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Educational Methods

University of Pennsylvania

1990

Articles 1 - 4 of 4

Full-Text Articles in Education

Who's A Literate? Assessment Issues In A Global Perspective, Daniel A. Wagner Mar 1990

Who's A Literate? Assessment Issues In A Global Perspective, Daniel A. Wagner

Journal Articles (Literacy.org)

Demographic and economic changes around the world and the linkage between literacy and development have made literacy a critical issue especially in the developing countries. But the uncertainty about the nature and extent of literacy has necessitated taking a new look at literacy assessment. Policy-makers have been hampered not only by too little data, but also by a failure to capture varying types and levels of literacy in each society. Dichotomies like "literate—illiterate" are inappropriate for conceptualising the problem and limit the potential for more effective decision-making. The paper analyses the problems of determining reliable and valid criteria for ...


Literacy Assessment In The Third World: An Overview And Proposed Schema For Survey Use, Daniel A. Wagner Feb 1990

Literacy Assessment In The Third World: An Overview And Proposed Schema For Survey Use, Daniel A. Wagner

Journal Articles (Literacy.org)

Many countries have sought to increase literacy among their populations. Rationales for such efforts usually involve the consequences for economic development, as well as for human development, health, and lower fertility. Programs for increasing literacy have often involved the expansion of educational programs, in particular primary schooling, and the creation of literacy programs and campaigns. However, a central paradox in efforts to reduce illiteracy in today's world is that much effort has been invested and little knowledge gained about how best to achieve success. According to one recent analysis by a Unesco expert, the well-known Experimental World Literacy Program ...


Toward Defining Literacy, Richard L. Venezky, Daniel A. Wagner, Barrie S. Ciliberti Jan 1990

Toward Defining Literacy, Richard L. Venezky, Daniel A. Wagner, Barrie S. Ciliberti

Book Chapters (Literacy.org)

Literacy is a topic much on the public's mind these days. It is one of those subjects on which all laypersons think they are experts. When it comes time, however, to establish measures of illiteracy rates or to set policies, it becomes apparent that we know less than we thought we did. It is small comfort to know that specialists also have their differences.


Repeating Grades In School: Current Practice And Research Evidence, University Of Pennsylvania Jan 1990

Repeating Grades In School: Current Practice And Research Evidence, University Of Pennsylvania

CPRE Policy Briefs

Retaining students in grade is often used as a means to raise educational standards. Many believe that repeating a grade is an effective remedy for students who have failed to master basic skills. Therefore, grade retention is relatively prevalent in this nation.

However, research on student retention indicates that it does not work as intended to assure mastery of skills, avoid failure at higher grade levels and lower dropout rates. This issue of CPRE Policy Briefs is based on material in a recently published book, Flunking Grades: Research and Policies on Retention (London: Falmer, 1989). The book's editors, Lorrie ...