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Full-Text Articles in Education

Elaboration Theory And Cognitive Psychology, M. Merrill, Jeffrey Kelety, Brent Wilson Mar 2016

Elaboration Theory And Cognitive Psychology, M. Merrill, Jeffrey Kelety, Brent Wilson

Brent Wilson

Describes the Elaboration Theory of Instruction (ETI) and charts its correspondence with several major principles drawn from contemporary cognitive psychology. Components of the ETI are related to current models of knowledge representation, schema theory, memory processes, and earlier cognitive based instructional frameworks. Fifty-three references are listed.


How Do Instructional Designers Evaluate? A Qualitative Study Of Evaluation In Practice, David Williams, Joseph South, Stephen Yanchar, Brent Wilson, Stephanie Allen Mar 2016

How Do Instructional Designers Evaluate? A Qualitative Study Of Evaluation In Practice, David Williams, Joseph South, Stephen Yanchar, Brent Wilson, Stephanie Allen

Brent Wilson

This study employed a qualitative research design to investigate how instructional designers use evaluation in everyday design practice. While past research has examined how designers spend their time, how they generally make decisions, and expertnovice differences, little attention has been paid to use of context, input, process, or product evaluation, from the perspective of practicing designers. Based on interviews of practitioners, our findings included ten themes regarding how designers use evaluation to improve their products. While these results substantiate to some degree the claim that practitioners believe clients will not pay for formal evaluations, they also suggest that practitioners use ...


Using Content Structure In Course Design, Brent Wilson Mar 2016

Using Content Structure In Course Design, Brent Wilson

Brent Wilson

The purpose of this article is to suggest some strategies for analyzing and organizing concepts in a given content area, following the elaboration theory of instruction. Based on three main kinds of structure — taxonomies, procedures, and models — the following principles are presented: 1) teach content structure explicitly through diagram, figures, and text cues, 2) use content structure in the organization of lessons; that is, course structure should reflect content structure, and 3) sequence instruction in a general-to-detailed order, building upon central constructs in an elaborative cycle. Following these basic principles should enhance the meaningfulness of what is learned, resulting in ...


It Research Leaders: A Conversation With Brent Wilson, Brent Wilson, D. Surry Mar 2016

It Research Leaders: A Conversation With Brent Wilson, Brent Wilson, D. Surry

Brent Wilson

No abstract provided.


Expert System Shells: Tools To Aid Human Performance, Jack Welsh, Brent Wilson Mar 2016

Expert System Shells: Tools To Aid Human Performance, Jack Welsh, Brent Wilson

Brent Wilson

Examines expert system shells and the role a microcomputer-based expert system can play as an intelligent job aid. Characteristics of traditional and automated job aids techniques are described, and the role of instructional designers in developing expert systems within organizations is discussed.


Co-Teaching An Online Action Research Class, Brent Wilson, Jennifer Vanberschot Mar 2016

Co-Teaching An Online Action Research Class, Brent Wilson, Jennifer Vanberschot

Brent Wilson

Two instructors report their experience co-teaching an online action research (AR) course required as part of an e-learning master’s degree. Adopting a practice-centered stance we focus on the course activities of participants (instructors and students), with particular attention to the careful crafting of course elements with the goal of achieving an excellent learning experience for students. The case narrative describes the course and ways in which we have modified the course based on a variety of considerations. We also outline problems and areas still in need of improvement. We reflect on the role of theory in our own pursuit ...


Building Expert Systems In Training And Education, R Grabinger, David Jonassen, Brent Wilson Mar 2016

Building Expert Systems In Training And Education, R Grabinger, David Jonassen, Brent Wilson

Brent Wilson

This volume presents a process for developing expert systems. As the field of instructional technology matures it is becoming clear that technological process, not technological devices, is the single most important factor in designing effective instruction. Computers as devices are helpful, but their primary advantage may be the discipline placed on thinking and design processes by using them. The process used when examining a problem determines the quality of information entered into a program and the ultimate effectiveness of the solution. The process in this volume is intended for small-scale expert system solutions that contribute to the solution of instructional ...


The Tenure Decision: A Readers Theater On Constructivism, Brent Wilson, Stevem Smith Mar 2016

The Tenure Decision: A Readers Theater On Constructivism, Brent Wilson, Stevem Smith

Brent Wilson

This script, which portrays a discussion by a five-person committee about whether to grant tenure to faculty member, is a vehicle for discussing the meanings of scholarship and standards, the nature of truth and realism, and the constructivist view of learning. The argument about the quality of the faculty member's scholarship leads into a consideration of whether she is being judged by white male standards. The discussion evolves into a consideration of realist philosophy, the meaning of truth, and the prevalence of a dialogical coherence philosophy. The construction of meaning is explored briefly before the characters adjourn to consider ...


Contrasting Forces Affecting The Practice Of Distance Education [Book Chapter], Brent Wilson, Patrick Parrish, Nathan Balasubramanian, S. Switzer Mar 2016

Contrasting Forces Affecting The Practice Of Distance Education [Book Chapter], Brent Wilson, Patrick Parrish, Nathan Balasubramanian, S. Switzer

Brent Wilson

About this book:

This book makes a contribution to the field of distance education by presenting key perspectives on the state of the field and examining and discussing specific current trends and issues faced by the distance learning community. To this end, the book brings together Quarterly Review of Distance Education’s most respected authors and other internationally known experts in the field of distance education to provide insight into a wide array of themes revolving around current work on communities of learning in distance education.


A Practice-Centered Approach To Instructional Design [Book Chapter], Brent Wilson Mar 2016

A Practice-Centered Approach To Instructional Design [Book Chapter], Brent Wilson

Brent Wilson

No abstract provided.


Trends And Issues In Online Learning And Teaching: A Nowcasting Exercise [Book Chapter], Brent Wilson Mar 2016

Trends And Issues In Online Learning And Teaching: A Nowcasting Exercise [Book Chapter], Brent Wilson

Brent Wilson

About this book:Over the last decade, the field of distance education (and e-learning) has substantially strengthened and assumed a more international scope. There has been an impressive growth in the conceptual, empirical and experiential foundations of the field. Trends and Issues in Distance Education: International Perspectives (2nd Ed) captures a representative snapshot of the breadth of current global trends and issues in distance education theory, research, and practice. Through 21 chapters (from over 30 international authors), the book documents new developments in distance education scholarship and practice, presenting a diverse set of viewpoints on the trends and issues affecting ...


Xtreme Learning Control: Examples Of The Open Source Movement’S Impact On Our Educational Practice In A University Setting, Joanna Dunlap, Brent Wilson, David Young Mar 2016

Xtreme Learning Control: Examples Of The Open Source Movement’S Impact On Our Educational Practice In A University Setting, Joanna Dunlap, Brent Wilson, David Young

Brent Wilson

This paper describes how Open Source philosophy – a movement that has developed in opposition to the proprietary software industry – has influenced our educational practice in the pursuit of scholarly freedom and authentic learning activities for our students and ourselves. This paper provides a brief overview of the Open Source movement, and describes three Open Source-inspired Web-based tools/environments developed to promote open sharing and constructing of scholarly work on the Web.


The Impact Of Constructivism (And Postmodernism) On Id Fundamentals [Book Chapter], Brent Wilson, R. Osman-Jouchoux, James Teslow Mar 2016

The Impact Of Constructivism (And Postmodernism) On Id Fundamentals [Book Chapter], Brent Wilson, R. Osman-Jouchoux, James Teslow

Brent Wilson

No abstract provided.


Situated Instructional Design: Blurring The Distinctions Between Theory And Practice, Design And Implementation, Curriculum And Instruction, Brent Wilson Mar 2016

Situated Instructional Design: Blurring The Distinctions Between Theory And Practice, Design And Implementation, Curriculum And Instruction, Brent Wilson

Brent Wilson

A view of situated instructional development (ID) is presented which incorporates a constructivist, situated view of learning and expertise, while at the same time viewing the ID process itself in situated terms. The purposes of this paper are to offer several reflections about the relationship between design and implementation of learning environments and instructional products, and to offer a number of specific recommendations for practicing ID from a situated/constructivist perspective. Several points of reflection are offered pertaining to the practice of ID as it relates to real-world contexts: (1) implementation and design are ultimately inseparable; (2) questions of curriculum ...


Instructional Design In Transition [Book Chapter], M. Merrill, T. Kowallis, Brent Wilson Mar 2016

Instructional Design In Transition [Book Chapter], M. Merrill, T. Kowallis, Brent Wilson

Brent Wilson

No abstract provided.


Integrating Informal Learning With Programs At The University/College Level, Brent Wilson, Aysenur Ozyer Mar 2016

Integrating Informal Learning With Programs At The University/College Level, Brent Wilson, Aysenur Ozyer

Brent Wilson

No abstract provided.


Raising The Bar For Instructional Outcomes: Toward Transformative Learning Experiences, Brent Wilson, Patrick Parrish Mar 2016

Raising The Bar For Instructional Outcomes: Toward Transformative Learning Experiences, Brent Wilson, Patrick Parrish

Brent Wilson

Most instructional technologists understand that instruction aims to be effective, efficient, and appealing. These three quality indicators have proven useful in establishing desired outcomes. In this article the authors suggest an expanded set of indicators, with more attention to social impact, engagement, and the learner's experience. By broadening and deepening expectations, the authors hope to encourage more research on instruction, leading to powerful or transformative learning.


Learning By Design: Teachers And Students As Co-Creators Of Knowledge [Book Chapter], Nathan Balasubramanian, Brent Wilson Mar 2016

Learning By Design: Teachers And Students As Co-Creators Of Knowledge [Book Chapter], Nathan Balasubramanian, Brent Wilson

Brent Wilson

About this book: Numerous educational technology programs and strategies have been developed on all continents to ensure that technology is used effectively for the benefit of student learning and achievement. The impact of technology on learning and instruction is still not clear. This book addresses several concerns of educators who rub elbows with a new technology. The book offers global research-based data on educational technology. The book consists of nine independent blind peer-reviewed scientific articles written by thirteen authors, four from Europe and nine from the USA. The authors present diverse views on social technologies and integration of ICT (information ...


How To Study: The Neglected Basic, Wayne Wilcox, Brent Wilson Mar 2016

How To Study: The Neglected Basic, Wayne Wilcox, Brent Wilson

Brent Wilson

This paper examines knowledge of studying--knowing how and when to apply study strategies. Study strategies may be classified into three categories: memory strategies, comprehension strategies, and problem-solving strategies. Memory-study strategies help students remember what they study. Five attributes often characterize memory strategies: meaningfulness, organization, association, visualization, and attention. Some memory strategies include rhymes, patterns, acronyms, acrostics, the link system, the loci system, and the peg system. Comprehension strategies help students understand what they study. Activities in comprehension strategies include identifying important information (e.g., underlining main ideas or taking note of headings); paraphrasing and summarizing important information; generating examples and ...


How Do Instructional Designers Use Theory? A Qualitative-Developmental Study Of The Integration Of Theory And Technology, Stephen Yanchar, Joseph South, David Williams, Brent Wilson Mar 2016

How Do Instructional Designers Use Theory? A Qualitative-Developmental Study Of The Integration Of Theory And Technology, Stephen Yanchar, Joseph South, David Williams, Brent Wilson

Brent Wilson

No abstract provided.


Co-Teaching An Online Action Research Class, Brent Wilson, Jennifer Linder-Vanberschot Mar 2016

Co-Teaching An Online Action Research Class, Brent Wilson, Jennifer Linder-Vanberschot

Brent Wilson

Two instructors report our experience co-teaching an action research (AR) required as part of an elearning master’s degree. Adopting a practice-centered stance we focus on the course activities of participants (instructors and students), with particular attention to the careful crafting of course elements with the goal of achieving an excellent learning experience for students. The case narrative describes the course and ways in which we have modified the course based on a variety of considerations. We also outline problems and areas still in need of improvement. We reflect on the role of theory in our own pursuit of excellence ...


Computers And Instructional Design: Component Display Theory In Transition, Brent Wilson Mar 2016

Computers And Instructional Design: Component Display Theory In Transition, Brent Wilson

Brent Wilson

Component display theory (CDT) is used as a working example in this examination of the relationship between instructional design theory and computer assisted instruction (CAI) models. Two basic approaches to instructional design--the analytic and the holistic methods--are reviewed, and four elements of CDT are described: (1) content types, including facts, concepts, procedures, and principles; (2) the performance outcomes of use and remember; (3) primary presentation forms, i.e., basic presentations of definitions, examples, and practice cases; and (4) secondary presentation forms such as "help" displays, elaboration, analogies, and advance organizers. Some of the rules and procedures tying these elements together ...


Constructivism And Instructional Design: Some Personal Reflections, Brent Wilson Mar 2016

Constructivism And Instructional Design: Some Personal Reflections, Brent Wilson

Brent Wilson

Some personal reflections on instructional design and its relation to constructivism are explored. Instructional design in its present form is out of sync with the times in that its orientation, methods, and research base are behavioristic, or positivistic. However, a constructivist theory of instructional design is possible, particularly if constructivism is recognized as a philosophy rather than a strategy. To better fit the needs of practitioners, instructional design theories need to be better grounded in a broad understanding of learning and instructional processes. Generic principles and specific heuristics are needed for dealing with recurring problems and situations in instructional design ...


Cognitive Approaches In Instructional Design [Book Chapter], Brent Wilson, David Jonassen Mar 2016

Cognitive Approaches In Instructional Design [Book Chapter], Brent Wilson, David Jonassen

Brent Wilson

About this book: This handbook aims to provide trainers and managers with the information they need to select the most effective instructive technology for their training and development needs. It provides a practitioner's view of each area of instructional technology - analyzing the job and task; analyzing performance; designing instruction; identifying, selecting and training instructors; evaluating programs. Readers will find hundreds of basic techniques, valuable hints, checklists, graphic illustrations, and practical real-life examples to help them deal with the myriad of choices available and maximize training effectiveness.


Cognitive Apprenticeships: An Instructional Design Review, Brent Wilson, Peggy Cole Mar 2016

Cognitive Apprenticeships: An Instructional Design Review, Brent Wilson, Peggy Cole

Brent Wilson

This discussion of the relationship between two related disciplines--cognitive psychology and instructional design (ID)--characterizes instructional design as a more applied discipline, which concerns itself more with prescriptions and models for designing instruction, while instructional psychologists conduct empirical research on learning and instructional processes. It is posited that a problem-solving orientation to education is needed if schoo]s are to achieve substantial learning outcomes, and the concept of cognitive apprenticeships, which emphasize returning instruction to settings where worthwhile problems can be worked with and solved, is proposed as a possible solution to this problem. A brief review of ID models ...


Activity Theory And Web-Based Training [Book Chapter], D. Peal, Brent Wilson Mar 2016

Activity Theory And Web-Based Training [Book Chapter], D. Peal, Brent Wilson

Brent Wilson

No abstract provided.