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Full-Text Articles in Education

A System For Adaptive High-Variability Segmental Perceptual Training: Implementation, Effectiveness, Transfer, Manman Qian, Evgeny Chukharev-Khudilaynen, John M. Levis Feb 2018

A System For Adaptive High-Variability Segmental Perceptual Training: Implementation, Effectiveness, Transfer, Manman Qian, Evgeny Chukharev-Khudilaynen, John M. Levis

English Publications

Many types of L2 phonological perception are often difficult to acquire without instruction. These difficulties with perception may also be related to intelligibility in production. Instruction on perception contrasts is more likely to be successful with the use of phonetically variable input made available through computer-assisted pronunciation training. However, few computer-assisted programs have demonstrated flexibility in diagnosing and treating individual learner problems or have made effective use of linguistic resources such as corpora for creating training materials. This study introduces a system for segmental perceptual training that uses a computational approach to perception utilizing corpusbased word frequency lists, high variability ...


Technology And Strategy Instruction, Jim Ranalli Feb 2018

Technology And Strategy Instruction, Jim Ranalli

English Publications

Since the 1970s, one strand of second language (L2) pedagogy has been concerned with imparting behaviors and techniques to learners that they can use independently to improve their learning and use of the target language. This strand, known as strategy instruction (SI), has faced a number of challenges including overdependence on teachers for instruction, competition for space in already crowded syllabuses, and the need to provide individualized practice and feedback on strategy use. This entry explores recent efforts to harness digital technologies in support of SI initiatives.


Teaching Ethos From The Dumpster: Dive And Food Waste Rhetoric, Abby Dubisar, Kathleen P. Hunt Oct 2017

Teaching Ethos From The Dumpster: Dive And Food Waste Rhetoric, Abby Dubisar, Kathleen P. Hunt

English Publications

This unit activity, for which students view a documentary to identify and evaluate persuasive ethos and then create their own rhetorical messages for reducing food waste, serves as a platform for teaching both the critique and practice of rhetoric, as well as familiarizing students with the complexities of the global food system and food waste.


A Move/Step Model For Methods Sections: Demonstrating Rigour And Credibility, Elena Cotos, Sarah Huffman, Stephanie Link Apr 2017

A Move/Step Model For Methods Sections: Demonstrating Rigour And Credibility, Elena Cotos, Sarah Huffman, Stephanie Link

English Publications

In the tradition of Swalesian genre theory, this manuscript explores the rhetorical composition of research article Methods sections through a top-down analysis of a corpus of nine hundred texts representative of thirty academic fields. The analysis resulted in a comprehensive cross-disciplinary model, called Demonstrating Rigour and Credibility (DRaC). The model contains three moves and sixteen steps, which are defined in terms of functional and content realizations. DRaC further served as the analytic framework for corpus annotation. Manually annotated corpus data revealed the moves and steps with high distributional prominence as well as those that are not frequent but occur consistently ...


A Model For Teaching Literary Analysis Using Systemic Functional Grammar, Shannon Mccrocklin, Tammy Slater Jan 2017

A Model For Teaching Literary Analysis Using Systemic Functional Grammar, Shannon Mccrocklin, Tammy Slater

English Publications

This article introduces an approach that middle-school teachers can follow to help their students carry out linguistic-based literary analyses. As an example, it draws on Systemic Functional Grammar (SFG) to show how J.K. Rowling used language to characterize Hermione as an intelligent female in Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows. Using a simplified SFG analysis, the authors show how teachers can help students find and use language data that can support their intuition about characters or can uncover other patterns in the text. This type of SFG analysis approach can be particularly useful for English language learners and struggling ...


Effects Of Strength Of Accent On An L2 Interactive Lecture Listening Comprehension Test, Gary Ockey, Spiros Papageorgiou, Robert French Apr 2016

Effects Of Strength Of Accent On An L2 Interactive Lecture Listening Comprehension Test, Gary Ockey, Spiros Papageorgiou, Robert French

English Publications

This article reports on a study which aimed to determine the effect of strength of accent on listening comprehension of interactive lectures. Test takers (N = 21,726) listened to an interactive lecture given by one of nine speakers and responded to six comprehension items. The test taker responses were analyzed with the Rasch computer program WINSTEPS to investigate the relative difficulty of the items associated with the nine versions of the interactive lectures. Results indicated that comprehension of interactive lectures was diminished with quite light accents, as has been found with monologic lectures.


Automated Writing Evaluation For Formative Assessment Of Second Language Writing: Investigating The Accuracy And Usefulness Of Feedback As Part Of Argument-Based Validation, Jim Ranalli, Stephanie Link, Evgeny Chukharev-Hudilainen Feb 2016

Automated Writing Evaluation For Formative Assessment Of Second Language Writing: Investigating The Accuracy And Usefulness Of Feedback As Part Of Argument-Based Validation, Jim Ranalli, Stephanie Link, Evgeny Chukharev-Hudilainen

English Publications

An increasing number of studies on the use of tools for automated writing evaluation (AWE) in writing classrooms suggest growing interest in their potential for formative assessment. As with all assessments, these applications should be validated in terms of their intended interpretations and uses. A recent argument-based validation framework outlined inferences that require backing to support integration of one AWE tool, Criterion, into a college-level English as a Second Language (ESL) writing course. The present research appraised evidence for the assumptions underlying two inferences in this argument. In the first of two studies, we assessed evidence for the evaluation inference ...


Discourse Classification Into Rhetorical Functions For Awe Feedback, Elena Cotos, Nick Pendar Jan 2016

Discourse Classification Into Rhetorical Functions For Awe Feedback, Elena Cotos, Nick Pendar

English Publications

This paper reports on the development of the analysis engine for the Research Writing Tutor (RWT), an AWE program designed to provide genre and discipline-specific feedback on the functional units of research article discourse. Unlike traditional NLP-based applications that categorize complete documents, RWT’s analyzer categorizes every sentence in the text as both a communicative move and a rhetorical step. We describe the construction of a cascade of two support vector machine classifiers trained on a multi-disciplinary corpus of annotated Introduction texts. This work not only demonstrates the usefulness of NLP for automated genre analysis, but also paves the road ...


The Effects Of Item Preview On Video-Based Multiple-Choice Listening Assessments, Dennis Koyama, Angela Sun, Gary Ockey Jan 2016

The Effects Of Item Preview On Video-Based Multiple-Choice Listening Assessments, Dennis Koyama, Angela Sun, Gary Ockey

English Publications

Multiple-choice formats remain a popular design for assessing listening comprehension, yet no consensus has been reached on how multiple-choice formats should be employed. Some researchers argue that test takers must be provided with a preview of the items prior to the input (Buck, 1995; Sherman, 1997); others argue that a preview may decrease the authenticity of the task by changing the way input is processed (Hughes, 2003). Using stratified random sampling techniques, more and less proficient Japanese university English learners (N = 206) were assigned one of three test conditions: preview of question stem and answer options (n = 67), preview of ...


Studying Disciplinary Corpora To Teach The Craft Of Discussion, Elena Cotos, Stephanie Link, Sarah Rebecca Huffman Jan 2016

Studying Disciplinary Corpora To Teach The Craft Of Discussion, Elena Cotos, Stephanie Link, Sarah Rebecca Huffman

English Publications

Producing publishable quality research articles is a difficult task for novice scholarly writers. Particularly challenging is writing the Discussion/Conclusion section, which requires taking evaluative and interpretive stances on obtained results and substantiating claims regarding the worth of the scholarly contribution of the article to scientific knowledge. Conforming to the expectations of the target disciplinary community adds another dimension to the challenge. Corpus-based genre analysis can foster postgraduate writing instruction by providing insightful descriptions of rhetorical patterns and variation in disciplinary discourse. This paper introduces a pedagogically-oriented cross-disciplinary model of moves and steps devised through top-down corpus analysis. The model ...


The Design Of An Instrument To Evaluate Sotware For Efl/Esl Pronunciation Teaching, John Levis, Cristiana Gomes De Fretias Menezes Martins, Vladia Maria Cabral Borges Jan 2016

The Design Of An Instrument To Evaluate Sotware For Efl/Esl Pronunciation Teaching, John Levis, Cristiana Gomes De Fretias Menezes Martins, Vladia Maria Cabral Borges

English Publications

This study aimed at designing an instrument composed of 72 questions that evaluate the extent to which sotware programs teach pronunciation of English as a Foreign Language and/or Second Language (EFL/ESL) following the principles of the Communicative Approach (Celce-Murcia et al, 2010). he designed instrument was tested for reliability and validity. For this purpose, 46 EFL/ESL teachers used the instrument to analyze an online version of the sotware program Pronunciation Power 2. he participants’ answers to the questions were subjected to reliability and validity tests. he results of these statistical tests suggest the instrument is potentially valid ...


Diving Into Food Justice: Food Waste In The Anthropocene, Kathleen P. Hunt, Abby Dubisar Jan 2016

Diving Into Food Justice: Food Waste In The Anthropocene, Kathleen P. Hunt, Abby Dubisar

English Publications

The Anthropocene calls for greater attention to the various and complicated ways by which humans interact with the environment and compels critical dialogue to identify and implement alternative solutions. With few exceptions, organisms (including human and more-than-human) require food as a biological need for survival. The global agrifood system has broad environmental consequences. For example, “getting food from the farm to our fork eats up 10 percent of the total U.S. energy budget, uses 50 percent of U.S. land, and swallows 80 percent of all freshwater consumed in the United States” (Gunders, 2012). Food ranks among the top ...


Automated Writing Analysis For Writing Pedagogy: From Healthy Tension To Tangible Prospects, Elena Cotos Jan 2015

Automated Writing Analysis For Writing Pedagogy: From Healthy Tension To Tangible Prospects, Elena Cotos

English Publications

This article aims to engage specialists in writing pedagogy, assessment, genre study, and educational technologies in a constructive dialog and joint exploration of automated writing analysis as a potent instantiation of computer-enhanced assessment for learning. It recounts the values of writing pedagogy and, from this perspective, examines legitimate concerns with automated writing analysis. Emphasis is placed on the need to substantiate the construct-driven debate with systematic empirical evidence that would corroborate or refute interpretations, uses, and consequences of automated scoring and feedback tools intended for specific contexts. Such evidence can be obtained by adopting a validity argument framework. To demonstrate ...


Validity Arguments For Diagnostic Assessment Using Automated Writing Evaluation, Carol Chapelle, Elena Cotos, Jooyoung Lee Jan 2015

Validity Arguments For Diagnostic Assessment Using Automated Writing Evaluation, Carol Chapelle, Elena Cotos, Jooyoung Lee

English Publications

Two examples demonstrate an argument-based approach to validation of diagnostic assessment using automated writing evaluation (AWE). Criterion ®, was developed by Educational Testing Service to analyze students’ papers grammatically, providing sentence-level error feedback. An interpretive argument was developed for its use as part of the diagnostic assessment process in undergraduate university English for academic purposes (EAP) classes. The Intelligent Academic Discourse Evaluator (IADE) was developed for use in graduate EAP university classes, where the goal was to help students improve their discipline-specific writing. The validation for each was designed to support claims about the intended purposes of the assessments. We present ...


New And Not So New Methods For Assessing Oral Communication, Gary Ockey, Zhi Li Jan 2015

New And Not So New Methods For Assessing Oral Communication, Gary Ockey, Zhi Li

English Publications

The assessment of oral communication has continued to evolve over the past few decades. The construct being assessed has broadened to include interactional competence, and technology has played a role in the types of tasks that are currently popular. In this paper, we discuss the factors that affect the process of oral communication assessment, current conceptualizations of the construct to be assessed, and five tasks that are used to assess this construct. These tasks include oral proficiency interviews, paired/group oral discussion tasks, simulated tasks, integrated oral communication tasks, and elicited imitation tasks. We evaluate these tasks based on current ...


Furthering And Applying Move/Step Constructs: Technology-Driven Marshalling Of Swalesian Genre Theory For Eap Pedagogy, Elena Cotos, Sarah Huffman, Stephanie Link Jan 2015

Furthering And Applying Move/Step Constructs: Technology-Driven Marshalling Of Swalesian Genre Theory For Eap Pedagogy, Elena Cotos, Sarah Huffman, Stephanie Link

English Publications

John Swales' seminal work has inspired a wealth of research with important pedagogical implications for genre-based writing instruction. Continuing the prolific move analysis tradition in EAP research, this article presents empirically devised and validated cross-disciplinary IMRD move/step frameworks for the research article genre and demonstrates how Swales' move and step concepts underlying these frameworks formed the foundation of innovative genre-based automated writing evaluation technology. Overall, this paper makes the relationships between genre theory, genre analysis, and genre instruction explicit, demonstrating that move analysis is a powerful and promising theoretical, analytic, and teaching construct. With that, we take Swales' vision ...


Structural Equation Modeling Reporting Practices For Language Assessment, Gary Ockey, Ikkyu Choi Jan 2015

Structural Equation Modeling Reporting Practices For Language Assessment, Gary Ockey, Ikkyu Choi

English Publications

Studies that use structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques are increasingly encountered in the language assessment literature. This popularity has created the need for a set of guidelines that can indicate what should be included in a research report and make it possible for research consumers to judge the appropriateness of the interpretations made from a reported study. This article attempts to fill this void by providing a set of reporting guidelines appropriate for language assessment researchers.


Tasks, Experiential Learning And Meaning Making Activities: A Functional Approach, Bernard Mohan, Tammy Slater, Gulbahar Beckett, Esther Tong Jan 2015

Tasks, Experiential Learning And Meaning Making Activities: A Functional Approach, Bernard Mohan, Tammy Slater, Gulbahar Beckett, Esther Tong

English Publications

It is important for task-based learning and teaching research to focus on academic content tasks that involve form and meaning, language and content, and academic discourse and disciplinary knowledge. This is needed to address problems such as low academic achievement by English language learners. We argue that the SFL approach to language, particularly in the area of ‘field’ and ideational meaning, can support a rich model of experiential learning in the wider context of socio-semantic meaning-making activities that can illuminate issues regarding the analysis and development of language as a means of learning. We will illustrate this model with two ...


Learners’ Views Of Social Issues In Pronunciation Learning, John Levis Jan 2015

Learners’ Views Of Social Issues In Pronunciation Learning, John Levis

English Publications

Success in L2 pronunciation learning is affected by both individual differ-ences and social influences on learning. While individual differences have been extensively researched, social influences have not. This study examines the beliefs and attitudes of advanced learners of English in regard to their pronunciation abilities and improvement. Twelve graduate students took part in four weeks of individualized pronunciation tutoring followed by inter-views asking about their pronunciation, use of English, and their pronuncition in social contexts. The interviews revealed four images of their pronunciation learning. The first was that their spoken language skills left them feeling pulled in conflicting directions; the ...


Learner Dictionaries, Jim Ranalli Jan 2014

Learner Dictionaries, Jim Ranalli

English Publications

The phrase learner dictionary is typically used to describe monolingual lexical reference tools designed for learners of a second or foreign language (L2). Such dictionaries have been created to support the learning of a number of European and Asian languages, but the best known and most in!uential learner dictionaries are produced in English, by major publishers in the United Kingdom and, more recently, in the United States. In contrast to bilingual dictionaries, which have been used by language learners for hundreds of years, monolingual learner dictionaries – also known as pedagogical, ELT (English-language teaching), or EFL (English as a foreign ...


From One To Multiple Accents On A Test Of L2 Listening Comprehension, Gary Ockey, Robert French Jan 2014

From One To Multiple Accents On A Test Of L2 Listening Comprehension, Gary Ockey, Robert French

English Publications

Concerns about the need for assessing multidialectal listening skills for global contexts are becoming increasingly prevalent. However, the inclusion of multiple accents on listening assessments may threaten test fairness because it is not practical to include every accent that may be encountered in the language use domain on these tests. Given this dilemma, this study aimed to determine the extent to which accent strength and familiarity affect comprehension and to provide a defensible direction for assessing multidialectal listening comprehension. A strength of accent scale was developed, and one US, four Australian, and four British English speakers of English were selected ...


Wac/Wid Meets Cxc/Cid: A Dialogue Between Writing Studies And Communication Studies, Denise Ann Vrchota, David R. Russell Oct 2013

Wac/Wid Meets Cxc/Cid: A Dialogue Between Writing Studies And Communication Studies, Denise Ann Vrchota, David R. Russell

English Publications

We work in the same English Department doing the same kind of work—but in two very different fields. Here at Iowa State University (ISU), English includes Speech Communication and Communication Studies. We sat down to have a coffee, find out what we have in common (and do not), and speculate about the future.


Teaching Environmental Justice Through The Hunger Games, Brianna R. Burke Jan 2013

Teaching Environmental Justice Through The Hunger Games, Brianna R. Burke

English Publications

No abstract provided.


Online Strategy Instruction For Vocabulary Depth-Of-Knowledge And Web-Based Dictionary Skills, Jim Ranalli Jan 2013

Online Strategy Instruction For Vocabulary Depth-Of-Knowledge And Web-Based Dictionary Skills, Jim Ranalli

English Publications

This paper explores the feasibility of an automated, online form of L2 strategy instruction (SI) as an alternative to conventional, classroom-based forms that rely primarily on teachers. Feasibility was evaluated by studying the effectiveness, both actual and perceived, of a five-week, online SI course designed to teach web-based dictionary skills integrated with knowledge of lexical patterns (involving grammatical collocation, complementation, and transitivity). Sixty-four learners in a US university ESL composition course were matched for vocabulary size and then randomly assigned to treatment and comparison groups in a learning management system. The SI treatment comprised multimedia presentations and a variety of ...


Motivational Scaffolding, Politeness, And Writing Center Tutoring, Jo Mackiewicz, Isabelle Thompson Jan 2013

Motivational Scaffolding, Politeness, And Writing Center Tutoring, Jo Mackiewicz, Isabelle Thompson

English Publications

Writing center tutors know that improving writing skills requires sustained effort over a long period of time. They also know that motivation - the drive to actively invest in sustained effort toward a goal- is essential for writing improvement. However, a tutor may not work with the same student more than once, so tutorials often need to focus on what can be done in a single 30- to 60-minute conference. Further, although tutors are likely to attempt to motivate students to invest time and effort in improving their writing, when writers leave the writing center, tutors' influence might end with the ...


The Structural Consistency Of A Six-Factor Model Of Academic Self-Concept Among Culturally Diverse Preadolescents In The United States, Gary Ockey, Sarah Abercrombie Jan 2013

The Structural Consistency Of A Six-Factor Model Of Academic Self-Concept Among Culturally Diverse Preadolescents In The United States, Gary Ockey, Sarah Abercrombie

English Publications

For decades, research has indicated that preadolescents’ self-concept is comprised of subject-specific academic factors, a general academic factor, and several nonacademic factors. More recently, there have been some indications that academic self-concept might further be differentiated into competence and affect factors, at least for some preadolescent ethnic groups. This study examines the extent to which a 6-factor model of academic self-concept, in which competence and affect are distinct, is tenable for White, Hispanic, and Native American preadolescents. A total of 313 White, 331 Hispanic, and 224 Native American preadolescents from the southwestern United States were administered a modified version of ...


Designing Online Strategy Instruction For Integrated Vocabulary Depth Of Knowledge And Web-Based Dictionary Skills, Jim Ranalli Jan 2013

Designing Online Strategy Instruction For Integrated Vocabulary Depth Of Knowledge And Web-Based Dictionary Skills, Jim Ranalli

English Publications

This paper describes the design and development of a CALL resource that teaches aspects of word combinability (i.e., grammatical collocation, transitivity, and complementation) to tertiary-level ESL learners by integrating conceptual understanding with related text-analysis and web-based dictionary skills. The resource delivers an automated, online form of strategy instruction outside of class time, facilitating self-paced learning with sufficient practice and feedback. In addition to the L2 lexicography, vocabulary, and strategy literatures, the project is informed by instructional design principles aimed at 1) managing demands on learners’ cognitive processing capacities; 2) differentiating materials so as to appropriately target declarative or procedural ...


Alternative Models Of Self-Regulation And Implications For L2 Strategy Research, Jim Ranalli Jan 2012

Alternative Models Of Self-Regulation And Implications For L2 Strategy Research, Jim Ranalli

English Publications

In this paper I discuss the proposal of Dörnyei and colleagues (Dörnyei, 2005; Tseng, Dörnyei, & Schmitt, 2006) to replace the construct of learning strategy with that of self-regulation and thus shift the research focus from specific strategic behaviors to a trait that is seen to underlie them. I argue that before doing so, we need a fuller understanding of what self-regulation entails and how it might intersect with traditional concerns of second language strategy research. To contribute to this understanding, I highlight alternative conceptualizations of self-regulation and then use data from my doctoral research to illustrate one in particular, the ...


Towards Effective Integration And Positive Impact Of Automated Writing Evaluation In L2 Writing, Elena Cotos Jan 2012

Towards Effective Integration And Positive Impact Of Automated Writing Evaluation In L2 Writing, Elena Cotos

English Publications

The increasing dominance of English has elevated the need to develop an ability to effectively communicate in writing, and this has put a strain on second language education programs worldwide. Faced with time-consuming and copious commenting on student drafts and inspired by the promise of computerized writing assessment, many "educational technology enthusiasts are looking to A WE [automated writing evaluation] as a silver bullet for language and literacy development" (Warschauer & Ware, 2006, p. 175). This chapter reviews what AWE offers for learners and teachers and raises a number of controversies regarding A WE effectiveness with the underlying message that clear ...


Review Of Wimba Voice 6.0 Collaborative Suite, Elena Cotos Jan 2011

Review Of Wimba Voice 6.0 Collaborative Suite, Elena Cotos

English Publications

Wimba Voice 6.0TM is a component of the Wimba Collaboraton SuiteTM 6.0, which is a set of tools for online communication that combines a series of interactive technologies. Wimba Voice allows teachers to complement their pedagogical approaches with five web-based applications: Voice Authoring, Voice Board, Voice Podcaster, Voice Presenter, and Voice Email. These applications add audio and video components to asynchronous communication and can be easily integrated into different course management environments (e.g., Angel, Blackboard, Moodle, WebCT). Consequently, Wimba Voice has attracted the interest of an increasing number of language educators who are striving to enhance teaching ...