages with essentially contestable questions raised by the School of the Dialogue of Cultures. It focuses on questions about how theory should relate to practice and how a "dialogic" approach can involve students in simultaneously rigorous and relevant academic discussions.


Weather To Go To College, Uri Simonsohn Mar 2010

Weather To Go To College, Uri Simonsohn

Marketing Papers

Does current utility bias predictions of future utility for high stakes decisions? Here I provide field evidence consistent with such Projection Bias in one of life's most thought‐about decisions: college enrolment. After arguing and documenting with survey evidence that cloudiness increases the appeal of academic activities, I analyse the enrolment decisions of 1,284 prospective students who visited a university known for its academic strengths and recreational weaknesses. Consistent with the notion that current weather conditions influence decisions about future academic activities, I find that an increase in cloudcover of one standard deviation on the day of the ...