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Full-Text Articles in Education

Exploring Young Children’S Digital Composing Practices, Megan D. Cross Nov 2018

Exploring Young Children’S Digital Composing Practices, Megan D. Cross

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study explored the many layers involved in young children’s meaning-making as they digitally compose. Utilizing a multimodal, social semiotics theoretical framework to analyze children’s digital compositions using a composing app, this study was designed around one research question: What is the nature of three and four-year-old children’s multimodal meaning making while using a composing app? The qualitative study involved four focal participants from a three- and four-year-old classroom, who attended an inquiry-based lab school in the southeastern United States.

The data were collected over a period of eight weeks, where the children were invited to tell ...


Teacher Attitude And Self-Efficacy Differences Regarding English Language Learners And Disabled Learners., Miriam Carballo Nov 2018

Teacher Attitude And Self-Efficacy Differences Regarding English Language Learners And Disabled Learners., Miriam Carballo

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

There has been little research combining both groups of students who were English Language Learners (ELLs) and Exceptional Student Education (ESE) students in relation to teacher attitudes and self-efficacy. The purpose of this study was to compare teacher attitudes and self-efficacy related to instructing either ELLs with or without disabilities in elementary schools

Teachers from six elementary schools in the XYZ Excellence School District participated in a 52-item comprehensive survey. Two questionnaires and the demographic form were combined to create one comprehensive questionnaire totaling 52 questions for the purposes of this study. Teachers were solicited to participate in the study ...


Negotiating My Rainbow: A Self-Study Exploring The Relationship Between Beliefs About Identity And Classroom Practice, Amanda Colborne Nov 2018

Negotiating My Rainbow: A Self-Study Exploring The Relationship Between Beliefs About Identity And Classroom Practice, Amanda Colborne

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Teachers bring parts of themselves, among them, gender, age, and race into the classroom. In addition to the routine stress of teaching, lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people have the added stress of managing the expression of their sexual orientation in the classroom. This study explores the ways in which my own identity as a lesbian influenced my beliefs about teaching, my “pre-active” curricular-instructional decision-making, and my “interactive” curricular-instructional decision-making (Jackson, 1966). A self-study methodology is used to explore these relationships. Data sources include journaling, lesson plan artifacts, student work samples, photographs of my classroom, an observation and critical ...


Smart Start For Trauma: A Multiple Baseline Design, Sarah E. Dickinson Nov 2018

Smart Start For Trauma: A Multiple Baseline Design, Sarah E. Dickinson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to address gaps in the trauma treatment literature related to the expense and inaccessibility of evidence-based interventions for children with disabilities who have experienced trauma. Another aim of this study was to provide additional support for a newly piloted intervention for children with disabilities who have experienced trauma. This intervention is known as Smart Start: Parenting Tools for Children with Developmental Delay, Social-Emotional Concerns, and Trauma. A non-concurrent multiple baseline method was used to determine whether there was a functional relationship between the intervention and children’s challenging behaviors for five caregiver-child dyads. In ...


A Biographical Study Of Bernard Lafayette, Jr. As An Adult Educator Including The Teaching Of Nonviolence Conflict Reconciliation, Rozelia Maria Kennedy Nov 2018

A Biographical Study Of Bernard Lafayette, Jr. As An Adult Educator Including The Teaching Of Nonviolence Conflict Reconciliation, Rozelia Maria Kennedy

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to explore the life and work of LaFayette, nonviolence and conflict reconciliation from an adult education perspective. This study explores LaFayette’s life from an early age through his involvement in the Civil Rights Movement, his contributions to adult education, and his current views on social change. The nonviolence conflict reconciliation LaFayette teaches is based on the philosophy and strategies of Martin Luther King, Jr. During the last 50 years, LaFayette has been kidnapped, threatened, and survived ventures into hostile environments in his effort to teach nonviolence philosophy, strategies, and methods.

This historical/biographical ...


Positive Deviance As A Framework For Understanding Motivations And Barriers To Exercise For University Students At Campus Recreation, René Dario Herrera Nov 2018

Positive Deviance As A Framework For Understanding Motivations And Barriers To Exercise For University Students At Campus Recreation, René Dario Herrera

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this thesis was to use qualitative research methodologies to better understand motivations and barriers to exercise for university students at campus recreation. The secondary purpose was to identify any correlations between physical activity habits and academic success. Ethnographic data obtained from a positive deviance sample and critically analyzed with feminist and postmodern theory could provide additional validation for campus recreation's value in positively contributing to the academic success of university students.

Participant observation, questionnaire, cultural domain analysis, interview, and focus group provided qualitative data.

Results indicate university students who frequent campus recreation to exercise are highly ...


The Relationship Between First Year Student Expectations And Persistence Into The Second Year Of College, Ashley Baltuch Dees Oct 2018

The Relationship Between First Year Student Expectations And Persistence Into The Second Year Of College, Ashley Baltuch Dees

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Incoming first year students have varying expectations for their college experience. As Florida public education budgets are more closely aligned with student persistence and graduation rates, it is vital institutions retain more first time in college students. The purpose of this study was to better understand how first year student college expectations on academic preparation, co-curricular involvement, socializing, and institutional commitment relate to persistence into the second year of college at one of Florida’s large, preeminent public research universities.

This quantitative study utilized the Beginning College Survey of Student Engagement (BCSSE) in order to better understand incoming student expectations ...


What First-Year Teachers Really Want From Principals During Their Induction Year: A Beginning Teacher Study Group's Shared Inquiry, Patricia J. Norman, Sara A.S. Sherwood Oct 2018

What First-Year Teachers Really Want From Principals During Their Induction Year: A Beginning Teacher Study Group's Shared Inquiry, Patricia J. Norman, Sara A.S. Sherwood

Journal of Practitioner Research

University teacher educators have a role to play in helping their graduates manage the transition from formal teacher preparation to independent teaching. This study focuses on a shared inquiry that five first-year elementary teachers conducted while participating in a monthly study group facilitated by two teacher educators from their teaching preparation program. The novices regularly perceived a lack of support from their campus administrator, including failing to give the beginning teachers permission to carry out teacher research projects they had designed. After analyzing the degree and kinds of support that they did or did not receive from their principals, the ...


A Framework For Reflective Practice, Diana L. Moss, Claudia Bertolone-Smith, Teruni D. Lamberg Oct 2018

A Framework For Reflective Practice, Diana L. Moss, Claudia Bertolone-Smith, Teruni D. Lamberg

Journal of Practitioner Research

Teaching involves making constant choices and orchestrating interventions that impact purposeful teaching and learning. Finding time to collect information and develop solutions for a teaching challenge can be problematic. Teachers may feel pressure to shift instructional practices without incorporating purposeful reflection. We developed a reflection framework and tested it in a middle grades classroom over a two-week period, and employed practitioner research to investigate the potential of allowing for deep reflection within the middle school structure. We investigated how the framework impacted the teacher’s ability to reflect and adjust based on student learning in the classroom. We conclude that ...


Collaborating Across National Boundaries For Narrative Teaching And Learning, Haji Karim Khan, Theresa Y. Austin Oct 2018

Collaborating Across National Boundaries For Narrative Teaching And Learning, Haji Karim Khan, Theresa Y. Austin

Journal of Practitioner Research

University faculty members always learn through their collaborative engagement in teaching and research. This article reports on collaborative efforts between a Pakistani and US university professor to develop and teach a graduate seminar on narrative inquiry. We used a self-study approach to record, analyze, and report on our experience of teaching narrative inquiry in a graduate research course. We used our reflective journals, course outline, course description, session plans, class-notes, and students’ reflections as data for analysis. As a result, we developed our analytical stories of experiences under several themes.

Findings showcase insights arising from philosophical (ontological and epistemological) underpinnings ...


Clinical Field Experiences Of Nontraditional Pre-Service Teachers: Issues And Beliefs, Melanie Diloreto Oct 2018

Clinical Field Experiences Of Nontraditional Pre-Service Teachers: Issues And Beliefs, Melanie Diloreto

Journal of Practitioner Research

According to the American Association for Colleges of Teacher Education (AACTE, 2010), effective teaching practices and good clinical experiences share a mutually beneficial relationship. Additionally, according to research reported by AACTE (2010), an important link exists between future P–12 student-achievement and effective clinical practices experienced by pre-service teachers. This case study sought to determine experiences deemed effective or important by nontraditional pre-service teachers while engaged in fieldwork completed in an elementary and/or middle school classroom setting. Four themes were derived from the qualitative data obtained through semi-structured interviews of four junior or senior teacher education students engaged in ...


First-Year Seminars And Student Expectations: A Correlational Study Of Retention And Success, Cynthia Edwards Jul 2018

First-Year Seminars And Student Expectations: A Correlational Study Of Retention And Success, Cynthia Edwards

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Performance-based funding is becoming the norm in higher education. High-impact practices like first-year seminars hold promise for improving some of the key metrics in the funding model, such as first-year retention rate and first-year institutional GPA.

The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of retention rate and institutional GPA between first-time-in-college (FTIC) students who completed a first-year seminar and those who did not. Additional data regarding pre-college experiences and expectations for college were investigated to gain insight into retention and academic success behaviors of FTIC students. Three years of data including institutional Beginning College Survey of Student ...


Coach And Evaluator: Exploring How To Negotiate Both Functions In The Role Of Supervisor, Andrea T. Scalzo Willson Jul 2018

Coach And Evaluator: Exploring How To Negotiate Both Functions In The Role Of Supervisor, Andrea T. Scalzo Willson

Journal of Practitioner Research

The tensions of engaging in both coaching and evaluation have driven this inquiry examining my practice as a university supervisor. I explored the ways I define the tasks that allow me to supervise in ways that align with my beliefs, while at the same time perform my duty as an evaluator. In order to examine my practice and the ways that I engage in evaluation and coaching as a supervisor, I considered those tasks in which I enacted such practices. Further, I envisioned a “hybrid” practice where both roles have a place and function while improving pre-service teaching practice.


Was The Professional Development I Conducted In South Africa Evident In Teachers’ Practices Many Years Later?, Darlene Demarie Jul 2018

Was The Professional Development I Conducted In South Africa Evident In Teachers’ Practices Many Years Later?, Darlene Demarie

Journal of Practitioner Research

I conducted professional development by working alongside the teachers I hired at a child development center in South Africa. I spent one year and 9 months there while I was a Fulbright CORE Scholar from 2007 to 2009. After 8 years with only two short visits back, the digital tools (photographs and videos) I used and reviewed with teachers at the time of the professional development also helped me to assess the impact of that professional development. I saw how it influenced the teachers' practice and noted what was similar and what had changed over the years.


Social Studies In The Elementary Classroom: Helping Students Make Sense Of Their World, Lauren Clark, Angela Hooser Jul 2018

Social Studies In The Elementary Classroom: Helping Students Make Sense Of Their World, Lauren Clark, Angela Hooser

Journal of Practitioner Research

This paper documents my journey as a preservice teacher engaging in practitioner inquiry to make social studies more meaningful for my first grade students. I begin by briefly introducing my background with social studies as an elementary student and my growing interest in making improvements to my own social studies instruction. Next, I provide information on the data I collected and the social studies lessons that I designed and taught. Then, I discuss three themes identified from the data that encapsulate the most important learning related to planning and engaging students in meaningful social studies lessons. Finally, I share reflections ...


Inquiry, Discovery, And The Complexities Of Teaching: Learning From The Research Of Practitioners, Angela Hooser, Laura Sabella Jul 2018

Inquiry, Discovery, And The Complexities Of Teaching: Learning From The Research Of Practitioners, Angela Hooser, Laura Sabella

Journal of Practitioner Research

In this opening article, Guest Editors Angela Hooser and Laura Sabella define the purpose of this special themed issue of Journal of Practitioner Research: Inquiry, Discovery, and the Complexities of Teaching: Learning from the Research of Practitioners and introduce the seven pieces of teacher research published in this volume that encapsulate this theme.


Investigating Transformation: An Exploratory Study Of Perceptions And Lived Experiences Of Graduate Teaching Assistants, Christina M. Partin Jul 2018

Investigating Transformation: An Exploratory Study Of Perceptions And Lived Experiences Of Graduate Teaching Assistants, Christina M. Partin

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) are becoming increasingly responsible for undergraduate instruction in the landscape of higher education. These experiences may serve as a pipeline for career readiness and success in faculty positions. Yet, the experiences of graduate teaching assistants are largely unexplored. This study describes the perceptons and experiences of a selected sample of GTAs, including their perceptions of available support, and the role of that support in navigating potential disorienting dilemmas.

Existing literature suggests that disorienting dilemmas lead to transformative experiences through an internal process of critical self-reflection, but neglects the possibility of differential outcomes to disorienting dilemmas. Further ...


Early Literacy Abilities In Spanish-English Emergent Bilingual Children From Varied Dialectal Backgrounds, Antonietta Mastrota Jun 2018

Early Literacy Abilities In Spanish-English Emergent Bilingual Children From Varied Dialectal Backgrounds, Antonietta Mastrota

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The Hispanic population within the United States has grown to a considerable amount. The state of Florida’s population is 25% Hispanic, with projected estimates of this population continuing to grow in the coming years (Ortman & Shin, 2011). Statistics show that 28.3% of the state’s population, over the age of five, speak a language other than English at home. With this considerable number of Spanish-speakers comes the responsibility to adjust certain educational practices to best meet their needs. Literacy is an essential part of learning, and therefore assessing early literacy is an essential part to any child’s academic development.

Phonological awareness is the ability to manipulate and identify the phonological segments of a word (Blachman, Tangel, Ball, Black & Mcgraw, 1999). It is a strong predictor for early literacy abilities (Bradley & Bryant, 1983, Kozminsky & Kozminsky, 1995, Vandervelden & Siegel 1997). This relationship between phonological awareness and early literacy exists within the English language, and also within many other alphabetic languages such as Spanish (Anthony, Williams, McDonald, Corbitt-Shindler, Carlson, & Francis, 2006). Therefore, phonological awareness shares an important relationship to early literacy abilities for both English and Spanish speakers.

There are many morphological, phonological, syntactical, and lexical subtleties that exist between varied dialects of the Spanish language. Vocabulary and lexicon use has been shown to positively influence phonological awareness skills in young children. Dialectical classifications of the participants were determined through use of different dialect specific vocabulary word list in the Linguistic and Cultural Background Survey. This study sought to evaluate whether dialectical differences among young Spanish-English bilinguals were associated with performance on measures of phonological awareness and reading.

Twelve participants (children ages 3.17 years to 7.5 years and their parents participated in the study. Children completed a short form of the dynamic assessment of phonological awareness in Spanish (Loreti, 2015), the Letter-Word Identification of the Woodcock-Muñoz Language Survey-Revised (WMLS-R; Woodcock et al., 2005), the Elision, Rapid Automatic Naming, and Letter Name/Letter Sound subtests from the Test of Phonological Sensitivity in Spanish (TOPSS; Brea et al., 2003) and the Preschool Language Scales, Fifth Edition Spanish Screening Test (PLS-5; Zimmerman et al., 2011). Parents completed a Linguistic and Cultural Background Survey designed to identify potential dialectical differences among the children.

Results from the Linguistic ...


Pre-Service Teacher Micro-Hegemonic Construction Of Literacy Teacher Identity, Brian M. Flores Jun 2018

Pre-Service Teacher Micro-Hegemonic Construction Of Literacy Teacher Identity, Brian M. Flores

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation presents findings from a qualitative discourse analysis study of three pre-service teachers enrolled in the Urban Teacher Residency Partnership Program (UTRPP); a clinical teacher preparation setting at a major southeastern university. UTRPP is a full-time teacher preparation program that focuses on university student achievement through embedded coursework and provides preservice teachers (PSTs) with the opportunity to work with a content coach. Through coaching cycles, these PSTs work one-on-one with a literacy content coaches to enrich their teaching experiences and connect theory to practice through content coaching cycles. A content coaching cycle consists of a pre-conference, video-recorded observation of ...


Relationship Between Extracurricular Activity Involvement And Student Success Among High School Students In Accelerated Academic Curricula, Camille E. Hanks Jun 2018

Relationship Between Extracurricular Activity Involvement And Student Success Among High School Students In Accelerated Academic Curricula, Camille E. Hanks

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Over the last few decades, a growing body of research has linked extracurricular activity participation with positive outcomes among high school students. Extracurricular activities often provide a rich environmental context for positive youth development, given that they provide opportunities for identity formation, the creation of interpersonal connections, and the development of social, emotional, academic, and/or career-related skills. However, there are no studies to date examining the relationship between extracurricular activity involvement and student outcomes among students enrolled in rigorous high school curricula (e.g., Advanced Placement [AP] and International Baccalaureate [IB]). The purpose of the current study was to ...


Collaboration Among Mathematicians And Mathematics Educators: Working Together To Educate Preservice Teachers, Amanda R. Mohn Jun 2018

Collaboration Among Mathematicians And Mathematics Educators: Working Together To Educate Preservice Teachers, Amanda R. Mohn

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Collaboration among higher education professors who are responsible for the education of preservice teachers is one potential solution to the problem of poor teacher preparation. Specifically, collaboration among mathematics educators and mathematicians can enhance preservice teacher preparation because it provides opportunities for preservice teachers to develop pedagogical content knowledge. However, collaborative efforts are challenging, and collaborators often face obstacles and tensions arise among the collaborative group members. Learning about ways the collaborators approach their collaborative efforts, the issues and tensions that arise, the hindering and supporting factors that affect the collaboration, and the potential outcomes of collaborative efforts provides information ...


A Study Of Ghanaian Kindergarten Teachers' Use Of Bilingual And Translanguaging Practices, Joyce Esi Bronteng Jun 2018

A Study Of Ghanaian Kindergarten Teachers' Use Of Bilingual And Translanguaging Practices, Joyce Esi Bronteng

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The importance of mother tongue-based bilingual medium of instruction in bilingual and multilingual classrooms has been evidenced in ample studies in different parts of the world including Ghana. However, studies on how bilingualism is carried out with respect to classroom displays in bilingual education is very scant and even none, as far as I know, in Ghana. Also, there is emerging research on teachers’ translanguaging practices in other parts of the world including South Africa but research on instructional use of translanguaging is yet to be conducted in Ghana. Therefore, this study examined kindergarten teachers’ bilingual practices with regard to ...


Contingent Narratives: Exploring Facets Of Cross-Cultural Awareness In An Experiential Global Education Course, Nicholas Bardo May 2018

Contingent Narratives: Exploring Facets Of Cross-Cultural Awareness In An Experiential Global Education Course, Nicholas Bardo

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This narrative inquiry explores the process through which a combination of coursework, field experiences, and experiential classroom activities engaged pre-service teachers with opportunities to expand their perspective upon culturally normative conceptions of values, beliefs, and worldview. Due to the current racial and ethnic demographic gap separating the professional ranks of the teaching force and the increasingly diverse population of students in the United States, cross-cultural awareness is imperative for both teacher education programming and membership in a culturally pluralistic society.

Drawing on multiple data points, the narrative illuminates the participant voices, context, and dynamic social process of teaching and learning ...


Intersecting Stories: Cultural Reflexivity, Digital Storytelling, And Personal Narratives In Language Teacher Education, Julie Vivienne Dell-Jones Apr 2018

Intersecting Stories: Cultural Reflexivity, Digital Storytelling, And Personal Narratives In Language Teacher Education, Julie Vivienne Dell-Jones

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This narrative inquiry dissertation explores stories from three students over a two-year trajectory as they develop into language educators in diverse contexts. The study begins in a teacher education course focused on technology for language teaching in English as a second language (ESOL) and foreign language education (FLE) classrooms. As instructor, I implemented a digital storytelling (DS) project with the pedagogical goal of supporting the much-needed practice of reflexivity, and specifically, reflexivity of intercultural competence (IC) and culturally-responsive pedagogy (CRP). The DS, as an autoethnographic multimodal narrative activity, provided a creative outlet for undergraduate and master’s level students to ...


Parent Perceptions Of Family Quality Of Life Raising A Child With Autism Spectrum Disorder In The Bahamas, Sharlene Monique Smith Apr 2018

Parent Perceptions Of Family Quality Of Life Raising A Child With Autism Spectrum Disorder In The Bahamas, Sharlene Monique Smith

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Numerous research showed having a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can affect families in many ways (Brace, 2009; DeGrace, 2004; Fantaroni, 2012). The primary types of impact include family relationship (spousal and sibling relationships), finances, and access to resources and services to assist with caring for the social, emotional and academic development of a child with autism (Grindle & Remington, 2014; Harper et al., 2013; Koydemir & Tosun, 2009; Ludlow, Skelly, & Rohleder, 2011; Montes & Cianca, 2014). While extensive studies have shown similar findings of the impact of autism on family quality of life in America and other places in the world, such as Africa, East of England ...


Enrollment And Disenrollment In Voluntary Prekindergarten: A Study Of Educational Leaders’ Decision-Making, Angela Cherie Passero Jones Apr 2018

Enrollment And Disenrollment In Voluntary Prekindergarten: A Study Of Educational Leaders’ Decision-Making, Angela Cherie Passero Jones

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This qualitative case study focused on how school leaders’ understandings of (dis)ability were implicated in decision-making and affected student (dis)enrollment in Florida’s Voluntary Prekindergarten Program (VPK). More specifically it explored how leaders in private VPK programs invoked conceptions of normality, and subsequently abnormality, during decision-making processes for student (dis)enrollment. Combining a critical poststructuralist approach (critical disability studies, critical policy analysis), decision-making on (dis)enrollment was contextualized within the current policy ecology. This policy ecology was framed as an historical development of policies regarding preschool for children with and without disabilities in a marketplace shaped by the ...


Environmental Perceptions To Promote Self-Directed Learning In The Workplace, Trevor Marshall Bernard Apr 2018

Environmental Perceptions To Promote Self-Directed Learning In The Workplace, Trevor Marshall Bernard

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to identify perceptions of environmental changes that promote self-directed learning in the workplace by Human Resources Development (HRD) practitioners and to investigate possible differences of the dependent LPA score variables to independent variables of highest level of education achieved, race/ethnicity, age, gender, position title, industry, size of the organization, and years of HRD experience.

The research used a mixed method design. Qualitative data were recorded through four focus groups until a saturation of comments was reached. Quantitative Pearson product moment correlation and ANOVA statistics were used to show the possible differences of LPA ...


Nontraditional Community College Students' Motivational Regulation In A Blended Core Technology Course, Jennifer Hart Mar 2018

Nontraditional Community College Students' Motivational Regulation In A Blended Core Technology Course, Jennifer Hart

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

There is a lack of empirical research on the motivational regulation and reactions of higher education students enrolled in blended courses. Studies that target this focus with nontraditional adult learners enrolled in the community college are even more difficult to locate. In this mixed-methods exploratory case study, I explored in what ways nontraditional adult learners' motivational regulation and their motivational reactions to course design relate to their perceived learning experience in a blended technology course with a flipped design. Specifically, I investigated how nontraditional community college students described their goals for participating in a blended course prior to the start ...


Effects Of Preprinted Response Cards On Disruptive Behavior Of Students In An Inclusive Education Setting, Haley Paulish Mar 2018

Effects Of Preprinted Response Cards On Disruptive Behavior Of Students In An Inclusive Education Setting, Haley Paulish

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This study examined the effects of preprinted response cards on disruptive behavior and rates and accuracy of responding of elementary-aged students in an inclusive education setting with or at risk for Individualized Education Plans (IEPs). An alternating treatments design with an additional baseline phase was used across three teacher recommended students. During baseline, the teacher conducted a group language arts routine as normal, posing questions to the class and prompting them to raise their hands to answer. During the intervention phase, preprinted response cards (two sets: one true/false and one A/B) were passed out to the class to ...


An Application Of The Dual Factor Model Of Mental Health In Elementary School Students: Implications For Social Functioning And Psychopathology, Nicholas David W. Smith Mar 2018

An Application Of The Dual Factor Model Of Mental Health In Elementary School Students: Implications For Social Functioning And Psychopathology, Nicholas David W. Smith

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In the study of positive psychology and mental health there has been greater emphasis placed on the presence of indicators of well-being, as opposed to previous models solely based on the presence or absence of psychopathological symptoms. This has yielded a model titled the Dual Factor Model of Mental Health (DFM; Suldo, 2016). Psychopathological symptoms have been conceptualized as a categorical variable encompassing an elevated level of symptoms of either externalizing or internalizing disorders. Complete Mental Health (CMH) is generally conceptualized as having low psychopathology (PTH) and high subjective well-being (SWB). Previous research has indicated more positive outcomes, such as ...