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Educational Methods

University of Pennsylvania

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Articles 151 - 168 of 168

Full-Text Articles in Education

Social Factors In Literacy Acquisition, Daniel A. Wagner Jan 1993

Social Factors In Literacy Acquisition, Daniel A. Wagner

Book Chapters (Literacy.org)

The acquisition of any human skill, physical or mental, depends on the interplay among a wide variety of factors. Earlier research and our own observations in Moroccan society suggested the possibility that certain social features of children's lives would be related to literacy acquisition in school. Therefore, our research was designed so that these factors might be directly and empirically studied. It was assumed that some of the factors found to affect reading achievement in the West might be related similarly to literacy in Morocco, but we also wanted to study facors specific to Morocco, such as Quranic preschooling ...


School-Based Management: Strategies For Success, University Of Pennsylvania Jan 1993

School-Based Management: Strategies For Success, University Of Pennsylvania

CPRE Policy Briefs

This issue of CPRE Finance Briefs offers a new definition of school-based management and describes strategies for decentralizing management to improve the design of SBM plans. The design strategies focus on the four components of control: power, knowledge, information, and rewards.

Research on the private sector shows large-scale change, such as decentralization, cannot be simply installed. Rather it unfolds over time through a gradual learning process. Therefore, the transition to SBM is best approached by establishing structures and processes that enable groups of people to discuss new directions, try new approaches, and learn from them. The second part of this ...


The Restructured Wharton Mba: Inventing A New Paradigm, Jerry Yoram Wind Apr 1991

The Restructured Wharton Mba: Inventing A New Paradigm, Jerry Yoram Wind

Marketing Papers

On Tuesday, February 12, 1991, the faculty of the Wharton School approved a plan to design and test a new paradigm for its MBA curriculum—the most far-reaching restructuring of its MBA program since the 1960s.

The new graduate program, which will initially be launched with 130 students in two experimental cohorts this fall, not only creates a new framework for the MBA program. It also creates a mechanism for continuous innovation that will ensure that Wharton remains on the leading edge of management education in years to come.


Who's A Literate? Assessment Issues In A Global Perspective, Daniel A. Wagner Mar 1990

Who's A Literate? Assessment Issues In A Global Perspective, Daniel A. Wagner

Journal Articles (Literacy.org)

Demographic and economic changes around the world and the linkage between literacy and development have made literacy a critical issue especially in the developing countries. But the uncertainty about the nature and extent of literacy has necessitated taking a new look at literacy assessment. Policy-makers have been hampered not only by too little data, but also by a failure to capture varying types and levels of literacy in each society. Dichotomies like "literate—illiterate" are inappropriate for conceptualising the problem and limit the potential for more effective decision-making. The paper analyses the problems of determining reliable and valid criteria for ...


Literacy Assessment In The Third World: An Overview And Proposed Schema For Survey Use, Daniel A. Wagner Feb 1990

Literacy Assessment In The Third World: An Overview And Proposed Schema For Survey Use, Daniel A. Wagner

Journal Articles (Literacy.org)

Many countries have sought to increase literacy among their populations. Rationales for such efforts usually involve the consequences for economic development, as well as for human development, health, and lower fertility. Programs for increasing literacy have often involved the expansion of educational programs, in particular primary schooling, and the creation of literacy programs and campaigns. However, a central paradox in efforts to reduce illiteracy in today's world is that much effort has been invested and little knowledge gained about how best to achieve success. According to one recent analysis by a Unesco expert, the well-known Experimental World Literacy Program ...


Toward Defining Literacy, Richard L. Venezky, Daniel A. Wagner, Barrie S. Ciliberti Jan 1990

Toward Defining Literacy, Richard L. Venezky, Daniel A. Wagner, Barrie S. Ciliberti

Book Chapters (Literacy.org)

Literacy is a topic much on the public's mind these days. It is one of those subjects on which all laypersons think they are experts. When it comes time, however, to establish measures of illiteracy rates or to set policies, it becomes apparent that we know less than we thought we did. It is small comfort to know that specialists also have their differences.


Repeating Grades In School: Current Practice And Research Evidence, University Of Pennsylvania Jan 1990

Repeating Grades In School: Current Practice And Research Evidence, University Of Pennsylvania

CPRE Policy Briefs

Retaining students in grade is often used as a means to raise educational standards. Many believe that repeating a grade is an effective remedy for students who have failed to master basic skills. Therefore, grade retention is relatively prevalent in this nation.

However, research on student retention indicates that it does not work as intended to assure mastery of skills, avoid failure at higher grade levels and lower dropout rates. This issue of CPRE Policy Briefs is based on material in a recently published book, Flunking Grades: Research and Policies on Retention (London: Falmer, 1989). The book's editors, Lorrie ...


State Education Reform In The 1980s, University Of Pennsylvania Nov 1989

State Education Reform In The 1980s, University Of Pennsylvania

CPRE Policy Briefs

To shed light on these questions, in 1986 the Center for Policy Research in Education (CPRE) began a five-year study of the implementation and effects of state education reforms in six states chosen for their diverse approaches to reform: Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, Minnesota, and Pennsylvania.

Some findings from the first three years of this research were published by CPRE in a report, The Progress of Reform: An appraisal of State Education Initiatives, written by William A. Firestone, Susan H. Fuhrman and Michael W. Kirst. In writing the report, the authors relied to a great extent on research conducted by ...


Graduating From High School: New Standards In The States, University Of Pennsylvania Apr 1989

Graduating From High School: New Standards In The States, University Of Pennsylvania

CPRE Policy Briefs

This brief examines attempts by states to improve public education by increasing high school course requirements in 1989. According to a report published by the Center for Policy Research in Education, these attempts have had mixed results. As a result of the reforms, low-and middle-achieving students are taking more courses in science and math, but there are serious questions about the quality of the courses themselves. This issue of CPRE Policy Briefs is based on the report which was written with assistance from Paula White and Janice Patterson.


The Effects Of High School Organization On Dropping Out, Anthony S. Bryk, Yeow Meng Thum Feb 1989

The Effects Of High School Organization On Dropping Out, Anthony S. Bryk, Yeow Meng Thum

CPRE Policy Briefs

This paper examines the effects of school characteristics on both the probability of dropping out and the strongest predictor of dropping out - absenteeism. The authors employ a sub-sample from the High School and Beyond database which contains results of background questionnaires and standardized achievement tests given in 1980 to approximately 30,000 sophomores in 110 public and private high schools. The students, both those still in school as well as those who had dropped out, were resurveyed two years later. Supplemental school data were also obtained from principal questionnaires.


Education And Childhood In Japan: Lessons To Be Learned? Review Of Merry White, The Japanese Educational Challenge: A Commitment To Children, And Harold W. Stevenson, Hiroshi Azuma, And Kenji Hakuta (Eds.), Child Development And Education In Japan, Daniel A. Wagner Jan 1988

Education And Childhood In Japan: Lessons To Be Learned? Review Of Merry White, The Japanese Educational Challenge: A Commitment To Children, And Harold W. Stevenson, Hiroshi Azuma, And Kenji Hakuta (Eds.), Child Development And Education In Japan, Daniel A. Wagner

Journal Articles (Literacy.org)

America's increased concern about its economic productivity has led government and public officials to start searching for policy responses. Some suggest economic remedies tied to interest rates, tariffs, and the like. Others have sought to link the current malaise with a number of differences that distinguish America from its most obvious economic rival, Japan. Representing the latter perspective, the former Secretary of Education, William Bennett, has suggested that is is education that is the critical factor in producing different human capital between the two industrial powers. He, and many others, claim that the Japanese culture in general, and Japanese ...


Review Of S.A. Ashraf, New Horizons In Muslim Education, Daniel A. Wagner Feb 1987

Review Of S.A. Ashraf, New Horizons In Muslim Education, Daniel A. Wagner

Journal Articles (Literacy.org)

Between 1977 and 1982, a series of four world conferences on Muslim education were held in various Muslim countries that all dealt with aspects of how contemporary Muslims can maintain Islamic values in the modern educational world. Ashraf was one of the principal organizers of these conferences and contributed a key-note address for each one. The present small volume is a collection of these papers, which range from the general nature of the Islamic education to the development of curricula, new textbooks, and new teaching methods.


Le Developpement Precoce De La Memoire Specialisee, Daniel A. Wagner Jan 1987

Le Developpement Precoce De La Memoire Specialisee, Daniel A. Wagner

Journal Articles (Literacy.org)

The study of specialized memory skills has a relative long history in experimental psychology, particularly with research on adults who practice their mnemonic skills within particular domains. The present study was designed to investigate the development of specialized mnemonic skills among young children. The study was undertaken in Morocco, which provided a context where 350 6-7 year old children were selected in such a way which allowed contrasts in terms of: preschool experience (none vs. Quranic vs. modern preschool); environment (urban vs. rural); maternal language (Arabic vs. Berber); and gender. Six differenct memory tests were employed including 4 different tests ...


Ethno-Graphies: An Introduction, Daniel A. Wagner Jan 1983

Ethno-Graphies: An Introduction, Daniel A. Wagner

Journal Articles (Literacy.org)

'Literacy is a remarkable term. While seeming to refer to simple individual possession of the complementary mental technologies of reading and writing, literacy is not only difficult to define in individuals and delimit within societies, but it is also charged with emotional and political meaning. It was not long ago that newspapers and scholars referred to whole societies as 'illiterate and uncivilized' as a single referent, and 'illiterate' is still a term which carries a negative connotation.


Learning To Read By 'Rote', Daniel A. Wagner, Abdelhamid Lotfi Jan 1983

Learning To Read By 'Rote', Daniel A. Wagner, Abdelhamid Lotfi

Journal Articles (Literacy.org)

Information about traditional Islamic (or Quranic) education dates back to its inception over 1400 years ago in the Arabian Peninsula. During this millennium, Islamic religious schools have spread with Islam to more than 40 countries, spanning half the globe and teaching tens of millions of children (although exact statistics are still unavailable). Until recently, most research on Islamic schooling was historical, focused on philosophy, and was based on secondary sources (e.g., Ahmed 1968; Nakosteen 1964; Rosenthal 1947; Tales 1939; Tritton 1957; Yacoub 1890). In the last several years, a number of investigators have begun to study the various roles ...


How To Shake Hands With A Foreigner. Review Of Stephen Bochner (Ed.), Cultures In Contact: Studies In Cross-Cultural Interaction, Daniel A. Wagner Jan 1983

How To Shake Hands With A Foreigner. Review Of Stephen Bochner (Ed.), Cultures In Contact: Studies In Cross-Cultural Interaction, Daniel A. Wagner

Journal Articles (Literacy.org)

"Culture shock" is a term that is frequently used by professionals and lay-persons alike when considering nontrivial interactions with a foreign culture. Although the term has long been understood by those who have experienced the sensation, it is only in the last decade or so that the psychology of culture shock has been seriously considered as a subject of scientific inquiry. In order to bring together research and researchers in this area, a meeting was held at Oxford University in 1979; the present volume of papers it its product.


New Days For Old Ways: Islamic Education In A Changing World, Daniel A. Wagner Jan 1983

New Days For Old Ways: Islamic Education In A Changing World, Daniel A. Wagner

Journal Articles (Literacy.org)

In 1981, Prof. Daniel A. Wagner of the University of Pennsylvania (U.S.A.) and Prof. Abdelhamid Lotfi of Mohamed V University (Morocco) undertook a comparative study of traditional Islamic education in five countries of Africa, Asia, and the Middle East. Funded by the Ford Foundation, the U.S. Social Science Research Council, and IDRC, the study aimed to provide descriptive and analytical perspectives on Quranic schools. The following article is primarily extracted from two papers prepared by Dr. Wagner as a result of the study.


Traditional Islamic Education In Morocco: Sociohistorical And Psychological Perspectives, Daniel A. Wagner, Abdelhamid Lotfi Jun 1980

Traditional Islamic Education In Morocco: Sociohistorical And Psychological Perspectives, Daniel A. Wagner, Abdelhamid Lotfi

Journal Articles (Literacy.org)

As in many parts of the Muslim world, traditional Islamic schooling1 in Morocco predates a crucial historical role in the training of the nation's youth and continues to reach a higher percentage of school-age children than has the modern school system. Although such traditional Quranic schooling may have touched the lives of most Moroccans, its impact — relative to the modern school system — is not yet fully understood. Probably the most difficult aspect of analyzing the impact of Quranic schools, and there are a number of levels of analysis upon which such education may be observed and discussed. Any ...