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Teacher Education and Professional Development

Professional development

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Full-Text Articles in Education

Mathamigos: A Community Mathematics Initiative, James C. Taylor, Delara Sharma, Shannon Rogers Aug 2019

Mathamigos: A Community Mathematics Initiative, James C. Taylor, Delara Sharma, Shannon Rogers

Journal of Math Circles (JMC)

We present a broad, and we think novel, community mathematics initiative in its early stages in Santa Fe, New Mexico. At every level, the program embraces community-wide collaboration—from the leadership team, to the elements of the mathematics being implemented (primarily math circles and the Global Math Project’s Exploding Dots), to the funding model. Our MathAmigos program falls within two categories of math circle-related programs: outreach and professional development (PD). In outreach, we work with the Santa Fe Public School district (administration, teachers, students, and parents) and the City of Santa Fe government (our funders via a two-year contract ...


“Grounded” Technology Integration: Instructional Planning Using Curriculum-Based Activity Type Taxonomies, Judith B. Harris, Mark J. Hofer, Denise A. Schmidt, Margaret R. Blanchard, Neal Grandgenett, Marcela Van Olphen Jun 2019

“Grounded” Technology Integration: Instructional Planning Using Curriculum-Based Activity Type Taxonomies, Judith B. Harris, Mark J. Hofer, Denise A. Schmidt, Margaret R. Blanchard, Neal Grandgenett, Marcela Van Olphen

Mark Hofer

Technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK or TPACK) – the highly practical professional educational knowledge that enables and supports technology integration – is comprised of teachers’ concurrent and interdependent knowledge of curriculum content, general pedagogy, and technological understanding. Teachers’ planning – which expresses teachers’ professional knowledge (including TPACK) in pragmatic ways -- is situated, contextually sensitive, routinized, and activity-based. To assist with technology integration, therefore, we suggest using what is understood from research about teachers’ knowledge and instructional planning to form an approach to curriculum-based technology integration that is predicated upon teachers combining technologically supported learning activity types selected from content-keyed activity type taxonomies. In ...


Teacher Professional Development And The Seven 21st Century Survival Skills: A Program Evaluation, Nykowanna Sloan Jun 2019

Teacher Professional Development And The Seven 21st Century Survival Skills: A Program Evaluation, Nykowanna Sloan

Dissertations

This evaluation examined the extent to which one 6-12 school in an urban school district used professional development to support teachers’ inclusion of 21st century survival skills (Wagner et al., 2008) in classroom instruction. Through collecting quantitative and qualitative data from stakeholders using surveys and interviews, this study revealed how effectively teachers are or are not being instructed to teach the post-graduate survival skills necessary for student success. This study included commentary on the needed changes in leadership determined by the evaluation of the program. Outcomes of this study outline an essential new program and a change in policy that ...


Peer Observation As A Job-Embedded Professional Development Tool, Daniel J. Breiman May 2019

Peer Observation As A Job-Embedded Professional Development Tool, Daniel J. Breiman

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Teacher professional development is typically provided outside of the workplace, and is therefore disconnected to daily classroom practices. An alternative model of professional development is peer observation, which is contextualized through coaching and collaboration in the classroom. To date, research and investigation into the practice of peer observation is lacking. To fill that gap, this study examined the influence of peer observation on teacher practice, while identifying factors that were most beneficial and challenging about peer observation and its influence on workplace collegiality.

This study used qualitative methods and action research that allowed teachers to be part of the research ...


Providing A Platform: An Examination Of How Teachers Utilize And Practice Culturally Responsive Pedagogy, Hannah Storm May 2019

Providing A Platform: An Examination Of How Teachers Utilize And Practice Culturally Responsive Pedagogy, Hannah Storm

Dissertations, Theses, and Projects

For this study, I posed the following question to guide my research: How do elementary teachers reshape and change curriculum and/or teaching practices when provided the opportunity through professional development? Specifically, the study examined K-2 teachers at two different elementary schools in Minnesota. The study aimed to determine how teachers implemented and redesigned curriculum material when provided optional professional development sessions, focused on educational equity, multiracial/multicultural read aloud(s), and culturally responsive teaching strategies. Further, this study focused on how these teachers successfully or unsuccessfully reshaped components of curriculum and teaching practice in order to be more equitable ...


A Comparison Between Speech Language Pathologists' And School Administrators' Attitudes And Perceptions Regarding Professional Development, Melinda Margaret Salloukh May 2019

A Comparison Between Speech Language Pathologists' And School Administrators' Attitudes And Perceptions Regarding Professional Development, Melinda Margaret Salloukh

Theses and Dissertations from 2019

The purpose of this descriptive study was to identify the attitudes and perceptions of speech-language pathologists and school administrators regarding professional development. This study contains both quantitative and qualitative survey data from speech-language pathologists and school administrators currently serving in the public schools in Arkansas. This survey, deployed over a six-week period, contained a series of Likert-type and open-ended questions that were analyzed by the researcher to answer three research questions. There were 182 speech-language pathologists and 103 school administrators who responded to this survey. The participants were chosen from an email list obtained from Arkansas Department of Education and ...


Mainstream Teachers Learning To Teach English Language Learners : Uncovering The Systems Of Teacher Professional Learning, Alma Morel May 2019

Mainstream Teachers Learning To Teach English Language Learners : Uncovering The Systems Of Teacher Professional Learning, Alma Morel

Theses, Dissertations and Culminating Projects

In this qualitative study, I followed three teachers as they participated in a sheltered English instruction professional learning initiative planned and implemented by their school district for purposes of preparing middle school science and social studies teachers to teach English language learners (ELLs). I explored the professional learning process of these teachers and how the ideas to which they were exposed in the professional learning initiative moved into their classroom practices, if at all. The study was guided by a complexity perspective, from which teacher professional learning was conceptualized as emerging from nested systems. In general, the study sought to ...


Elementary Teacher Professional Development For Computer Science And Digital Game-Based Learning, Christopher Levy Apr 2019

Elementary Teacher Professional Development For Computer Science And Digital Game-Based Learning, Christopher Levy

Ed.D. Dissertations

The purpose of this qualitative case study research is to understand the professional development needed for elementary school (Grades K–6) educators to effectively teach computer science as part of the Computer Science for All initiative. Two research statements guided this study: Professional development training is needed for Florida elementary school educators to effectively teach the topics in the Computer Science for All initiative; Florida elementary school educators use digital game-based learning to effectively teach the topics in the Computer Science for All initiative. The sample was a purposeful sample consisting of 15 elementary school teachers at an elementary school ...


Implementing A Teaching And Learning Enhancement Workshop At Aga Khan University: Reflections Onthe Implementation And Outcomes Of An Instructional Skills Workshop In The Context Of Pakistan, Sherwin Rodrigues, Sadia Muzaffar Bhutta, Zeenar Salim, Sahreen Chauhan, Naghma Rizvi Apr 2019

Implementing A Teaching And Learning Enhancement Workshop At Aga Khan University: Reflections Onthe Implementation And Outcomes Of An Instructional Skills Workshop In The Context Of Pakistan, Sherwin Rodrigues, Sadia Muzaffar Bhutta, Zeenar Salim, Sahreen Chauhan, Naghma Rizvi

Institute for Educational Development, Karachi

The Teaching and Learning Enhancement Workshop (TLEW) is an indigenous name for the Canadian-based Instructional Skills Workshop (ISW). TLEW is a teaching development workshop aimed at enhancing faculty members’ stances towards student-centred teaching and reflective practice at the higher education level. This short paper discusses the initiation, implementation and institutionalisation of the TLEW at Aga Khan University (AKU) across entities in Asia and Africa. In total, 77 faculty members drawn from different entities of AKU participated in the workshop in 2016-2017. Empirical evidence collected from TLEW graduates through a survey and interviews suggests that the intense episode of planning, teaching ...


Administrator Perceptions Of The Teacher Evaluation Process And Professional Development Programming In New Jersey Independent Schools, Marissa C. Muoio Mar 2019

Administrator Perceptions Of The Teacher Evaluation Process And Professional Development Programming In New Jersey Independent Schools, Marissa C. Muoio

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

This study examines administrator perceptions of the teacher evaluation process and professional development programming in New Jersey independent schools. Despite the contentious topic of teacher evaluation within the national landscape today, there is currently little research available concerning administrator perceptions of teacher evaluation and professional development within independent schools. In this study, I ask a) What teacher evaluation processes or tools are being used in the independent schools in the state of New Jersey? b) What types of professional development programs are provided for teachers in these schools? and c) How do independent school administrators perceive the relationship between the ...


Personalized Professional Development Plans, Nancy B. Ruppert Feb 2019

Personalized Professional Development Plans, Nancy B. Ruppert

Current Issues in Middle Level Education

Nancy Ruppert is the past-president of AMLE and past-president of NAPOMLE. She is the chair of the education department at UNC Asheville. Her current areas of interest are in advocating for middle school alumni and creating resources to advocate for middle level education. Here she invites readers to contribute to ideas for ongoing professional development.


Standardizing Facilitator Development For Exploring Computer Science Professional Development, Steven Mcgee, John Wachen, Lucia Dettori, Don Yanek, Faythe Brannon, Andrew M. Rasmussen, Dale F. Reed, Ronald I. Greenberg Feb 2019

Standardizing Facilitator Development For Exploring Computer Science Professional Development, Steven Mcgee, John Wachen, Lucia Dettori, Don Yanek, Faythe Brannon, Andrew M. Rasmussen, Dale F. Reed, Ronald I. Greenberg

Computer Science: Faculty Publications and Other Works

A key strategy for broadening CS participation

in the Chicago Public Schools (CPS) has been the enactment

of a high school CS graduation requirement. The Exploring

Computer Science (ECS) curriculum and professional development

(PD) program serve as a core foundation for supporting

enactment of this policy. The CAFE´CS researcher-practitioner

partnership provides support for ECS implementation in CPS.

An important part of the sustainability of the ECS PD model in

CPS is the development of local workshop facilitators. Potential

facilitators have generally been selected based on the CAFE´CS

team’s personal familiarity with active ECS teachers. Once

selected, teachers ...


Technology Integration Experiences And Perceptions Of Southeastern Secondary Teachers, Candace M. Pattman Feb 2019

Technology Integration Experiences And Perceptions Of Southeastern Secondary Teachers, Candace M. Pattman

Ed.D. Dissertations

This research examined secondary southeastern teachers’ experiences and perceptions of technology integration in the classroom. Two research questions guided this study: What are the experiences of South Carolina secondary high school teachers in technology-equipped classrooms? How do secondary high school teachers in southeastern schools perceive the process of integrating technology in their daily lessons? The study was conducted using the conceptual framework of Bruner (1961), Dewey (1910), Piaget (1970), and Vygotsky (1978). Constructivism suggests that individuals construct their knowledge and meaning through their experiences. Eight purposefully selected secondary teachers who used technology integration in their classrooms more than once participated ...


Towards Implementation Of Evidence-Based Practices For Classroom Management In Australia: A Review Of Research, Lorna Hepburn, Wendi Beamish Jan 2019

Towards Implementation Of Evidence-Based Practices For Classroom Management In Australia: A Review Of Research, Lorna Hepburn, Wendi Beamish

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

The components of effective classroom management are well established; yet concerns regarding student disengagement and the underuse of evidence-based behaviour support practices in Australian schools remain. This paper reports the findings from a systematic literature review conducted to identify what is currently known about teacher implementation of evidence-based classroom management practices. The analysis indicates that teachers underuse many evidence-based practices but may over-report frequency of use. Australian research on teacher implementation of evidence-based practices for classroom management is lacking, and the impact of Schoolwide Positive Behaviour Support (SWPBS) implementation on teacher practice is unknown, despite the adoption of SWPBS in ...


Short-Term International Experiences In Language Teacher Education: A Qualitative Meta-Synthesis, Emrullah Yasin Çiftçi, A. Cendel Karaman Jan 2019

Short-Term International Experiences In Language Teacher Education: A Qualitative Meta-Synthesis, Emrullah Yasin Çiftçi, A. Cendel Karaman

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

Short-term international experiential learning opportunities can foster language teachers' multidimensional development. Even though such experiences are considered beneficial for language teachers’ development, educational reviews have scarcely concentrated on a comprehensive synthesis of the impact of such experiences on language teachers. This meta-synthesis of qualitative research analyzed the role of international experiential learning in the multidimensional development of pre- and in-service language teachers. Besides presenting a number of research patterns in the literature, this synthesis of 25 qualitative studies reported main outcomes of short-term international experiences for language teachers. These outcomes were synthesized under three main headings: (1) professional, (2) linguistic ...


Retrofitting Educators Through Sheltered Instruction Training: A Longitudinal Case Study Examining The Efficacy Of A Five-Year District-Wide Intervention Effort, Marisa Ferraro Jan 2019

Retrofitting Educators Through Sheltered Instruction Training: A Longitudinal Case Study Examining The Efficacy Of A Five-Year District-Wide Intervention Effort, Marisa Ferraro

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation examines the impact of a district-wide professional development initiative to foster equitable pedagogies and practices for emergent bilingual students. The initiative spanned five years, 2012-2017, across one of the largest school districts in the Northeast. This quasi-experimental, mixed methods case study was conducted across twelve schools to investigate the efficacy of a sheltered instruction professional development program in three areas: 1) teacher learning and knowledge about sheltered instructional practices (n=1457) and application of the newly learned practices (n=70), 2) student learner outcomes, as measured by a standardized assessment, through three cohorts of third through eighth graders ...


Exploring Perceptions Of The Transition From Health Science Practitioner To Academic, Maryanne J. Stewart Jan 2019

Exploring Perceptions Of The Transition From Health Science Practitioner To Academic, Maryanne J. Stewart

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Transitioning from a clinical practitioner to an educator in the health sciences is a difficult task for many professionals. Although, clinically, these individuals have achieved a level of expertise, they are not necessarily trained to teach in a classroom setting and may find it difficult to transition into their role as novice. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine faculty members' preparedness during their transition to academia and their perceptions of the need for more support during the first 5 years of teaching. Vygotsky's and Dewey's theories of social constructivism and Knowles's assumptions of ...


Middle School Mathematics Teachers' Perceptions Of Opportunities And Challenges, Shelby Eversole Jan 2019

Middle School Mathematics Teachers' Perceptions Of Opportunities And Challenges, Shelby Eversole

Masters Theses

This study investigates the perspectives of opportunities and challenges of middle school mathematics’ teachers. To gain these perspectives, an ethnographic study was conducted by interviewing four middle school mathematics teachers in central Illinois. The results of this study imply that teachers of different backgrounds and teaching environments have varying perspectives about challenges and opportunities in the classroom. Limitations of this study include but are not limited to, the researcher having one year to conduct the research, only four teachers from two schools being interviewed, interviewees teaching different grade levels, no rural setting involvement, one educator having little teaching experience, teachers ...


Empowering Faculty Using Distance Learning Mentoring Programs, Nicole Luongo, Sara T. O'Brien Dec 2018

Empowering Faculty Using Distance Learning Mentoring Programs, Nicole Luongo, Sara T. O'Brien

Journal on Empowering Teaching Excellence

This article discusses the value of developing mentoring programs for the empowerment of distance learning faculty. The paper describes various ways mentoring relationships enhance the development and teaching of distance learning courses. Distance learning faculty mentoring programs consist of a process where a more experienced faculty member assists a newer faculty member in developing a distance learning course. By creating and supporting distance learning faculty mentoring programs, higher education institutions can provide an efficient and valuable way for new distance learning faculty to gain empowerment as well as the skills and knowledge they need to teach online. This article asserts ...


A Qualitative Study On Teachers' Perceptions Of Co-Teaching In Inclusion Classrooms, Cheryl M. Banks Dec 2018

A Qualitative Study On Teachers' Perceptions Of Co-Teaching In Inclusion Classrooms, Cheryl M. Banks

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

The purpose of this research study was to examine teachers’ perceptions toward co- teaching in inclusion classrooms and provide valuable information on relevant content, activities and assignments that focus on collaboration between school professionals. A second purpose of this study was to add knowledge to the existing literature describing factors for developing effective co-teaching programs in schools that serve large populations of students with disabilities in urban schools. This included examining their perspectives about the co-teaching model, their relationships formed with their co-teacher, and the support given by administration. The study was a descriptive study that used qualitative research methods ...


The Role Of The Clinical Educator In Teacher Preparation: An Exploratory Study Of Perceptions Of Preparedness, Kristen M. Driskill Nov 2018

The Role Of The Clinical Educator In Teacher Preparation: An Exploratory Study Of Perceptions Of Preparedness, Kristen M. Driskill

Excelsior: Leadership in Teaching and Learning

As the demands on P-12 teachers increase, so do the demands on teacher preparation programs. In higher education institutions across the country, coursework is regularly updated to reflect changing academic standards, increasing diversity in classrooms, rigorous certification exams, etc. In addition, accreditation standards have been updated to reflect the need for P-12 partnerships in best preparing teacher candidates. As a result, clinical practice has come under focus. Yet the role of the clinical educator remains unclear. There is a gap in the literature regarding the preparedness and support of clinical educators, particularly addressing their role in developing teacher candidates along ...


Implementing Nh Child: A Comprehensive Approach To Professional Learning To Reach All New Haven Early Childhood Educators, Emily Sharrock, Courtney Parkerson Nov 2018

Implementing Nh Child: A Comprehensive Approach To Professional Learning To Reach All New Haven Early Childhood Educators, Emily Sharrock, Courtney Parkerson

All Faculty and Staff Papers and Presentations

New Haven Children’s Learning District (NH ChILD) envisions a city where all children have access to high quality early learning experiences. In order to turn this vision into reality for the 14,800 children ages 0-8 living in New Haven, NH ChILD is working to increase the number of spaces in high quality programs while simultaneously improving the quality of early learning experiences in existing programs. The following paper outlines NH ChILD’s beliefs, commitments, and plan for action with respect to NH ChILD’s citywide efforts for in-service professional learning.


On-Site, Ongoing, And Individualized Professional Development: A Case Study At Rural Charter School, Ashley Funderburke Nov 2018

On-Site, Ongoing, And Individualized Professional Development: A Case Study At Rural Charter School, Ashley Funderburke

Doctor of Education in Teacher Leadership Dissertations

The current model of mass professional development for all teachers does not address the individual needs of each teacher (Berckenmeyer, 2014; Darling-Hammond et al., 2009; DeMonte, 2013). This case study research focused on reaching a deeper understanding of an on-site, ongoing, individualized professional development innovation implemented at Rural Charter School for eight primary teachers as they began to apply a new instructional model; the integration of English-Language Arts standards into the science, social studies, and mathematics. My role within the study fluctuated between that of the researcher, an informant, and a teacher leader in delivering the personalized professional development.

Two ...


Exploring Perceptions Of Advanced Online Faculty Professional Development Needs: A Case Study, Keisha Kidan Oct 2018

Exploring Perceptions Of Advanced Online Faculty Professional Development Needs: A Case Study, Keisha Kidan

Ed.D. Dissertations

Over the last 10 years, funding for higher education has steadily declined. Illinois public institutions had to make many adjustments, particularly because higher education funds were cut by 50% in some cases, and on-campus enrollments declined by as much as 25%. Despite these issues, institutions with online enrollments sustained steady enrollment. The goal of this qualitative, descriptive, single case study was to examine the types of training participated in by online faculty, what training they perceive they need, and to inquire if they perceive their feedback is incorporated into PD offerings. Data collection consisted of a PD observation, survey, and ...


Taking Professional Development From 2d To 3d: Design-Based Learning, 2d Modeling, And 3d Fabrication For Authentic Standards-Aligned Lesson Plans, Darran R. Cairns, Reagan Curtis, Konstantinos A. Sierros, Johnna J. Bolyard Sep 2018

Taking Professional Development From 2d To 3d: Design-Based Learning, 2d Modeling, And 3d Fabrication For Authentic Standards-Aligned Lesson Plans, Darran R. Cairns, Reagan Curtis, Konstantinos A. Sierros, Johnna J. Bolyard

Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-Based Learning

There is currently significant interest in 3D fabrication in middle school classrooms. At its best 3D printing can be utilized in authentic design projects that integrate math, science, and technology, which facilitate deep learning by students. In essence, students are able to tinker in a virtual world using 3D design software and then tinker in the real world using printed parts. We describe a professional development activity we designed to enable middle school teachers who had taken part in a three-year Math Science Partnership program to authentically integrate 3D printing into design-based lessons. We include some examples of successful design-based ...


“Grounded” Technology Integration: Instructional Planning Using Curriculum-Based Activity Type Taxonomies, Judith B. Harris, Mark J. Hofer, Denise A. Schmidt, Margaret R. Blanchard, Neal Grandgenett, Marcela Van Olphen Sep 2018

“Grounded” Technology Integration: Instructional Planning Using Curriculum-Based Activity Type Taxonomies, Judith B. Harris, Mark J. Hofer, Denise A. Schmidt, Margaret R. Blanchard, Neal Grandgenett, Marcela Van Olphen

Judith Harris

Technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK or TPACK) – the highly practical professional educational knowledge that enables and supports technology integration – is comprised of teachers’ concurrent and interdependent knowledge of curriculum content, general pedagogy, and technological understanding. Teachers’ planning – which expresses teachers’ professional knowledge (including TPACK) in pragmatic ways -- is situated, contextually sensitive, routinized, and activity-based. To assist with technology integration, therefore, we suggest using what is understood from research about teachers’ knowledge and instructional planning to form an approach to curriculum-based technology integration that is predicated upon teachers combining technologically supported learning activity types selected from content-keyed activity type taxonomies. In ...


Making A Difference Through Quality Teaching Rounds: Evidence From A Sustained Program Of Research, Jennifer Gore Aug 2018

Making A Difference Through Quality Teaching Rounds: Evidence From A Sustained Program Of Research, Jennifer Gore

2009 - 2019 ACER Research Conferences

Through rigorous forms of research, including a randomised controlled trial, Quality Teaching Rounds (QTR) has been shown to make a positive difference to the quality of teaching, teacher morale and school culture. This presentation will draw on both quantitative and qualitative evidence to demonstrate the impact of QTR, outlining its effects across a range of NSW primary and secondary schools and for teachers at very different stages of their careers. The essential components of QTR will be elaborated with analysis of the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the effectiveness of this form of professional development in improving teaching practice. As ...


Cultivating A Professional Culture Of Peace And Inclusion: Conceptualizing Practical Applications Of Peace Leadership In Schools, Whitney Mcintyre Miller, Annmary S. Abdou Jul 2018

Cultivating A Professional Culture Of Peace And Inclusion: Conceptualizing Practical Applications Of Peace Leadership In Schools, Whitney Mcintyre Miller, Annmary S. Abdou

Education Faculty Articles and Research

Beyond the role of educating students across all academic domains, school leaders are tasked with the monumental responsibility of creating positive, engaged systems and cultures that embrace the growing cultural, economic, linguistic, and cognitive diversity in the United States landscape. With collective goals to create peaceful learning environments with capacity to serve diverse learners, many school leaders have embraced school-wide prevention and intervention efforts, such as Multi-Tiered Systems of Support (MTSS) for social-emotional and behavioral development of students. Unfortunately, due to the inherent complexities and fragmentation of such efforts, many school leaders have continued to experience significant barriers to sustainable ...


Was The Professional Development I Conducted In South Africa Evident In Teachers’ Practices Many Years Later?, Darlene Demarie Jul 2018

Was The Professional Development I Conducted In South Africa Evident In Teachers’ Practices Many Years Later?, Darlene Demarie

Journal of Practitioner Research

I conducted professional development by working alongside the teachers I hired at a child development center in South Africa. I spent one year and 9 months there while I was a Fulbright CORE Scholar from 2007 to 2009. After 8 years with only two short visits back, the digital tools (photographs and videos) I used and reviewed with teachers at the time of the professional development also helped me to assess the impact of that professional development. I saw how it influenced the teachers' practice and noted what was similar and what had changed over the years.


The Impact Of Professional Development Grounded In Social Learning On Community College Faculty Efficacy, Shanika Shantell Strickland-Davis Jul 2018

The Impact Of Professional Development Grounded In Social Learning On Community College Faculty Efficacy, Shanika Shantell Strickland-Davis

STEMPS Theses & Dissertations

Community college faculty have experienced a shift in focus from access to access and student success. Given this shift in responsibility for student learning, community college faculty should be sufficiently prepared to teach a diverse student body and subsequently uphold beliefs regarding their ability to bring about desired outcomes of student engagement and learning. Given preparedness is a measure of self-efficacy, professional development for community college faculty is a critical investment in the support and development of teacher efficacy and faculty skill.

Social learning theory specifically speaks to a means of increasing self-efficacy. As a professional development practice, social learning ...