Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Education Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Sports Studies

Institution
Keyword
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 12977

Full-Text Articles in Education

Features Of Acceleration And Angular Velocity Using Thigh Imus During Walking In Water, Koichi Kaneda, Yuji Ohgi, Mark Mckean, Brendan Burkett May 2020

Features Of Acceleration And Angular Velocity Using Thigh Imus During Walking In Water, Koichi Kaneda, Yuji Ohgi, Mark Mckean, Brendan Burkett

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

Ten participants were assessed while walking in water and on land with wearable inertial measurement units (IMUs) attached to the right thigh. Longitudinal acceleration, anterior-posterior acceleration, and frontal axis angular velocity were measured at 100 Hz, matched with video analysis sampled at 25 Hz during the walking trials. The longitudinal acceleration showed almost 1 g from initial heel contact to 70% of one cycle, and the anterior-posterior acceleration showed a sinusoidal pattern, synchronizing the approximate posture of the thigh in water. The frontal axis angular velocity fluctuated less while walking in water compared with on land, because thigh motion speed ...


The Ocean Lifeguard Intervention Continuum: A Cognitive Aid For Surf Lifeguard Education, William A. Koon, Ryan M. Gates, Shane Scoggins, Paul Andrus, Jack A. Futoran May 2020

The Ocean Lifeguard Intervention Continuum: A Cognitive Aid For Surf Lifeguard Education, William A. Koon, Ryan M. Gates, Shane Scoggins, Paul Andrus, Jack A. Futoran

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

Ocean lifeguards are constantly engaged in beach risk analysis, required to efficiently evaluate a variety of environmental and other factors quickly in order to triage and prioritize who needs help. Teaching these skills is a challenge for introductory training programs. We sought to improve new lifeguards’ understanding of the interaction of various risk components in the beach environment and aid decision-making related to when a lifeguard should intervene in a situation. We developed a two-part cognitive aid for introductory ocean lifeguard education depicting individual and interacting elements of a beach goer’s risk of drowning or injury and the process ...


Kids Don’T Float…And Their Parents Don’T Either: Using A Family-Centered Approach In Alaska’S Kids Don’T Float Program, Michelle E. E. Bauer, Audrey R. Giles, Justina Marianayagam, Kelli M. Toth May 2020

Kids Don’T Float…And Their Parents Don’T Either: Using A Family-Centered Approach In Alaska’S Kids Don’T Float Program, Michelle E. E. Bauer, Audrey R. Giles, Justina Marianayagam, Kelli M. Toth

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

The goal of this experiential report is to outline the adoption of a family-centered Kids Don’t Float approach. We conducted a critical synthesis of information to reflect the expansion of the Kids Don’t Float program into a more family-centered approach. The critical synthesis provided insights into why we should adopt this approach, how it was implemented, and how it influenced drowning incidents compared to the previously used child-centered approach. The adoption of a family-centered approach may contribute to reducing drowning incidents by targeting parents, providing safety information to families, and promoting parental modelling of life jackets. Program evaluators ...


Factors Impacting Swimming Participation And Competence: A Qualitative Report, Todd E. Layne, Carol C. Irwin, Jennifer Renee Pharr, Richard L. Irwin May 2020

Factors Impacting Swimming Participation And Competence: A Qualitative Report, Todd E. Layne, Carol C. Irwin, Jennifer Renee Pharr, Richard L. Irwin

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

Drowning continues to be a major cause of death for children, especially among minority groups. USA Swimming commissioned studies in 2008 and 2010 to look at swimming ability or inability, an associated drowning variable. The 2010 study showed alarming high percentages regarding insufficient swimming skill for many demographic groups. The current study’s purpose was to provide further analysis of variables which emerged from 2010 study and how these variables are affecting all US populations. Focus group interviews accomplished in three regionally diverse US cities asked participants (3=fathers; 12=mothers) about their personal history with swimming, perceptions concerning swimming ...


Promising Practices For Boating Safety Initiatives That Target Indigenous Peoples In New Zealand, Australia, The United States Of America, And Canada, Mitchell Crozier, Audrey R. Giles May 2020

Promising Practices For Boating Safety Initiatives That Target Indigenous Peoples In New Zealand, Australia, The United States Of America, And Canada, Mitchell Crozier, Audrey R. Giles

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

Boating-related incidents are responsible for a significant number of the drowning fatalities that occur within Indigenous communities in New Zealand, Australia, the USA, and Canada. The aim of this paper was to identify promising practices for boating safety initiatives that target Indigenous peoples within these countries and evaluate past and ongoing boating safety initiatives delivered to/with Indigenous peoples within these countries to suggest the ways in which they – or programs that follow them - may be more effective. Based upon evidence from previous research, boating safety initiatives that target Indigenous peoples in New Zealand, Australia, the USA, and Canada should ...


Examining Minority Youth Swimmers’ Versus Non-Swimmers’ Perceptions Of Swimming Involvement, Timothy M. Dasinger, Laura L. Brown, Ashton J. Sawyers May 2020

Examining Minority Youth Swimmers’ Versus Non-Swimmers’ Perceptions Of Swimming Involvement, Timothy M. Dasinger, Laura L. Brown, Ashton J. Sawyers

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

Drowning is one of the leading causes of death in youth, especially among minority populations (Gilchrest & Parker, 2014). According to the World Health Organization (2014), every hour of every day approximately 42 people lose their lives to drowning. Additionally, African-Americans are 14 times more likely to drown in a pool than other racial or ethnic group members (Waller & Norwood, 2011). The purpose of this study was to examine survey results between swimming and non-swimming minority youth participants. Forty African American students between the ages of 5-17 from an after-school program completed the Swimming Involvement Survey. Results indicated that swimmers, independent ...


The Partial Immersion Aquatic Approach Using Adjustable Weight Bearing To Improve Posture And Sitting Balance Adaptation For Children With Severe Cerebral Palsy, Niv Shelef May 2020

The Partial Immersion Aquatic Approach Using Adjustable Weight Bearing To Improve Posture And Sitting Balance Adaptation For Children With Severe Cerebral Palsy, Niv Shelef

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

The innovative ‟Partial Immersion” Aquatic Therapy Approach was developed to enhance balance and posture during sitting adaptation for children with severe cerebral palsy who exhibit deficiency in those skills on land. Stable balance during sitting posture is one of the preconditions for hands function in activities of daily living. Aquatic skills learned during aquatic therapy were then transferred to a land environment. Therapy included the use of a treatment chair that enabled adjustable weight bearing in a series of 30 mm steps. A mixed-methods design employing a multiple case study approach (n=5) including quantitative and qualitative methods investigated the ...


Swimming Past The Pandemic: Importance Of Evidence-Based Science, Stephen J. Langendorfer Ph.D. May 2020

Swimming Past The Pandemic: Importance Of Evidence-Based Science, Stephen J. Langendorfer Ph.D.

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

Swimming Past the Pandemic - URL included


Swim Instruction For Individuals With Developmental Coordination Disorder, Susan J. Grosse May 2020

Swim Instruction For Individuals With Developmental Coordination Disorder, Susan J. Grosse

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

Almost every swim teacher has encountered an individual who had difficulty learning to swim, whose movements appeared dissimilar from peers, or who needed to repeat swim course instructional levels many times. That individual might have had difficulty with sport activities, handwriting, and been clumsy in gross and fine motor tasks. Difficulty with coordination and control of movement may suggest a diagnosis of developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Individuals experiencing DCD may feel left out, inadequate, unhappy, frustrated, and embarrassed by his or her ineptness. These feelings may result in an individual withdrawing or refusing to join in and participate in physical ...


Staff Training In Aquatics For Individuals With Disabilities: The Quest, Susan J. Grosse May 2020

Staff Training In Aquatics For Individuals With Disabilities: The Quest, Susan J. Grosse

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

Trained instructors in general programs have the ability and resources to initiate and follow through with developing water safe individuals who are capable swimmers. Specific staff training to prepare individuals to facilitate aquatic participation for individuals with disabilities is currently extremely limited. The purpose of this article is to examine the barriers to specialized staff training in aquatics for individuals with disabilities, to suggest necessary staff training content, and to propose topics for further research in the area of staff training. Seeking development of quality staff training programs for those working in aquatics for individuals with disabilities is the quest.


The Relationship Between Campus Recreation Facility Use And Retention For First-Time Undergraduate Students, Sera Janson Zegre, Rodney P. Hughes, Andrew M. Darling, Craig R. Decker May 2020

The Relationship Between Campus Recreation Facility Use And Retention For First-Time Undergraduate Students, Sera Janson Zegre, Rodney P. Hughes, Andrew M. Darling, Craig R. Decker

Faculty & Staff Scholarship

This study examines the relationship between campus recreation facility access and first-year retention of full-time, first-time undergraduate students at a public university for 2014–2015 through 2016–2017. Authors examine differences between facility users and nonusers by pairing facility swipe card data with student records. Statistical analysis includes logistic regression and matching approaches, controlling for student demographics, academic preparedness, academic goals, family characteristics, and various environmental factors. Results show a positive and significant relationship between recreation facility use and retention, including 7.1 to 8.4 percentage points higher retention for users versus nonusers, holding other variables constant. Subsample analysis ...


Pitching Change: Micro-Community Of Higher Learning, Christopher Chaphe May 2020

Pitching Change: Micro-Community Of Higher Learning, Christopher Chaphe

Bachelor of Architecture Theses - 5th Year

Being around sports growing up has given me some experiences that have shaped who I am today. Playing and watching sports is a common activity amongst my friends and family. These events spark engagement and camaraderie between us. The stadium in which these sports are played within are a key component to this engagement. They bring people together to enjoy and root on your favorite teams along side thousands of other fans.

Stadiums today are becoming a remarkable instrument to generate communal spirit besides marketing, recruiting and hosting games for universities. The iconic design of these stadiums has become more ...


Impact, Prevalence Of Cognitive Overload And Athlete Burnout: Division Ii Athletics, Luke Teague May 2020

Impact, Prevalence Of Cognitive Overload And Athlete Burnout: Division Ii Athletics, Luke Teague

Leadership Education Capstones

The purpose of this study is to explore how collegiate coaches and student athletes contribute to cognitive overload and athlete burnout.


A Phenomenological Approach On Communication Experiences Between Strength And Conditioning Coaches And Head Sport Coaches, Benjamin Charles, Ben Charles May 2020

A Phenomenological Approach On Communication Experiences Between Strength And Conditioning Coaches And Head Sport Coaches, Benjamin Charles, Ben Charles

Leadership Education Capstones

This study investigates communication experiences between Strength and Conditioning Coaches and Head Sport Coaches using a phenomenological approach. Sixteen Strength and Conditioning Coaches were surveyed, via Qualtrics, to obtain basic demographics and answer open-ended questions to understand communication experiences and strategies Strength and Conditioning Coaches use to have effective relationships, teamwork, and athletic performance with Head Sport Coaches. Participants were required to be currently working for a DI-DIII 4-year University in the United States, have at least 1-year of Strength and Conditioning experience, an accredit certification related to training athletes at the college level, and be at least 21 years ...


Influences Of Coach Leadership Related To Nutrition On Collegiate Student Athletes Dietary Choices, Maria Fruechte May 2020

Influences Of Coach Leadership Related To Nutrition On Collegiate Student Athletes Dietary Choices, Maria Fruechte

Leadership Education Capstones

The purpose of this study is to better understand how coach leadership related to nutritional information influences collegiate student athletes’ acquisition and application of nutrition. This will be followed up to consider how the information and expectations of coaches influences athletes’ knowledge and dietary choices.


Leadership Strategies: Developing Millennial Entrepreneurs For Start-Up Micro-Gyms, Esdeina Gonzalez May 2020

Leadership Strategies: Developing Millennial Entrepreneurs For Start-Up Micro-Gyms, Esdeina Gonzalez

Leadership Education Capstones

The purpose for this study is to explore the experiences of small business owner’s best practice strategies leading to successful business operations. Learning about these experiences will permit the millennial generation to understand what is needed for their business to start up their micro-gym. This study may be used as an introduction to millennial entrepreneurs for the survival of their own micro-gym setting a priority of importance in leadership development since research have explored the lack of development in the leadership area.


Developing Mentoring Relationships Among Collegiate Coaches Using Developmental Leadership Strategies, Lawren Mckinney May 2020

Developing Mentoring Relationships Among Collegiate Coaches Using Developmental Leadership Strategies, Lawren Mckinney

Leadership Education Capstones

A mentor is described as a role model with influence on another’s professional career (Abiddin, 2006). Mentoring comes from a development of an individual (Abiddin). Where this development is the growth of the individual to develop a leadership style (Day, 2011; Day et al., 2014). The purpose of this study is to explore how developmental leadership can help increase mentoring relationships between collegiate coaches in Division II athletics. The experiences of this phenomenon among collegiate coaches gives the opportunity to hear from them the individuals directly involved in these mentoring relationships within the program striving for continuous growth. This ...


Leadership Styles Of Head Nascar Executives: A Historical Perspective, Joseph A. Hurd May 2020

Leadership Styles Of Head Nascar Executives: A Historical Perspective, Joseph A. Hurd

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study sought to explore the leadership styles and theories employed throughout the existence of the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR). The research examines the decision process and subsequent outcomes, exploring how they ultimately affected the business and trajectory of the sport. NASCAR is the product of unique and specific characteristics of racing enthusiasts who turned their passion into an international empire. This illustrates how leadership styles, specifically dictatorial leadership, successfully managed decisions of the business. Through the use of qualitative research to review historical accounts of events, this study strives to explain how leadership guided the ...


Wai Puna: An Indigenous Model Of Māori Water Safety And Health In Aotearoa, New Zealand, Chanel Phillips Ph.D. Apr 2020

Wai Puna: An Indigenous Model Of Māori Water Safety And Health In Aotearoa, New Zealand, Chanel Phillips Ph.D.

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

Māori (the indigenous peoples of Aotearoa, New Zealand) are intimately connected to wai (i.e., water) yet are overrepresented in New Zealand’s drowning statistics each year. On average Māori account for 20-24% of all preventable and non-preventable drowning fatalities, despite comprising only 15 percent of New Zealand’s population. Drowning remains a significant issue posing a threat to whānau (i.e., families) through premature death being imminent and whakapapa (i.e., genealogy) being interrupted. There is limited research that has examined Māori and indigenous understandings of water safety within the literature and limited studies that have investigated the issue ...


Ua12/2/1 College Heights Herald, Vol. 65, No. 56, Wku Student Affairs Apr 2020

Ua12/2/1 College Heights Herald, Vol. 65, No. 56, Wku Student Affairs

WKU Archives Records

WKU campus newspaper reporting campus, athletic and Bowling Green, Kentucky news. This issue contains articles:

  • Houchens, Gary. Students Still Run Herald, Talisman
  • Howard, Laura. Busy Legislature, Faculty Raises Slow Budget
  • Carlton, Jill. Commencement a Family Affair for Three Graduates – Oakes Family
  • Hoover, Amy. Egg Drop Part of Weekend’s Science Games
  • Bart White to Head Faculty Senate Again
  • Tree will be Dedicated to Deceased Student – Perry Newby
  • Dance Professor Beverly Veenker Gains Recognition
  • Vice President Application Deadline Set
  • 1990 Marsupial Awards
  • Rountree, Ron. Addressing Religion – New Age
  • Black, Sam. $400,000 Still Needed for Preston Health & Activities Center
  • Dorris, Donna ...


Emotional Intelligence Methods Utilized By Successful Major League Baseball Closers To Perform Successfully In High Pressure Situations, Joshua Rosenthal Apr 2020

Emotional Intelligence Methods Utilized By Successful Major League Baseball Closers To Perform Successfully In High Pressure Situations, Joshua Rosenthal

Dissertations

Purpose: The purpose of this qualitative case study is to understand the similarities that exist in the descriptions of emotional intelligence methods utilized by retired successful Major League Baseball closers to appraise, express, regulate, and utilize their emotions to perform successfully in high pressure situations.

Methodology: The dissertation was a qualitative case study. Twelve of the top 50 retired save leaders in Major League Baseball were interviewed to understand the similarities in the descriptions of emotional intelligence methods used to perform successfully in high pressure situations. This study attempted to understand what exactly elite closers did to utilize emotional intelligence ...


Training Evaluation For Introductory Ocean Lifeguard Instruction: A Practical Example From California, William A. Koon, Ryan M. Gates, Jack Futoran Apr 2020

Training Evaluation For Introductory Ocean Lifeguard Instruction: A Practical Example From California, William A. Koon, Ryan M. Gates, Jack Futoran

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

Ocean lifeguards have several responsibilities that require precise training. California State Parks is one of the largest providers of open water lifeguard services in the United States, and trains approximately 200 new lifeguards per year. As part of our lifeguard training section’s quality improvement efforts, we conducted a training needs assessment to help determine how well our introductory ocean lifeguard training curriculum prepared lifeguards to perform job related tasks upon successful completion of the training program. We surveyed both first year and seasoned lead lifeguards on operational needs, training gaps, and specific subject areas. We identified several areas where ...


Understanding The Academic Habits Of “At-Risk” Student Athletes And Assessing The Effectiveness Of The Saep, Sarah Rutherford Apr 2020

Understanding The Academic Habits Of “At-Risk” Student Athletes And Assessing The Effectiveness Of The Saep, Sarah Rutherford

School of Education Doctoral Projects

The topic of athletics and academics within higher education has been an ongoing discussion since the late 1800s. The ability to support athletes, not just athletically, but academically has been an aspirational goal for many years. The purpose of this study was to identify the specific study habits and academic challenges that student athletes, who are considered “at-risk” and play football for The University of Southern Mississippi, face. This study also aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the Student Academic Enhancement Program (SAEP) at addressing the academic concerns of this specific population.

This study engaged in an action research approach ...


Editorial Introducing The Special Issue For Diversity In Aquatics, Angela Beale-Tawfeeq, Austin R. Anderson, Steven N. Waller Apr 2020

Editorial Introducing The Special Issue For Diversity In Aquatics, Angela Beale-Tawfeeq, Austin R. Anderson, Steven N. Waller

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

Introduction to Special Issue - no abstract available


Alcohol_Focused Drowning Prevention Campaigns: What Do We Know And What Should We Do Now?, Hannah Calverley, Lauren Petrass, Jennifer Blitvich Apr 2020

Alcohol_Focused Drowning Prevention Campaigns: What Do We Know And What Should We Do Now?, Hannah Calverley, Lauren Petrass, Jennifer Blitvich

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

Alcohol and drugs have been identified as key risk factors for youth (aged 15-24 years) and adult drownings in high-income countries (HIC). Whilst alcohol specific drowning prevention education programs have been developed and implemented, youth continue to be over-represented in drowning statistics, including those linked with alcohol. Therefore, this project aimed to: (i) review and assess all alcohol themed drowning prevention campaigns within HICs; (ii) determine whether the campaign had undergone evaluation for effectiveness; and (iii) provide recommendations to improve the effectiveness of future interventions. For each of the eighty-one HICs identified for the 2019 fiscal year, searches of peer-reviewed ...


Socio-Ecological Nature Of Drowning In Low- And Middle-Income Countries: A Review To Inform Health Promotion Approaches, Muthia Cenderadewi, Richard Charles Franklin, Susan Devine Apr 2020

Socio-Ecological Nature Of Drowning In Low- And Middle-Income Countries: A Review To Inform Health Promotion Approaches, Muthia Cenderadewi, Richard Charles Franklin, Susan Devine

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

Most deaths by drowning (91%) have occurred in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), particularly in Southeast Asia (35%) and Africa (20%), in proportion to total drowning deaths worldwide. Poor data collection in LMICs hinders the planning, implementation, and evaluation of prevention strategies. The objective of this study was to review the rates and risk factors of unintentional drowning in LMICs and to identify drowning prevention strategies within a socio-ecological health promotion framework. A systematic search, guided by PRISMA, was conducted on Ovid MEDLINE, CINAHL, Informit health, PsycINFO (ProQuest), Scopus, SafetyLit, Google Scholar, and BioMed Central databases for all relevant studies ...


Citizen Engagement In Aquatics Equity: The Case Of Winston Waterworks, Steven N. Waller Phd, James H. Bemiller Jd, Emliy J. Johnson, Chermaine D. Cole, Jason Scott Phd, Angela Wozencroft, Phd Apr 2020

Citizen Engagement In Aquatics Equity: The Case Of Winston Waterworks, Steven N. Waller Phd, James H. Bemiller Jd, Emliy J. Johnson, Chermaine D. Cole, Jason Scott Phd, Angela Wozencroft, Phd

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

Historically, swimming pools have been a source of inequity when it comes to the distribution of recreation services in the United States. Many of the problems that correlate with the inequitable allocation of recreation resources including public swimming pools began with ideas about race, geography, poor planning practices and faulty policymaking (Rothstein, 2017). Moreover, one of the primary outcomes of engaged, inclusive planning is equity in the provision of recreation programs and facilities. In this essay, we offer a summary of key legal cases that help address questions related resource allocation related to public swimming pools. Finally, we present a ...


Lgbtq Training For Aquatic Employees: Impact On Attitudes And Professional Competencies, Austin R. Anderson, Eric Knee, William D. Ramos Apr 2020

Lgbtq Training For Aquatic Employees: Impact On Attitudes And Professional Competencies, Austin R. Anderson, Eric Knee, William D. Ramos

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

This study examined the impact of a LGBTQ diversity training on the attitudes and professional competencies of aquatic employees within a campus recreational sports setting. While diversity training is often discussed as a key component of inclusive aquatic programming, little empirical research examining the outcomes associated with such trainings exists. As such, members of the research team developed, implemented, and evaluated a four-month long training program consisting of one in-person training session and monthly inclusion handouts discussing issues related to the inclusion of LGBTQ participants. A comparative quantitative research design was used to measure employee’s attitudes towards the LGBTQ ...


A Comprehensive Analysis Of Aquatic Programming At Historically Black Colleges And Universities (Hbcus), Tiffany Monique Quash, Knolan C. Rawlins, Shaun M. Anderson Apr 2020

A Comprehensive Analysis Of Aquatic Programming At Historically Black Colleges And Universities (Hbcus), Tiffany Monique Quash, Knolan C. Rawlins, Shaun M. Anderson

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

This article provides a comprehensive examination of aquatic programming at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs). HBCUs consist of public, private, 2-year, and 4-year institutions (U.S. Department of Education, 2018). Historically, HBCUs provided descendants of the enslaved access to higher education opportunities (Brown, Donahoo, & Bertrand, 2001). HBCUs now serve a more diverse community and the core focus remains on inclusion, social justice, diversity, empowerment, leadership, and cultural competence (Kennedy, 2012; Rawlins, 2018). Consequently, HBCUs may provide an ideal environment to address aquatic activity and the drowning disparity in the African American community. In the current study, researchers sent a survey to 102 HBCUs to better assess the prevalence of aquatics programming at these institutions. Approximately 38 percent of the HBCUs responded to the survey. The ...


Aquatic Therapy Interventions And Disability: A Recreational Therapy Perspective, Jason Scott, Angela Wozencroft, Vincenzo Nocera, Kelsey Webb, Jodi Anderson, Avery Blankenburg, Darrien Watson, Sophie Lowe Apr 2020

Aquatic Therapy Interventions And Disability: A Recreational Therapy Perspective, Jason Scott, Angela Wozencroft, Vincenzo Nocera, Kelsey Webb, Jodi Anderson, Avery Blankenburg, Darrien Watson, Sophie Lowe

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

Aquatic therapy interventions are critical for individuals with disabilities and the role of the therapist is just as critical for successful and effective interventions. The field of therapeutic recreation trains students to develop and implement evidence-based facilitation techniques including the use of aquatic therapy to assist in helping clients achieve a change in functional status. This review of the literature examined the impact of aquatic therapy interventions on a variety of disabilities including osteoarthritis, multiple sclerosis, Cerebral palsy, autism spectrum disorder, and mental health from a recreational therapy (RT) perspective. This review provides a variety of information on the positive ...