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Full-Text Articles in Education

Aslidomino.Com Agen Domino Online Uang Asli Terpercaya Indonesia, Defaonline Blog May 2017

Aslidomino.Com Agen Domino Online Uang Asli Terpercaya Indonesia, Defaonline Blog

defaonline blog

ASLIDOMINO.COM AGEN DOMINO ONLINE UANG ASLI TERPERCAYA INDONESIA- Sebuah ulasan kembali dari sebuah Agen Domino99 Dan Poker Online terpercaya di asia, Kali ini mengulas sebuah situs judi terbesar di asia yaitu ASLIDOMINO.COM yang sudah tersohor sebagai situs judi lama dengan pilihan permainan judi terbaik dalam situs judinya, Maka dari itu di sini saya merekomendasikan kepada anda situs judi SahabatQQ agar anda tidak salah dalam memilihnya untuk di jadikan naungan dalam bermain judi online kesukaan anda.
Bermain judi secara online memang sangat ngetrend saat ini, Apalagi dengan uang asli sebagai taruhannya, Pasti lebih menantang adrenalin pemainnya, Salah satu situs ...


6dewa.Net Agen Judi Bandarq Domino99 Capsa Susun Aduq Dan Bandar Poker Online Indonesia, Defaonline Blog May 2017

6dewa.Net Agen Judi Bandarq Domino99 Capsa Susun Aduq Dan Bandar Poker Online Indonesia, Defaonline Blog

defaonline blog

6dewa.net Agen Judi BandarQ Domino99 Capsa Susun AduQ dan Bandar Poker Online Indonesia yang memiliki banyak pilihan permainan judi online dalam situs judinya, Jika saat ini anda mencari sebuah situs judi untuk di jadikan naungan dalam bermain judi online, Percayakan kepada 6dewa sebagai naungan anda dalam bermain judi online kesukaan anda, Dimana situs judi 6Dewa sudah terkenal dengan profesionalitasnya dalam melayani membernya, Dan sudah banyak sekali yang mereffrensikan situs judi 6Dewa termasuk blog 6DEWA-NET LOGDOWN yang saya kelola ini, Disini saya mereffrensikan situs judi 6Dewa karena saya juga termasuk member aktif yang setiap hari bermain di Agen Judi Poker ...


Identifying And Investigating The “Best” Schools: A Network-Based Analysis, Priyadarshani Joshi Dec 2016

Identifying And Investigating The “Best” Schools: A Network-Based Analysis, Priyadarshani Joshi

Priyadarshani Joshi

This paper aims to provide a fresh perspective to the predominantly negative discourse on schooling quality in low-income countries by focusing on the research questions: how can one identify great schools, and what makes them special? Using a network-based perspective, I measure peer evaluations of quality in two districts in Nepal. Specifically, I ask principals to mention three schools they view as the “best” schools in their district, and then map the interconnections between schools as a result of this response. I additionally analyze the differentiating characteristics of these schools, and qualitatively investigate the most frequently cited “best” school in ...


Reflections On The Case Study: James Tuttle Vs. Lakeland Community College, Harlan Stelmach Jun 2016

Reflections On The Case Study: James Tuttle Vs. Lakeland Community College, Harlan Stelmach

Harlan Stelmach

As a Chair of a large academic department that supervises over thirty adjunct faculty members, I have sympathy with all the parties in this case. I have sympathy for administrators trying to maintain academic oversight of many adjunct faculty members who are often just on campus to teach their courses. I have sympathy for adjunct faculty who are under paid and often do the bulk of teaching at the general education level with very little guidance on the mission and values of an institution. As long as their student evaluations do not cause alarm, benign neglect often defines their relationship ...


Teaching Big History, Richard B. Simon, Mojgan Behmand, Thomas Burke, Esther Quaedackers, Seohyung Kim, Kiowa Bower, Neal Wolfe, James B. Cunningham, Cynthia Taylor, Martin Anderson, J. Daniel May, Philip Novak, Debbie Daunt, Jaime Castner, Ethan Annis, Amy E. Gilbert, Anne Reid, Suzanne Roybal, Alan Schut, Cynthia Brown, Harlan Stelmach Jun 2016

Teaching Big History, Richard B. Simon, Mojgan Behmand, Thomas Burke, Esther Quaedackers, Seohyung Kim, Kiowa Bower, Neal Wolfe, James B. Cunningham, Cynthia Taylor, Martin Anderson, J. Daniel May, Philip Novak, Debbie Daunt, Jaime Castner, Ethan Annis, Amy E. Gilbert, Anne Reid, Suzanne Roybal, Alan Schut, Cynthia Brown, Harlan Stelmach

Harlan Stelmach

Big History is a new field on a grand scale: it tells the story of the universe over time through a diverse range of disciplines that spans cosmology, physics, chemistry, astronomy, geology, evolutionary biology, anthropology, and archaeology, thereby reconciling traditional human history with environmental geography and natural history.Weaving the myriad threads of evidence-based human knowledge into a master narrative that stretches from the beginning of the universe to the present, the Big History framework helps students make sense of their studies in all disciplines by illuminating the structures that underlie the universe and the connections among them.Teaching Big ...


Supply, Demand And Characteristics Of The Higher Degree By Research Population In Australia, Daniel Edwards, Ali Radloff, Hamish Coates Jun 2016

Supply, Demand And Characteristics Of The Higher Degree By Research Population In Australia, Daniel Edwards, Ali Radloff, Hamish Coates

Dr Daniel Edwards

This research has been undertaken for the Department of Innovation, Industry, Science and Research by researchers from the Australian Council for Educational Research. It was conducted during May and June 2009. Its focus is on identifying the higher research degree (HDR) population in Australia, examining the characteristics of this population, and the levels of demand and supply for people with these qualifications now and into the future. This research also catalogues a number of existing data sources that can be utilised for research into this population and identifies key gaps in the current collections which inhibit some areas of analyses ...


Evaluation Of A Newly Implemented Undergraduate Global Health Course In The Public University Setting, Brianna Moore, William Sorensen, Cheryl Cooper Jun 2016

Evaluation Of A Newly Implemented Undergraduate Global Health Course In The Public University Setting, Brianna Moore, William Sorensen, Cheryl Cooper

William Sorensen

This study evaluates the effectiveness of a new undergraduate global health course by assessing students' pre/post global knowledge and beliefs. Using factor analysis, student beliefs coalesced into two belief foci: safety/comfort and responsibility/connectedness. Knowledge significantly increased across the board, whereas belief change was more localized.


Perceived Benefits And Challenges Of Interprofessional Education Based On A Multidisciplinary Faculty Member Survey, David Benjamin Lash, Mitchell J. Barnett, Nirali Parekh, Anita Shieh, Maggie Louie, Terrill T-L. Tang Jun 2016

Perceived Benefits And Challenges Of Interprofessional Education Based On A Multidisciplinary Faculty Member Survey, David Benjamin Lash, Mitchell J. Barnett, Nirali Parekh, Anita Shieh, Maggie Louie, Terrill T-L. Tang

Maggie Louie

OBJECTIVE: To identify differences among faculty members in various health professional training programs in perceived benefits and challenges of implementing interprofessional education (IPE). METHODS: A 19-item survey using a 5-point Likert scale was administered to faculty members across different health disciplines at a west coast, multicollege university with osteopathic medicine, pharmacy, and physician assistant programs. RESULTS: Sixty-two of 103 surveys (60.2%) were included in the study. Faculty members generally agreed that there were benefits of IPE on patient outcomes and that implementing IPE was feasible. However, group differences existed in belief that IPE improves care efficiency (p=0.001 ...


The Impact Of Incorporating Of Pharmacogenomics Into The Pharmacy Curriculum On Student Interest, Natalya Vaksman, Mitchell Barnett, Leann Hakobyan, Ilya Kutcher, Maggie Louie Jun 2016

The Impact Of Incorporating Of Pharmacogenomics Into The Pharmacy Curriculum On Student Interest, Natalya Vaksman, Mitchell Barnett, Leann Hakobyan, Ilya Kutcher, Maggie Louie

Maggie Louie

Background: Pharmacogenomics content in the pharmacy curriculum has increased since AACP adopted NCHPEG guidelines in 2001. Aims: To evaluate how program level curricular changes impact pharmacy student opinions regarding pharmacogenomics, and gauge student interest in pursuing a career in pharmacogenomics. Methods: First and third year students from eight pharmacy schools in California completed a survey indicating their attitudes towards pharmacogenomics. Results: The survey concluded that the presence of a stand-alone pharmacogenomics course did not impact student perceived preparedness for a career in pharmacogenomics. Furthermore, the presence of a course did not influence student interest in pursuing a residency, fellowship, or ...


Finding The Right Fit: University Course Selection And Completion, Daniel Edwards Jun 2016

Finding The Right Fit: University Course Selection And Completion, Daniel Edwards

Dr Daniel Edwards

As higher education enrolments continue to climb, the proportion of students failing to graduate remains high among some cohorts, according to analysis by Daniel Edwards.


Mobile Inquiry-As-Play In Mathematics Teacher Education, Jeremiah I. Holden May 2016

Mobile Inquiry-As-Play In Mathematics Teacher Education, Jeremiah I. Holden

Remi Holden

Purpose

This study aims to describe the feasibility of designing and fostering pre-service teacher inquiry at the intersection of community and disciplinary engagement. Mapping My Math (MMM), a game-based and mobile learning activity, guided pre-service teachers in playfully exploring mathematics featured in the everyday activities of people and places and creatively representing this inquiry with digital media.

Design/methodology/approach

This study draws from design-based research that examined the role of place, digital media and mobility in mathematics teacher education. Design narrative methods describe how MMM was created, implemented and refined to support disciplinary inquiry across settings given the evolution ...


Race, Language, And Ability: Deconstructing, Reconstructing, And Transcending Borders Of Normal, Brooke Prichard, Subini A. Annamma, Amy L. Boele, Janette Klingner May 2016

Race, Language, And Ability: Deconstructing, Reconstructing, And Transcending Borders Of Normal, Brooke Prichard, Subini A. Annamma, Amy L. Boele, Janette Klingner

Amy Boele

This commentary explores how conceptions of "normal" have been constructed around issues of race, language, and ability. By combining three theoretical frameworks, Critical Race Theory, Cultural Historical Activity Theory, and Disability Studies, the authors attempt to deconstruct, reconstruct, and transcend the perceived borders of normal.



Essential Components Of Special Education For English Language Learners With Learning Disabilities: Position Statement Of The Division For Learning Disabilities Of The Council For Exceptional Children, Janette Klingner, Amy L. Boele, Sylvia Linan-Thompson, Diane Rodriguez May 2016

Essential Components Of Special Education For English Language Learners With Learning Disabilities: Position Statement Of The Division For Learning Disabilities Of The Council For Exceptional Children, Janette Klingner, Amy L. Boele, Sylvia Linan-Thompson, Diane Rodriguez

Amy Boele

No abstract provided.


Select Methods For Teaching Reading To Ells [Book Chapter], Amy L. Boele May 2016

Select Methods For Teaching Reading To Ells [Book Chapter], Amy L. Boele

Amy Boele

About this book:

Make appropriate instructional and eligibility decisions for English language learners!

This research-based guide offers educators and service providers proven methods for determining when ELLs are having reading difficulties that are related to language acquisition and when students’ performance issues might be linked to learning disabilities. The book provides an overview of the language acquisition process and outlines:

  • Assessment techniques for identifying learning disabilities and measuring proficiency in English

  • Instructional tips for working with ELLs who struggle with reading
  • A multi-tiered, data-driven intervention model to assist in determining a student’s learning needs
  • The role of Response to ...

Teaching Students With Ld To Use Reading Comprehension Strategies (Book Chapter), Alison Boardman, Janette Klingner, Subini A. Annamma, Brooke A. Moore, Amy L. Boele, A. Davidson, R. Figueroa, N. Sager May 2016

Teaching Students With Ld To Use Reading Comprehension Strategies (Book Chapter), Alison Boardman, Janette Klingner, Subini A. Annamma, Brooke A. Moore, Amy L. Boele, A. Davidson, R. Figueroa, N. Sager

Amy Boele

About this book: Among the most commonly reported characteristics of individuals with learning and behavioral disabilities are significant and persistent problems with literacy acquisition. Applied research has revealed a number of methods for facilitating literacy learning among individuals with learning and behavioral disabilities. Included in this volume are chapters from a group of internationally-prominent authors, addressing important issues in the conceptualizing, assessing, and treating problems in literacy. These chapters include conceptual factors in reading assessment, reading comprehension, and a critique of the 'dyslexia' concept, implementation of Response to Intervention models for treatment of literacy deficits, applications for individuals with Attention ...


Cultural And Linguistic Diversity In Special Education (Book Chapter), Janette Klingner, Alison Boardman, Subini A. Annamma, Brooke A. Moore, Amy L. Boele, A. Davidson, R. Figueroa, N. Sager May 2016

Cultural And Linguistic Diversity In Special Education (Book Chapter), Janette Klingner, Alison Boardman, Subini A. Annamma, Brooke A. Moore, Amy L. Boele, A. Davidson, R. Figueroa, N. Sager

Amy Boele

About this book:

Enduring Issues in Special Education is aimed at any course in the undergraduate or graduate special education curriculum that is wholly or partly devoted to a critical examination of current issues in special education. The book organizes 28 chapters into seven sections using familiar structuring principles―what, who, where, how, when, why, and whither. Each section begins with an introduction that provides historical, legal, and theoretical background information and organizing commentary for the chapters that follow. The book’s objective, in addition to informing readers about the issues, is to develop critical thinking skills in the context ...


Challenging The Idea Of Normal In Schools, Subini A. Annamma, Amy L. Boele, Brooke A. Moore, Janette Klingner May 2016

Challenging The Idea Of Normal In Schools, Subini A. Annamma, Amy L. Boele, Brooke A. Moore, Janette Klingner

Amy Boele

In this article, we build on Brantlinger's work to critique the binary of normal and abnormal applied in US schools that create inequities in education. Operating from a critical perspective, we draw from Critical Race Theory, Disability Studies in Education, and Cultural/Historical Activity Theory to build a conceptual framework for examining the prevailing ideology of normal found in US schools. We use our conceptual framework todeconstruct the current, westernised, static ideology of normal. Once deconstructed, we explore current iterations of the ideology of normal in schools. Finally, we suggest using the conceptual framework as a tool to ...


The Interconnectedness Of Relational And Content Dimensions Of Quality Instruction: Supportive Teacher-Student Relationships In Urban Elementary Mathematics Classrooms, Dan Battey, Rebecca A. Neal, Luis Leyva, Karlyn Adams-Wiggins May 2016

The Interconnectedness Of Relational And Content Dimensions Of Quality Instruction: Supportive Teacher-Student Relationships In Urban Elementary Mathematics Classrooms, Dan Battey, Rebecca A. Neal, Luis Leyva, Karlyn Adams-Wiggins

Rebecca Neal

Scholars assert that the often-impoverished instructional practices found in urban schools are tied to teachers’ negative relationships with African American and Latiná1 students (Ferguson, 1998; McKown & Weinstein, 2002; McKown & Weinstein, 2008; Morris, 2005; Stiff & Harvey, 1988). However, measures of mathematics instructional quality rarely measure relational elements of instruction. This study responds to such shortcomings by analyzing relational interactions in urban elementary mathematics classrooms in tandem with content instruction of teachers who engage in supportive relationships with African American and Latiná students. This study identified teachers with high quality student performance, content instruction, and supportive relationships as defined ...


Requiring Counseling In Master's-Level Counseling Programs: Students' Perceptions Of Counseling And Psychological Characteristics, Nancy L. Leech May 2016

Requiring Counseling In Master's-Level Counseling Programs: Students' Perceptions Of Counseling And Psychological Characteristics, Nancy L. Leech

Nancy Leech

The present study investigates master's level counselors-in-training (N = 513) and whether there are differences between students in counseling programs based in schools of education that require personal counseling sessions for students to work through personal issues (n = 329) and those programs that do not require counseling (n = 184), with respect to willingness to seek counseling, distress, attitude toward counseling, social support, and self-concealment. To date, no studies have investigated these factors for this population. Five one-way multivariate analyses of variance were conducted to determine if there were differences between counseling programs that require personal counseling sessions and those that ...


Building A Methodological Foundation: Doctoral-Level Methods Courses In Colleges Of Education, Nancy L. Leech, Laura D. Goodwin May 2016

Building A Methodological Foundation: Doctoral-Level Methods Courses In Colleges Of Education, Nancy L. Leech, Laura D. Goodwin

Nancy Leech

Due to the continued growth of qualitative research methodology, the demand for large-scale quasi-experimental studies, and a renewed interest in mixed methodologies, there is concern regarding methods courses taught in schools or colleges of education in the United States. The purpose of this study was to increase understanding of current methods course requirements in doctoral programs and explore the balance among qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods course requirements and dissertation policies and procedures. A purposeful sample (n = 100) of schools of education was collected from across the nation. The findings indicate that, overall, there is large variability in the number ...


An Array Of Qualitative Analysis Tools: A Call For Data Analysis Triangulation, Nancy L. Leech, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie May 2016

An Array Of Qualitative Analysis Tools: A Call For Data Analysis Triangulation, Nancy L. Leech, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie

Nancy Leech

One of the most important steps in the qualitative research process is analysis of data. The purpose of this article is to provide elements for understanding multiple types of qualitative data analysis techniques available and the importance of utilizing more than one type of analysis, thus utilizing data analysis triangulation, in order to understand phenomenon more fully for school psychology research and beyond. The authors describe seven qualitative analysis tools: methods of constant comparison, keywords-in-context, word count, classical content analysis, domain analysis, taxonomic analysis, and componential analysis. Then, the authors outline when to use each type of analysis. In so ...


Qualitative Data Analysis: A Compendium Of Techniques And A Framework For Selection For School Psychology Research And Beyond, Nancy L. Leech, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie May 2016

Qualitative Data Analysis: A Compendium Of Techniques And A Framework For Selection For School Psychology Research And Beyond, Nancy L. Leech, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie

Nancy Leech

Qualitative researchers in school psychology have a multitude of analyses available for data. The purpose of this article is to present several of the most common methods for analyzing qualitative data. Specifically, the authors describe the following 18 qualitative analysis techniques: method of constant comparison analysis, keywords-in-context, word count, classical content analysis, domain analysis, taxonomic analysis, componential analysis, conversation analysis, discourse analysis, secondary analysis, membership categorization analysis, narrative analysis, qualitative comparative analysis, semiotics, manifest content analysis, latent content analysis, text mining, and microinterlocutor analysis. Moreover, the authors present a new framework for organizing these analysis techniques via the four major ...


Statistics Poker: Reinforcing Basic Statistical Concepts, Nancy L. Leech May 2016

Statistics Poker: Reinforcing Basic Statistical Concepts, Nancy L. Leech

Nancy Leech

Learning basic statistical concepts does not need to be tedious or dry; it can be fun and interesting through cooperative learning in the small‐group activity of Statistics Poker. This article describes a teaching approach for reinforcing basic statistical concepts that can help students who have high anxiety and makes learning and reinforcing these concepts more interesting and fun.


A Typology Of Mixed Methods Research Designs, Nancy L. Leech, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie May 2016

A Typology Of Mixed Methods Research Designs, Nancy L. Leech, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie

Nancy Leech

The mixed methods paradigm is still in its adolescence, and, thus, is still relatively unknown and confusing to many researchers. In general, mixed methods research represents research that involves collecting, analyzing, and interpreting quantitative and qualitative data in a single study or in a series of studies that investigate the same underlying phenomenon. Over the last several years, a plethora of research designs have been developed. However, the number of designs that currently prevail leaves the doctoral student, the beginning researcher, and even the experienced researcher who is new to the field of mixed methods research with the challenge of ...


Mixed Data Analysis: Advanced Integration Techniques, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie, John R. Slate, Nancy L. Leech, Kathleen Mt Collins May 2016

Mixed Data Analysis: Advanced Integration Techniques, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie, John R. Slate, Nancy L. Leech, Kathleen Mt Collins

Nancy Leech

No abstract provided.


A Qualitative Framework For Collecting And Analyzing Data In Focus Group Research, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie, W. B. Dickinson, Nancy L. Leech, A. G. Zoran, Annemarie G. May 2016

A Qualitative Framework For Collecting And Analyzing Data In Focus Group Research, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie, W. B. Dickinson, Nancy L. Leech, A. G. Zoran, Annemarie G.

Nancy Leech

Despite the abundance of published material on conducting focus groups, scant specific information exists on how to analyze focus group data in social science research. Thus, the authors provide a new qualitative framework for collecting and analyzing focus group data. First, they identify types of data that can be collected during focus groups. Second, they identify the qualitative data analysis techniques best suited for analyzing these data. Third, they introduce what they term as a micro-interlocutor analysis, wherein meticulous information about which participant responds to each question, the order in which each participant responds, response characteristics, the nonverbal communication used ...


A Model Lightning Safety Policy For Athletics., Brian Bennett M.Ed May 2016

A Model Lightning Safety Policy For Athletics., Brian Bennett M.Ed

Brian Bennett, M.Ed

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this paper is to present a model policy on lightning safety for athletic trainers.

BACKGROUND: Among college athletic programs in the United States there is a serious lack of written policy on lightning safety. Available evidence shows that most National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I institutions, even though they are located in high lightning activity areas of the country, do not have formal, written lightning safety policies.

CLINICAL ADVANTAGES/ RECOMMENDATIONS: The policy presented herein, which is at the forefront of such policies, is the lightning safety policy written as part of a policies and procedures ...


Australian Higher Education Institutions Transforming The Future Of Teaching And Learning Through 3d Virtual Worlds, Sue Gregory, Brent Gregory, Matthew Campbell, Helen Farley, Suku Sinnappan, Shannon Kennedy-Clark, David Craven, Deborah Murdoch, Mark Jw Lee, Denise Wood, Jenny Grenfell, Angela Thomas, Kerrie Smith, Ian Warren, Heinz Dreher, Lindy Mckeown, Allan Ellis, Matthew Hillier, Steven Pace, Andrew Cram, Lyn Hay, Scott Grant, Carol Matthews May 2016

Australian Higher Education Institutions Transforming The Future Of Teaching And Learning Through 3d Virtual Worlds, Sue Gregory, Brent Gregory, Matthew Campbell, Helen Farley, Suku Sinnappan, Shannon Kennedy-Clark, David Craven, Deborah Murdoch, Mark Jw Lee, Denise Wood, Jenny Grenfell, Angela Thomas, Kerrie Smith, Ian Warren, Heinz Dreher, Lindy Mckeown, Allan Ellis, Matthew Hillier, Steven Pace, Andrew Cram, Lyn Hay, Scott Grant, Carol Matthews

Shannon Kennedy-Clark

What are educators‟ motivations for using virtual worlds with their students? Are they using them to support the teaching of professions and if this is the case, do they introduce virtual worlds into the curriculum to develop and/or expand students' professional learning networks? Are they using virtual worlds to transform their teaching and learning? In recognition of the exciting opportunities that virtual worlds present for higher education, the DEHub Virtual Worlds Working Group was formed. It is made up of Australian university academics who are investigating the role that virtual worlds will play in the future of education and ...


Professional Networks For Educational Change: An Evaluation Of The Mathematician And Education Reform Forum, Carolyn A. Haug, Scott F. Marion May 2016

Professional Networks For Educational Change: An Evaluation Of The Mathematician And Education Reform Forum, Carolyn A. Haug, Scott F. Marion

Carolyn Haug

This document contains findings of a year-long evaluation of the Mathematics and Education Reform (MER) Forum, a voluntary association targeting the academic mathematics community in four-year colleges and universities. Specifically, the evaluation sought to assess the extent to which MER influenced its members' involvement in mathematics-education reform at both postsecondary and K-12 levels. Since its inception in 1988, MER has expanded from a network targeted at individuals to include a departmental network directed toward mathematics departments of research universities. Data were obtained through a survey of the entire national population of MER participants (n=730), which elicited a 32 percent ...


National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Lightning Safety For Athletics And Recreation., K M Walsh, Brian Bennett M.Ed, M A Cooper, R L Holle, R Kithil, R E López May 2016

National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Lightning Safety For Athletics And Recreation., K M Walsh, Brian Bennett M.Ed, M A Cooper, R L Holle, R Kithil, R E López

Brian Bennett

OBJECTIVE: To educate athletic trainers and others about the dangers of lightning, provide lightning-safety guidelines, define safe structures and locations, and advocate prehospital care for lightning-strike victims.

BACKGROUND: Lightning may be the most frequently encountered severe-storm hazard endangering physically active people each year. Millions of lightning flashes strike the ground annually in the United States, causing nearly 100 deaths and 400 injuries. Three quarters of all lightning casualties occur between May and September, and nearly four fifths occur between 10:00 AM and 7:00 PM, which coincides with the hours for most athletic or recreational activities. Additionally, lightning casualties ...