Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Education Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 46

Full-Text Articles in Education

Interaction Between Students’ Motivation And Physics Teachers’ Characteristics: Multiple Case Study, Fikret Korur, Ali Eryilmaz Dec 2018

Interaction Between Students’ Motivation And Physics Teachers’ Characteristics: Multiple Case Study, Fikret Korur, Ali Eryilmaz

The Qualitative Report

This study identified the process of interaction between students’ motivation and characteristics of two physics teachers: one who exhibited effective physics teacher characteristics frequently and one who exhibited the characteristics rarely. The two case teachers were selected to predict contrasting and comparable results. The data gathered from the semi-structured interviews, follow-up interviews, direct observation, video recordings, and field notes were analyzed both by single case and by cross-case analysis to strengthen the findings from two case teachers. Findings indicated that teachers’ characteristics like enthusiasm and giving examples from daily life increased students’ motivation by increasing their attention and willingness to ...


Writing To Heal: Viewing Teacher Identity Through The Lens Of Autoethnography, Erin Parke Dec 2018

Writing To Heal: Viewing Teacher Identity Through The Lens Of Autoethnography, Erin Parke

The Qualitative Report

This autoethnographic work explores my experience with illness (specifically anti-N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis), recovery, and career change all in the span of a few months. Through reflexive interviews and a first-person narrative, I analyzed the shifting nature of my identity, specifically my teacher identity as I moved from struggling teacher, to patient, and back to teacher again. I also analyzed how the act of writing, and writing the narrative of this autoethnography, assisted in the healing process. My story shows that in moving from pre-illness to post-illness, I shifted from a strict, content-based teacher to a constructivist facilitator with ...


Unspoken Barriers: An Autoethnographic Study Of Frustration, Resistance And Resilience, Rose M. Wake Dec 2018

Unspoken Barriers: An Autoethnographic Study Of Frustration, Resistance And Resilience, Rose M. Wake

The Qualitative Report

Immigration, cultural capital, cultural hybridity are the contributing players within my autoethnographic research as a second-generation daughter of southern Italian migrants from the post war era. This autobiography of my lived experience identifies contributing influences of arrested development within my educational and life trajectory and explores theoretical frameworks as key comparative indicators for my thwarted stages of psychosocial development. My identity and role as a female is further explored within the construct of a determined and culturally hybrid adolescence in an effort to answer research questions of identity and role confusion. My narratives situate my life as a daughter, student ...


Remedying Hermeneutic Injustice One Poem At A Time: A Review Of The Little Orange Book: Learning About Abuse From The Voice Of The Child, Alec J. Grant Phd Nov 2018

Remedying Hermeneutic Injustice One Poem At A Time: A Review Of The Little Orange Book: Learning About Abuse From The Voice Of The Child, Alec J. Grant Phd

The Qualitative Report

This remarkable book tackles child sexual abuse and exploitation, arguing that blame and accountability belong to its perpetrators. It draws on thematic content analysis and autoethnographic principles and is methodologically novel in utilising the poetry of the first author, written in childhood, as primary data. An important international educational and practical resource, it should be on the shelves of university libraries, informing courses in social work, criminology, health and qualitative inquiry. It is also a much needed knowledge resource for abuse survivors and their advocates, remedying what the moral philosopher Miranda Fricker calls “hermeneutic injustice”: abused people lacking the knowledge ...


Student And Faculty Perceptions Of Live Synchronous Distance Education For Allied Health Students Following Program Expansion To A Rural Campus, Betsy J. Becker, Kelsey Rutt, Allyson Huntley, Harlan Sayles, Kim Michael Oct 2018

Student And Faculty Perceptions Of Live Synchronous Distance Education For Allied Health Students Following Program Expansion To A Rural Campus, Betsy J. Becker, Kelsey Rutt, Allyson Huntley, Harlan Sayles, Kim Michael

Internet Journal of Allied Health Sciences and Practice

Background & Purpose: Distance education (DE) is a means to meet allied health workforce needs in rural locations where healthcare worker shortages are apparent. Five allied health programs were expanded to a rural campus teaching synchronously using distance education technology. The purpose of this convergent parallel mixed methods study was to explore perceptions of allied health students and faculty at two campus locations.

Methods: Quantitative and qualitative information were collected through a survey of students and faculty (physical therapy, physician assistant, and medical imaging [diagnostic medical sonography, radiography, magnetic resonance imaging] programs). Both campuses served as live and distance sites depending on instructor location and area of content expertise. For example, morning courses may be taught live from one campus, and afternoon classes taught live from the other campus. Only one program, physical therapy, offered labs by distance education. Response distributions were compared for questions by campus using Cochran-Armitage trend tests and analyzed de-identified qualitative comments using constant comparisons to establish themes.

Results: Student (n=121) and faculty (n=19) mostly agreed distance education technology was effective for teaching and learning. Significant differences were found in student opinions about receiving a similar educational experience between the two campuses. More students at the Main campus somewhat or strongly disagreed (n=34, 37%) it was similar compared to the Rural campus (n= 5, 17%, p=0.024). There were no comments specifically related to the physical therapy lab experience. Open-ended comment themes included training, purposeful engagement of both campus locations, and setting clear expectations.

Conclusions: Although differences in learning experiences exist between the main and rural campus locations; the results indicated using distance education technology is an effective means to deliver the curriculum. Both students and faculty commented about the lack of experience with the educational technology before implementation. Synchronous, distance education offers the opportunity for program expansion and effective delivery of curriculum content. Using the results of this study can enhance future education in allied health professions using synchronous distance education technology.


Exploring Effective Foreign Language Teaching From The Eyes Of Iranian Learners: Reporting A Qualitative Interview Study, Alireza Omidi Oskouei, Azizollah Dabaghi, Dariush Nejad Ansari Oct 2018

Exploring Effective Foreign Language Teaching From The Eyes Of Iranian Learners: Reporting A Qualitative Interview Study, Alireza Omidi Oskouei, Azizollah Dabaghi, Dariush Nejad Ansari

The Qualitative Report

This article reports on a qualitative study of the learners’ beliefs about effective foreign language teaching in an Iranian setting. A semi-structured interview covering several fundamental issues in foreign language (FL) pedagogy was conducted with 22 upper-intermediate Iranian English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners. Qualitative content analysis of the transcript data yielded several interesting and informative themes. Among the most prominent results of the study, mention can be made of learners’ strong penchant for modern, learner-centered approaches to FL teaching such as communicative language teaching (CLT) and task-based language teaching (TBLT). Among the other notable themes were learners’ endorsement ...


Early Childhood Leadership: A Photovoice Exploration, Kristi Cheyney-Collante, Melissa Cheyney Sep 2018

Early Childhood Leadership: A Photovoice Exploration, Kristi Cheyney-Collante, Melissa Cheyney

The Qualitative Report

The first five years of a child’s life represent critical windows in physiological, social-emotional, and cognitive development. Administrators of early childhood (EC) programs play a pivotal role in determining the quality of experiences that unfold for young children in center-based care. Using photovoice, semi-structured administrator interviews, and participant-observation, we aimed to identify the factors contributing to one center’s atypically excellent outcomes with diverse children and families. Our textual and photographic analyses revealed three findings. First, administrators saw themselves as embedded within a larger system of barriers characterized by low positionality within an educational caste system that is marked ...


Investigating Efl Classroom Management In Pesantren: A Case Study, Akhmad Habibi, Amirul Mukminin, Johni Najwan, Septu Haswindy, Lenny Marzulina, Muhammad Sirozi, Kasinyo Harto, Muhammad Sofwan Sep 2018

Investigating Efl Classroom Management In Pesantren: A Case Study, Akhmad Habibi, Amirul Mukminin, Johni Najwan, Septu Haswindy, Lenny Marzulina, Muhammad Sirozi, Kasinyo Harto, Muhammad Sofwan

The Qualitative Report

Classroom management (CM) is one of the most important issues in education and this research was aimed at understanding the classroom management problems and the coping strategies of Indonesian Islamic Boarding schools’ [hereinafter-termed pesantren] with the uniqueness of their system from the perspectives of the English teachers. Specifically, the purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore English as a foreign language (EFL) classroom management (CM) problems and the coping strategies of Indonesian Islamic boarding schools’ teachers. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions (FGD), and observation with eight English teachers working in the three pesantren ...


Separate But (Un)Equal: A Review Of Resegregation As Curriculum: The Meaning Of The New Racial Segregation In U.S. Public Schools, Katherine H. Burr Jul 2018

Separate But (Un)Equal: A Review Of Resegregation As Curriculum: The Meaning Of The New Racial Segregation In U.S. Public Schools, Katherine H. Burr

The Qualitative Report

Resegregation as Curriculum: The Meaning of the New Racial Segregation in U.S. Public Schools (2016) by Rosiek and Kinslow exposes the reality of systemic racial resegregation occurring in U.S. public schools. The authors center the stories of students, educators, and community members affected by the resegregation in a powerful narrative that blends critical race theory and agential realism as theoretical frameworks. This book review offers a review of the authors' findings, commentary on their methodology, and recommended audiences.


A Digital Immigrant Venture Into Teaching Online: An Autoethnographic Account Of A Classroom Teacher Transformed, Karin A. Lewis Jul 2018

A Digital Immigrant Venture Into Teaching Online: An Autoethnographic Account Of A Classroom Teacher Transformed, Karin A. Lewis

The Qualitative Report

This paper presents an autoethnographic account of a classroom teacher’s experience transitioning to teaching online within the shifting culture of academe in the 21st Century. After decades as a classroom teacher, the author engages in autoethnography to reflexively analyze her challenging transition to teaching online. The author examines her perspectives, beliefs, thought process, learning, and development. Findings regarding her new way of teaching, thinking, and living as an online instructor may provide insights for others in academe.


Romance And The Teacher: A Dissertation Revisited, Amy B. Spiker Ed.D Jul 2018

Romance And The Teacher: A Dissertation Revisited, Amy B. Spiker Ed.D

The Qualitative Report

This article is an auto-ethnographic study of my own deeply held metaphors about teaching and how I carry them into my university classroom work with preservice teachers. It is a continuation of a previously shelved dissertation. Ignited by a simple question during an encounter with a former student and research participant, this article looks at the dissertation work carried out previously through a new lens. The dissertation focused on my participants who were students and student teachers and their metaphors about teaching. Years later I was challenged to revisit this work and identify my own teaching metaphors. By holding a ...


Collaboration Or Collusion? The New Era Of Commercial Online Resources For Students In The Digital Age: An Opinion Piece, Cristian Lieneck, Salvador Esparza Jul 2018

Collaboration Or Collusion? The New Era Of Commercial Online Resources For Students In The Digital Age: An Opinion Piece, Cristian Lieneck, Salvador Esparza

Internet Journal of Allied Health Sciences and Practice

The purpose of this paper is to share online resources available to students at a global level, to include healthcare administration programs and any other course of study. While somewhat daunting in nature, this editorial offers faculty of healthcare administration (and other related programs of study) the opportunity to explore what course materials (of any format) may be posted to commercial external websites by current and/or previous students for ongoing collaboration among academic cohorts. Findings include an opportunity for students in any program, at any level, to post individual and/or copyrighted course materials on public, external websites, often ...


Understanding Emotion In Educational And Service Organizations Through Semi-Structured Interviews: Some Conceptual And Practical Insights, Izhar Oplatka 9512056 Jun 2018

Understanding Emotion In Educational And Service Organizations Through Semi-Structured Interviews: Some Conceptual And Practical Insights, Izhar Oplatka 9512056

The Qualitative Report

The aim of this paper is to illuminate the challenges, complexities, and strategies of semi-structured interviewing in studies about emotion in educational organizations, in general, and about teacher emotion and emotion in educational leadership, in particular, and, thereby, enable interviewers to make thoughtful decisions concerning planning and implementing future interviews on this sensitive issue. After a short review of the literature on semi-structured interviews, I analyze the distinctive characteristics of the planning phase (e.g., sample, sampling, location) and the implementation phase (e.g., the opening stage, rapport, hazards) in interviewing teachers and educational leaders about their emotion management, emotion ...


United We Stand: Narrative Study To Aid The Counseling Profession In Developing A Coherent Identity, Sunhee Jang Eissenstat, Lynn Bohecker Jun 2018

United We Stand: Narrative Study To Aid The Counseling Profession In Developing A Coherent Identity, Sunhee Jang Eissenstat, Lynn Bohecker

The Qualitative Report

The purpose of the study was to learn how non-counseling-related professions have navigated the developmental issues the counseling profession has been facing such as (1) strengthening identity, (2) presenting as one profession, (3) improving public perception and advocacy, and (4) creating licensure portability. The researchers provide the narratives of six people from three non-counseling-related professions who have been instrumental in the development of their respective professions. The overarching open-ended research question posed was, “What is the narrative history of your profession?” Follow-up questions were used to explore specific challenges within their respective professions that may have been similar to the ...


Factors Affecting Teachers’ Implementation Of Communicative Language Teaching Curriculum In Secondary Schools In Bangladesh, Mohammad Mosiur Rahman, Ambigapathy Pandian, Manjet Kaur May 2018

Factors Affecting Teachers’ Implementation Of Communicative Language Teaching Curriculum In Secondary Schools In Bangladesh, Mohammad Mosiur Rahman, Ambigapathy Pandian, Manjet Kaur

The Qualitative Report

This study focuses on the selected factors affecting teachers’ implementation of the Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) curriculum in secondary schools in Bangladesh. The study is explorative, interpretivist, and qualitative in nature. A phenomenology approach, under qualitative method, was adopted to explore how teachers experience the phenomenon of CLT based curriculum change. Four schools were chosen, two from Dhaka (Urban), the capital of the country, and two from the villages in Chandpur (Rural). Eight selected participants were chosen from these schools based on a purposive sampling. Semi-structured interviews, classroom observation and document analysis of curriculum, assessment, and teaching materials were the ...


Winter 2018 May 2018

Winter 2018

Transformations

No abstract provided.


On The Cultivation Of Their Community Of Practice: A Case Study Of Efl Malaysian Pre-Service Teachers, Taghreed El Masry, Mohd Rashid Mohd Saad Apr 2018

On The Cultivation Of Their Community Of Practice: A Case Study Of Efl Malaysian Pre-Service Teachers, Taghreed El Masry, Mohd Rashid Mohd Saad

The Qualitative Report

This study examined the experiences of five EFL student teachers/pre-service teachers (PSTs) who participated in a Community of Practice (CoP) during their simulated teaching course and the practicum stage or teaching practice (TP), at The University of Malaya, a public Malaysian university. The experiences and tensions they encountered through this stage were discussed in the light of cultivating their CoP over five stages. Joining the CoP, increasing participation and negotiation of one's tacit knowledge and assumptions were found to be productive at their learning to teach stage. However, some tensions, such as English proficiency level, self-confidence and agency ...


Developing Classroom Management Strategies In Non-Native Culture: A Single Case Study, Xianquan Liu, Wayne A. Babchuk Apr 2018

Developing Classroom Management Strategies In Non-Native Culture: A Single Case Study, Xianquan Liu, Wayne A. Babchuk

The Qualitative Report

This single case study explored the practicum and student teaching experience of a native Chinese pre-service language teacher in order to better understand her process of developing classroom management strategies and the difficulties and challenges emerged in that process. In a broader sense, the case study aims to inform teacher preparation programs in terms of preparing Chinese teachers for secondary public schools in the U.S. The longitudinal study employed semi-structured interviews, classroom observation notes, teaching reflections and documents. Six themes — instructional challenges, coping strategies, cultural difference, language frustration, attitudes and feelings, and improvement — emerged from constant comparative analysis. Compared ...


The Preparation And Education Of First-Year Teachers: A Case Study, Jennifer A. Tygret Mar 2018

The Preparation And Education Of First-Year Teachers: A Case Study, Jennifer A. Tygret

The Qualitative Report

The purpose of this case study was to provide a policy analysis of the Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation (CAEP) standard that requires teacher preparation programs to follow their recent graduates during their first years of teaching to demonstrate their positive impact on student growth, satisfaction with their preparation, and effective teaching practices. Using the Colorado Teacher Quality Standards as a conceptual framework, this qualitative study used interviews and observations at the beginning, middle, and end of the school year to discover five first-year teachers’ perceptions of their preparation, needs, level of confidence in all areas of teaching ...


An Instrumental Case Study On Testing An Integrated Framework For Tutoring Sessions, Alicia L. Holland, Chris Grant, Reshma Donthamsetty Mar 2018

An Instrumental Case Study On Testing An Integrated Framework For Tutoring Sessions, Alicia L. Holland, Chris Grant, Reshma Donthamsetty

The Qualitative Report

The objective for the current qualitative case study was to examine participants’ perceptions on the tutor coaching and session review frameworks. The location of the study was at the tutor coach’s place of business. At the beginning of the study, both tutor coach and tutors were trained on how to implement the specific frameworks associated with their roles in the tutoring process. Tutors who participated in the study kept weekly reflection journals regarding their tutoring experiences. After 6 weeks, the tutor coach participated in 30-minute open-ended phone interviews related to the tutor-coaching framework. All interviews were recorded and transcribed ...


Using Nvivo™ For Literature Reviews: The Eight Step Pedagogy (N7+1), Maureen M. O'Neill Dr, Sarah R. Booth Mrs, Janeen Therese Lamb Phd Mar 2018

Using Nvivo™ For Literature Reviews: The Eight Step Pedagogy (N7+1), Maureen M. O'Neill Dr, Sarah R. Booth Mrs, Janeen Therese Lamb Phd

The Qualitative Report

While a literature review is a necessary milestone to be completed by all researchers in a timely and efficient manner, it is often one of the most difficult aspects of the research journey. Moreover, traditional approaches often leave novice researchers, to struggle with the conceptualisation of their literature review, now complicated by the overwhelming quantity of research available online. This paper presents a rationale the use of Qualitative Data Analysis Software (QDAS) programs for literature reviews. QDAS tools allow the researcher to explore large amounts of textual documents to see patterns. These programs are often overlooked by novice researchers due ...


Pursuing A Dream: The Lived Experiences Of Early Leavers And Their Return To Alternative High School, Patrick Morrissette Feb 2018

Pursuing A Dream: The Lived Experiences Of Early Leavers And Their Return To Alternative High School, Patrick Morrissette

The Qualitative Report

This article describes a phenomenological study that explored the experiences of early leavers who chose to return to high school in order to pursue their diploma. Eighteen students, including males and females, participated in individual tape recorded interviews, during which they described their experiences, yielding written protocols that were thematically analyzed. Results from this study revealed seven prominent themes that included the following (a) facing reality, (b) launching process, (c) determination, (d) overcoming barriers, (e) supportive influences, (f) proving self, and (g) learning context. Findings and implications for educators and future research are included.


"The Habits Of History": A Research-Based Play Script, Dorothy Morrissey Feb 2018

"The Habits Of History": A Research-Based Play Script, Dorothy Morrissey

The Qualitative Report

In this article, derived from her doctoral dissertation, the author (a teacher educator in drama in Ireland) presents her students’ initial responses to her performance of a one-woman play, “Goldilocks’s Testimony.” The play, written by the author, concerns the marginalisation of women in workplaces. In the play, women’s “real” experiences of workplace marginalisation are transposed to Fairyland. In this article, the author represents her postgraduate student teachers’ responses to her performance in play script format. In this play script, “The Habits of History” (Olsen, 2003), the students’ responses are also transposed to Fairyland.


Navigating A Life Of Theory: An Autobiography Of Privilege, Place And Teaching, Philip E. Bernhardt Feb 2018

Navigating A Life Of Theory: An Autobiography Of Privilege, Place And Teaching, Philip E. Bernhardt

The Qualitative Report

Experiences that influence and shape an individual’s pedagogical commitments serve as a unique lens to conceptualize professional transformation. This narrative provides an autobiographical account of the author’s journey from student to teacher. The article, which is divided into two distinct, but tightly connected narratives, draws on this tradition to examine and develop a more nuanced understanding of those life experiences influencing the author’s complex journey as an educator. Each narrative begins with a short autobiographical reflection highlighting significant life moments and histories. Second, critical and post-structuralist theory is interwoven to examine ways the author conceptualizes the significance ...


Pre-Service Efl Teachers’ Experiences In Teaching Practicum In Rural Schools In Indonesia, Heri Mudra Feb 2018

Pre-Service Efl Teachers’ Experiences In Teaching Practicum In Rural Schools In Indonesia, Heri Mudra

The Qualitative Report

A teaching practicum is officially offered to pre-service English as Foreign Language (EFL) teachers, randomly selected for either urban or rural schools. The study aims to describe and disseminate the obstacles experienced by those teaching English in rural schools during their Teaching Practicum Program (TTP). Seventeen pre-service teachers participated in the qualitative study. Interviews and observations were the main methods of data collection. The results reveal that the obstacles faced by the pre-service EFL teachers were around classroom management, learning materials or resources, teaching aids or media, teaching methods, learners' English skills, choice of language use, slow internet connectivity, learners ...


“If Our English Isn’T A Language, What Is It?” Indonesian Efl Student Teachers’ Challenges Speaking English, Mukhlash Abrar, Amirul Mukminin, Akhmad Habibi, Fadhil Asyrafi, Makmur Makmur, Lenny Marzulina Jan 2018

“If Our English Isn’T A Language, What Is It?” Indonesian Efl Student Teachers’ Challenges Speaking English, Mukhlash Abrar, Amirul Mukminin, Akhmad Habibi, Fadhil Asyrafi, Makmur Makmur, Lenny Marzulina

The Qualitative Report

Research on students’ skill speaking English in a non-English speaking country such as Indonesia is limited. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to document Indonesian EFL student teachers’ experiences in speaking English at one public university in Jambi, Indonesia. Data came from demographic questionnaires and semi-structured interviews obtained from eight participants. We organized our analysis and discussion around Indonesian EFL student teachers’ perspectives and the contexts in which experiences they encountered emerge. Our analysis of the text revealed overarching themes and sub-themes including (1) language barriers (vocabulary, pronunciation, grammar, and fluency); (2) psychological factors (anxiety, attitude, and lack of ...


Exploring Teacher Factors That Influence Teacher-Child Relationships In Head Start: : A Grounded Theory, Shiyi Chen, Beth Phillips Jan 2018

Exploring Teacher Factors That Influence Teacher-Child Relationships In Head Start: : A Grounded Theory, Shiyi Chen, Beth Phillips

The Qualitative Report

The purpose of this paper was to explore factors that influence teacher-child relationships in Head Start. Three Head Start teachers from three centers were recruited for this study. Interview and observation data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach by using the qualitative data analysis software NVivo. Two coders completed the coding process. Inter-coder reliability and other triangulation techniques were employed to ensure the credibility of this study. The analysis revealed factors that teachers perceived as beneficial or harmful to their relationships with children. Three main themes emerged: professionalism (i.e., teacher beliefs, education, and work experience), teacher self-efficacy (i ...


Stem Shift Action Plan, Nancy L. Ledbetter Jan 2018

Stem Shift Action Plan, Nancy L. Ledbetter

Transformations

That there is an ever-growing need for students to enter STEM fields is no longer news. The need for people to fill STEM related jobs continues to expand (Bybee, 2013). Today’s students are global citizens who will need to collaborate and communicate with people around the world when they enter the workforce. Therefore, it is imperative that they are prepared with problem-solving, critical thinking, and communication skills before they enter secondary school (Myers & Berkowicz, 2015). Knowing that this must be done is the easy part, figuring out how to do it is the challenge. STEM must be incorporated into ...


Planning A Family Math Night-The How To's: A Checklist For Success, Joseph M. Furner Ph.D. Jan 2018

Planning A Family Math Night-The How To's: A Checklist For Success, Joseph M. Furner Ph.D.

Transformations

This paper shares the “how to’s” of putting on a family math night at an elementary school in South Florida. The paper discusses the importance of parent involvement and knowing about the standards and how math, science, and literacy are taught in schools today. The paper provides concrete steps for setting up a family night with suggested activities and organizational ideas to involve teachers, students, and parents at the school. Several checklists are provided along with websites and ideas for activities for the family night booths. Today family nights at schools can provide a real powerful means for promoting ...


Digital Footprints: Creation, Implication, And Higher Education, Maureen Mcdermot Jan 2018

Digital Footprints: Creation, Implication, And Higher Education, Maureen Mcdermot

FDLA Journal

Twenty-first century higher education instructors are continually tasked to review, align, pilot, adopt, infuse, and evaluate new technology tools and resources into curricula rich with standards regardless of course format (online/distance, hybrid, and face-to-face courses). Demands often overwhelm instructors who cannot assume that all students approach technology with the same levels of expertise increases constantly with new multimedia developments. Before courses begin, instructors should pilot these tools and applications to determine accessibility, types of support students may need, as well as determine what types of digital footprints students will leave behind. Digital footprints are unique data trails Internet users ...