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Full-Text Articles in Education

What Does Kosovo Teach Us About Using Human Rights Law To Prosecute Corruption Offences?, Bryane Michael Jan 2010

What Does Kosovo Teach Us About Using Human Rights Law To Prosecute Corruption Offences?, Bryane Michael

Bryane Michael (bryane.michael@stcatz.ox.ac.uk)

If a patient must pay a bribe to obtain life-saving surgery, does the doctor’s solicitation of a bribe represent a violation of the victim’s human rights? This paper explores the ways in which anti-corruption practitioners can look to various provisions in human rights law in order to prevent or prosecute corruption-related offences. We use Kosovo as a case study because its constitution gives direct effect to the major international human rights conventions. We find -- using Kosovo as a case study -- that some types of corruption lead to separately prosecutable human rights offences. We also find that pre-existing violations ...


What Do We Know About Corruption (And Anti-Corruption) In Customs?, Bryane Michael, Nigel Moore Jan 2010

What Do We Know About Corruption (And Anti-Corruption) In Customs?, Bryane Michael, Nigel Moore

Bryane Michael (bryane.michael@stcatz.ox.ac.uk)

What are the lessons from anti-corruption programmes in Customs agencies over the last 20 years? The data suggest that many of the usual activities -- like codes of conduct and posters do not work. Internal inspectorates, and particularly internal audit, has a large effect on reducing corruption. A review of the literature and best practice presented.


Do Customs Trade Facilitation Programmes Help Reduce Customs-Related Corruption?, Bryane Michael, Frank Ferguson, Alisher Karimov Jan 2010

Do Customs Trade Facilitation Programmes Help Reduce Customs-Related Corruption?, Bryane Michael, Frank Ferguson, Alisher Karimov

Bryane Michael (bryane.michael@stcatz.ox.ac.uk)

Customs-related corruption costs World Customs Organisation (WCO) members at least $2 billion in customs revenue each year. Using recent data only about bribe payers’ actual experiences in paying bribes, we show that trade facilitation would only help reduce corruption and improve efficiency – in a large number of customs agencies -- if the customs agency’s director undertakes a big-bang approach to reform. We also find support for the corruption clubs theory – that customs agencies in the process of reform are either moving toward OECD levels of integrity and efficiency; or they are sliding toward a “red zone” group of countries. Such ...


Foreign Under-Investment In Us Securities And The Role Of Relational Capital, Bryane Michael Jan 2010

Foreign Under-Investment In Us Securities And The Role Of Relational Capital, Bryane Michael

Bryane Michael (bryane.michael@stcatz.ox.ac.uk)

Over 70 academic papers attempt to explain why foreigners invest in US securities. All ignore the vital role of the US broker-dealer. Macroeconomic factors like a trade balance or corporate governance may guide foreign investors toward certain markets. But US broker-dealers provide information to foreign investors and execute the actual trades. We hypothesize that particular foreign investors under-invest in US securities because of a lack of relational capital with US broker-dealers. We find that broker-dealer marketing intensity in foreign markets partly explains foreigners’ decisions to invest in US securities. We also estimate “pent-up” demand for US securities in developing countries ...


The Size And Structure Of Government, Bryane Michael, Maja Popov Jan 2010

The Size And Structure Of Government, Bryane Michael, Maja Popov

Bryane Michael (bryane.michael@stcatz.ox.ac.uk)

Does government size and structure adapt to changes in government’s organisational environment (particularly to uncertainty and complexity) as predicted by organisational theory? We find – using a range of statistical analyses – support for each of the major theories of organisation adaptation (the contingency-based view, resource-based view, and rational choice view). We find that both government size and structure change – holding other factors constant – for changes in the uncertainty and complexity of governments’ organisational environments. We find seven clusters of governments which adapt their organisational sizes differently in response to changes in the uncertainty and complexity of their organisational environments – and ...