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Full-Text Articles in Education

Toothsome Termites And Grilled Grasshoppers: A Cultural History Of Invertebrate Gastronomy, Deirdre P. Coleman Jun 2016

Toothsome Termites And Grilled Grasshoppers: A Cultural History Of Invertebrate Gastronomy, Deirdre P. Coleman

Animal Studies Journal

This article examines the recent turn to entomophagy (insect eating) as a new source of nutrition in a world confronted by increasing population, degraded soils, and food insecurity. Although many regard entomophagy with disgust, there is a case to be made that many insects are much more nutritious, as well as greener and cleaner¹, than many of the foods we regularly eat without thinking. Also, there is nothing new about insect eating or the belief in entomophagy as a sustainable and sensible practice. There is a long cultural history in countries such as Africa and Australia, for instance.


The Intersectional Influences Of Prince: A Human-Animal Tribute, Annie K. Potts Jun 2016

The Intersectional Influences Of Prince: A Human-Animal Tribute, Annie K. Potts

Animal Studies Journal

Prince Rogers Nelson (1958-2016) was best known for his joyful funk music and electrifying stage performances that transgressed normative representations of gender, sexuality, race, spirituality, identity and taste. He was also a compassionate person who held deep convictions about freedom and the right of all species to enjoy lives without fear and suffering. This essay discusses Prince’s intersectional influences – the various ways his virtuosity over the past 38 years disrupted binaries, challenged assumptions and stereotypes, advocated for social justice, and combatted speciesism in its many forms. Embedded within the essay are seven personal tributes written by fans of Prince ...


[Review] Ann C. Colley, Wild Animal Skins In Victorian Britain. Farnham: Ashgate, 2014, John Simons Jun 2016

[Review] Ann C. Colley, Wild Animal Skins In Victorian Britain. Farnham: Ashgate, 2014, John Simons

Animal Studies Journal

You should never judge a book by its cover but, of course, that’s exactly what the Victorians did when they looked at animals—or so Professor Ann Colley claims, and with some justification. This book is a contribution to the growing list of valuable and entertaining studies of the collection and exhibition of wild animals in Victorian Britain and beyond, and it is highly recommended to anyone researching the field. I was looking forward to reading this as although there has been a fair bit of work on zoos and menageries and, especially recently, on taxidermy, the habit of ...


Animal Studies Journal 2016 5 (1): Cover Page, Table Of Contents, Notes On Contributors And Editorial, Melissa J. Boyde Jun 2016

Animal Studies Journal 2016 5 (1): Cover Page, Table Of Contents, Notes On Contributors And Editorial, Melissa J. Boyde

Animal Studies Journal

Cover page, table of contents, contributor biographies and editorial for Animal Studies Journal Vol. 5 No.1, 2016.


Thirteen Figurings: Reflections On Termites, From Below, Perdita Phillips Jun 2016

Thirteen Figurings: Reflections On Termites, From Below, Perdita Phillips

Animal Studies Journal

This image essay is a creative reflection back upon The Encyclopaedia Isoptera: An encyclopaedia of the arts, sciences, literature and general information about termites, which was mostly written by the artist between 1997 and 1998, and forward to what termite art might undo today. Without access to living termites and, predating multispecies ethnographies, the Encyclopaedia Isoptera was an investigation into the limits of knowledge around termites. Looking back, it can be seen that certain strategies in the Encyclopaedia, such as looking at superseded or alternative knowledge, was a way of interrogating the boundaries of the sensible/insensible, and parallels more ...


Mimicry And Mimesis: Matrix Insect, Madeleine Kelly Jun 2016

Mimicry And Mimesis: Matrix Insect, Madeleine Kelly

Animal Studies Journal

Paintings and insects might seem like odd companions. In this paper I describe how a series of paintings I made depicting insects creates associations between mimesis and mimicry in order to flag a sort of protective self-referentiality – one where painting resists its proverbial ‘end’ and insects are presented as vital new orders. Drawing upon art historical references, such as Surrealism and the modernist grid, I argue that playing on these references and the compositional effects of camouflage enlivens our regard for the sensuous worlds of both insects and painting. I conclude by exploring how paintings of insects are powerful metaphors ...


Do Insects Feel Pain?, Helen Tiffin Jun 2016

Do Insects Feel Pain?, Helen Tiffin

Animal Studies Journal

This paper briefly considers the broad social and scientific background to research into the possibility of insects experiencing pain sensations analogous to our own. There has been increasing use of insects in pain experiments generally, as ethical constraints on the use of other animals increased through the last century. The ways in which scientists have tackled the question of insect pain, particularly in trying to distinguish between nociception and pain are then selectively summarised. These include opioid, hormonal, evolutionary, neurophysiological and behavioural approaches, as well as experiments designed to elucidate the difficult area of insect consciousness, from the 1980s to ...


A Sustainable Campus: The Sydney Declaration On Interspecies Sustainability, Fiona Probyn-Rapsey, Sue Donaldson, George Ioannides, Tess Lea, Kate Marsh, Astrida Neimanis, Annie Potts, Nik Taylor, Richard Twine, Dinesh Wadiwel, Stuart White Jun 2016

A Sustainable Campus: The Sydney Declaration On Interspecies Sustainability, Fiona Probyn-Rapsey, Sue Donaldson, George Ioannides, Tess Lea, Kate Marsh, Astrida Neimanis, Annie Potts, Nik Taylor, Richard Twine, Dinesh Wadiwel, Stuart White

Animal Studies Journal

Under the remit of an expanded definition of sustainability – one that acknowledges animal agriculture as a key carbon intensive industry, and one that includes interspecies ethics as an integral part of social justice – institutions such as Universities can and should play a role in supporting a wider agenda for sustainable food practices on campus. By drawing out clear connections between sustainability objectives on campus and the shift away from animal based products, the objective of this article is to advocate for a more consistent understanding and implementation of sustainability measures as championed by university campuses at large. We will draw ...


[Review] Robert Cribb, Helen Gilbert And Helen Tiffen, Wild Man From Borneo: A Cultural History Of The Orangutan. Honolulu: University Of Hawai’I Press, 2014, Matthew Chrulew Jun 2016

[Review] Robert Cribb, Helen Gilbert And Helen Tiffen, Wild Man From Borneo: A Cultural History Of The Orangutan. Honolulu: University Of Hawai’I Press, 2014, Matthew Chrulew

Animal Studies Journal

Wild Man from Borneo is a studious and wide-ranging cultural history of the orangutan and an indispensable resource for anyone working on this species or great apes in general. Orangutan stories and encounters have always captivated, from the tales of the Dayak and Batak peoples from Borneo and Indonesia, to the first rumours of early European travellers, and later observations and dissections. The orangutan’s uncanny similarity to humans, both in form and behaviour, made it central to a nineteenth-century debate about the uniqueness of humanity, in a time when few had been seen and Europeans were unsure just what ...


[Review] David Wilson, The Welfare Of Performing Animals: A Historical Perspective. Berlin: Springer, 2015, Peta Tait Jun 2016

[Review] David Wilson, The Welfare Of Performing Animals: A Historical Perspective. Berlin: Springer, 2015, Peta Tait

Animal Studies Journal

This book makes a valuable contribution to animal studies. It investigates the social and political processes concerned with the welfare of performing animals in Britain from the nineteenth century into the twentieth century. Although this area requires specialised inquiry, as David Wilson points out, animal performance is usually generalised about within pro-animal scholarship. Drawing on highly detailed research, this book provides a comprehensive account of the individuals and organisations that campaigned against animal performance and its cruelties and, in turn, those who campaigned for its continuation. It presents the human stories behind the movement against animal performance; descriptions of the ...


Provocations From The Field : The Place Of Bees, Michael R. Griffiths Jun 2016

Provocations From The Field : The Place Of Bees, Michael R. Griffiths

Animal Studies Journal

What would it mean to permit lack to become a productive place? What, indeed, would it mean to think place – so often feminized in the carnophallogocentric order – as active? Lack, in these terms, could be constitutive rather than a mere marker of absence. I propose that the place of bees in the symbolics of species could yield answers to these and related questions. Insects are often understood and conceived as communicators – through pheromones for instance. But in the very gesture that recognizes their communication, one finds the refusal of consciousness behind this communicative apparatus. If bees are said to lack ...


Humans, Insects And Their Interaction: A Multi-Faceted Analysis, Raynald H. Lemelin, Rick W. Harper, Jason Dampier, Robert Bowles, Debbie Balika Jun 2016

Humans, Insects And Their Interaction: A Multi-Faceted Analysis, Raynald H. Lemelin, Rick W. Harper, Jason Dampier, Robert Bowles, Debbie Balika

Animal Studies Journal

By administering Personal Meaning of Insects Maps (PMIM) to participants from eastern Canada and northeastern United States, we examine how people’s perceptions of insects are often determined by childhood encounters, corporeal cues, and influenced by environmental preference during recreational activities, often resulting in inconsistencies, inaccuracies, and bias. While the purpose of this study was to acquire a greater understanding of these entanglements through visual maps, the goal of this paper is to disentangle these morasses by highlighting the various positive, negative, dialectic, and ambivalent aspects of how insects are perceived.


Through The Eyes Of A Bee: Seeing The World As A Whole, Adrian G. Dyer, Scarlett R. Howard, Jair E. Garcia Jun 2016

Through The Eyes Of A Bee: Seeing The World As A Whole, Adrian G. Dyer, Scarlett R. Howard, Jair E. Garcia

Animal Studies Journal

Honeybees are an important model species for understanding animal vision as free-flying individuals can be easily trained by researchers to collect nutrition from novel visual stimuli and thus learn visual tasks. A leading question in animal vision is whether it is possible to perceive all information within a scene, or if only elemental cues are perceived driven by the visual system and supporting neural mechanisms. In human vision we often process the global content of a scene, and prefer such information to local elemental features. Here we discuss recent evidence from studies on honeybees which demonstrate a preference for global ...


The Normative Power Of Food Promotions: Australian Children's Attachments To Unhealthy Food Brands, Bridget Kelly, Becky Freeman, Lesley King, Kathy Chapman, Louise A. Baur, Timothy P. Gill Jan 2016

The Normative Power Of Food Promotions: Australian Children's Attachments To Unhealthy Food Brands, Bridget Kelly, Becky Freeman, Lesley King, Kathy Chapman, Louise A. Baur, Timothy P. Gill

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

The formation of food brand associations and attachment is fundamental to brand preferences, which influence purchases and consumption. Food promotions operate through a cascade of links, from brand recognition, to affect, and on to consumption. Frequent exposures to product promotions may establish social norms for products, reinforcing brand affect. These pathways signify potential mechanisms for how children's exposure to unhealthy food promotions can contribute to poor diets. The present study explored children's brand associations and attachments for major food brands. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted. Fourteen study brands were used, with each child viewing a set of ...


Testing A Counselling Intervention In Antenatal Care For Women Experiencing Partner Violence: A Study Protocol For A Randomized Controlled Trial In Johannesburg, South Africa, Christina Pallitto, Claudia Garcia-Moreno, Heidi Stockl, Abigail M. Hatcher, Catherine L. Mac Phail, Keneoue Mokoatle, Nataly Woollett Jan 2016

Testing A Counselling Intervention In Antenatal Care For Women Experiencing Partner Violence: A Study Protocol For A Randomized Controlled Trial In Johannesburg, South Africa, Christina Pallitto, Claudia Garcia-Moreno, Heidi Stockl, Abigail M. Hatcher, Catherine L. Mac Phail, Keneoue Mokoatle, Nataly Woollett

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) during or before pregnancy is associated with many adverse health outcomes. Pregnancy-related complications or poor infant health outcomes can arise from direct trauma as well as physiological effects of stress, both of which impact maternal health and fetal growth and development. Antenatal care can be a key entry point within the health system for many women, particularly in low-resource settings. Interventions to identify violence during pregnancy and offer women support and counselling may reduce the occurrence of violence and mitigate its consequences. Methods: Following a formative research phase, a randomized controlled trial will be conducted ...


Consistency Of Supervisor And Peer Ratings Of Assessment Interviews Conducted By Psychology Trainees, Craig J. Gonsalvez, Frank P. Deane, Peter Caputi Jan 2016

Consistency Of Supervisor And Peer Ratings Of Assessment Interviews Conducted By Psychology Trainees, Craig J. Gonsalvez, Frank P. Deane, Peter Caputi

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Observation of counsellor skills through a one-way mirror, video or audio recording followed by supervisors and peers feedback is common in counsellor training. The nature and extent of agreement between supervisor-peer dyads is unclear. Using a standard scale, supervisors and peers rated 32 interviews by psychology trainees observed through a one-way mirror. Results indicated that peers and supervisors used similar dimensions to cluster the various competencies. Peers rated counsellor performance more positively for general counselling skills but not for specialised techniques. Analyses revealed good supervisor-peer agreement for some items and poor agreement on others, with some differences being unacceptably large ...


Improving Physical Task Performance With Counterfactual And Prefactual Thinking, Cecilia Hammell, Amy Yc Chan Jan 2016

Improving Physical Task Performance With Counterfactual And Prefactual Thinking, Cecilia Hammell, Amy Yc Chan

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Counterfactual thinking (reflecting on ªwhat might have beenº) has been shown to enhance future performance by translating information about past mistakes into plans for future action. Prefactual thinking (imagining ªwhat might be if. . .º) may serve a greater preparative function than counterfactual thinking as it is future-orientated and focuses on more controllable features, thus providing a practical script to prime future behaviour. However, whether or not this difference in hypothetical thought content may translate into a difference in actual task performance has been largely unexamined. In Experiment 1 (n = 42), participants performed trials of a computer-simulated physical task, in between ...


Reflections And Recommendations For Conducting In-Depth Interviews With People With Dementia, Elizabeth Cridland, Lyn Phillipson, Christopher R. Brennan-Horley, Kate Swaffer Jan 2016

Reflections And Recommendations For Conducting In-Depth Interviews With People With Dementia, Elizabeth Cridland, Lyn Phillipson, Christopher R. Brennan-Horley, Kate Swaffer

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Despite the importance and advantages of including people with dementia in research, there are various challenges for researchers and participants to their involvement. This article draws on the literature and experiences of a diverse group of authors, including a person with dementia, to provide recommendations about conducting research with people with dementia. Particular attention is given to in-depth interviews as a qualitative technique. More specifically, topics discussed include interview guide preparation, recruitment, obtaining consent/assent, conducting effective interviews, analysis and interpretation of data, effective communication of research findings, and reflections and recommendations for maintaining researcher and participant health. Given the ...


The Impact Of Marketing And Advertising On Food Behaviours: Evaluating The Evidence For A Causal Relationship, Jennifer A. Norman, Bridget Kelly, Emma J. Boyland, Anne T. Mcmahon Jan 2016

The Impact Of Marketing And Advertising On Food Behaviours: Evaluating The Evidence For A Causal Relationship, Jennifer A. Norman, Bridget Kelly, Emma J. Boyland, Anne T. Mcmahon

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

The prevention of overweight in childhood is paramount to long-term heart health. Food marketing predominately promotes unhealthy products which, if over-consumed, will lead to overweight. International health expert calls for further restriction of children¿s exposure to food marketing remain relatively unheeded, with a lack of evidence showing a causal link between food marketing and children¿s dietary behaviours and obesity an oft-cited reason for this policy inertia. This direct link is difficult to measure and quantify with a multiplicity of determinants contributing to dietary intake and the development of overweight. The Bradford Hill Criteria provide a credible framework by ...


Exploring Engineering Instructors' Views About Writing And Online Tools To Support Communication In Engineering, Sarah Katherine Howard, Maryam Khosronejad, Rafael Calvo Jan 2016

Exploring Engineering Instructors' Views About Writing And Online Tools To Support Communication In Engineering, Sarah Katherine Howard, Maryam Khosronejad, Rafael Calvo

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

To be fully prepared for the professional workplace, Engineering students need to be able to effectively communicate. However, there has been a growing concern in the field about students' preparedness for this aspect of their future work. It is argued that online writing tools, to engage numbers of students in the writing process, can support feedback on and development of writing in engineering on a larger scale. Through interviews and questionnaires, this study explores engineering academics' perceptions of writing to better understand how online writing tools may be integrated into their teaching. Results suggest that writing is viewed positively in ...


Policy Translation For Early Childhood Education And Care: The Growing Up In New Zealand Approach, Amy L. Bird, Polly E. Atatoa Carr, Elaine Reese, Susan Morton Jan 2016

Policy Translation For Early Childhood Education And Care: The Growing Up In New Zealand Approach, Amy L. Bird, Polly E. Atatoa Carr, Elaine Reese, Susan Morton

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Longitudinal cohort studies have significant potential to inform policy across a range of child and family areas, including early childhood education and care. Here we describe the relationship between policy-makers and New Zealand’s contemporary pre-birth cohort study. We outline a model for policy interaction that highlights the relationship between Growing Up and policy across study design, implementation and analysis. We then describe key policy-relevant questions in the early childhood education and care area that Growing Up has addressed when children were age 2. We used parent-report data for 6242 children to consider: whether socio-economic factors and ethnicity are related ...


Implications Of Proxy Efficacy For Studies Of Team Leadership In Organizational Settings, Seyyed B. Alavi, John Mccormick Jan 2016

Implications Of Proxy Efficacy For Studies Of Team Leadership In Organizational Settings, Seyyed B. Alavi, John Mccormick

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Although there have been numerous studies of self-efficacy and collective efficacy in different contexts, little attention has been paid to proxy efficacy. In this article we propose that a person's self-efficacy may be related to proxy efficacy when achievement of personal goals is related to the performance of the proxy on the person's behalf. We argue this is important in team leadership. We further propose that the extent to which team members believe their leaders efficacious as their proxies may affect team processes and effectiveness. A team level construct, namely team proxy efficacy for the leader, referring to ...


Geographies Of Global Issues: Change And Threat In Young People's Lives, Natascha Klocker, Nicola Ansell Jan 2016

Geographies Of Global Issues: Change And Threat In Young People's Lives, Natascha Klocker, Nicola Ansell

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Children and young people, throughout the world, are experiencing a time of immense and rapid change - environmental, social, political, economic, and cultural. This chapter introduces readers to a volume entitled Geographies of Global Issues: Change and Threat, which is part of the Geographies of Children and Young People series. It provides an overview of the chapters contained in that volume and outlines four key themes that run across those chapters. First, children's geographies are also - fundamentally - about adults. It does not make sense to do children's geographies, without taking the perspectives of adult decision-makers into account. Second, children ...


Naps Promote Flexible Memory Retrieval In 12-Month-Old Infants, Carolin Konrad, Sabine Seehagen, Silvia Schneider, Jane S. Herbert Jan 2016

Naps Promote Flexible Memory Retrieval In 12-Month-Old Infants, Carolin Konrad, Sabine Seehagen, Silvia Schneider, Jane S. Herbert

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Flexibility in applying existing knowledge to similar cues is a corner stone of memory development in infants. Here, we examine the effect of sleep on the flexibility of memory retrieval using a deferred imitation paradigm. Forty-eight 12-month-old infants were randomly assigned to either a nap or a no-nap demonstration condition (scheduled around their natural daytime sleep schedule) or to a baseline control condition. In the demonstration conditions, infants watched an experimenter perform three target actions on a hand puppet. Immediately afterwards, infants were allowed to practice the target actions three times. In a test session 4-hr later, infants were given ...


The (Possibly Negative) Effects Of Physical Activity On Executive Functions: Implications Of The Changing Metabolic Costs Of Brain Development, Steven J. Howard, Caylee J. Cook, Rihlat Said-Mohamed, Shane A. Norris, Catherine E. Draper Jan 2016

The (Possibly Negative) Effects Of Physical Activity On Executive Functions: Implications Of The Changing Metabolic Costs Of Brain Development, Steven J. Howard, Caylee J. Cook, Rihlat Said-Mohamed, Shane A. Norris, Catherine E. Draper

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Background: An area of growth in physical activity research has involved investigating effects of physical activity on children's executive functions. Many of these efforts seek to increase the energy expenditure of young children as a healthy and low-cost way to affect physical, health, and cognitive outcomes. Methods: We review theory and research from neuroscience and evolutionary biology, which suggest that interventions seeking to increase the energy expenditure of young children must also consider the energetic trade-offs that occur to accommodate changing metabolic costs of brain development. Results: According to Life History Theory, and supported by recent evidence, the high ...


The Relationship Between Prior Night's Sleep And Measures Of Infant Imitation, Carolin Konrad, Jane S. Herbert, Silvia Schneider, Sabine Seehagen Jan 2016

The Relationship Between Prior Night's Sleep And Measures Of Infant Imitation, Carolin Konrad, Jane S. Herbert, Silvia Schneider, Sabine Seehagen

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

We examined whether sleep quality during the night and naps during the day preceding a learning event are related to memory encoding in human infants. Twenty-four 6- and twenty-four 12-month-old infants' natural sleeping behavior was monitored for 24 hr using actigraphy. After the recording period, encoding was assessed using an imitation paradigm. In an initial baseline phase, infants were allowed to interact with the stimulus to assess spontaneous production of any target actions. Infants then watched an experimenter demonstrate a sequence of three target actions and were immediately given the opportunity to reproduce the demonstrated target actions to assess memory ...


Geography And The New Social Contract For Global Change Research, Noel Castree Jan 2016

Geography And The New Social Contract For Global Change Research, Noel Castree

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Anxious about the failure of decisionmakers to significantly reduce 'the human impact' on Earth, many global change researchers are looking for ways and means to influence public policy, business strategy and civil society more strongly. As part of this, there is a greater emphasis on understanding and altering the 'human dimensions' of global environmental change. A number of physical and society-environment geographers are involved in this endeavour, building on some valuable past achievements. But what lies ahead? I address this question by examining the rich idea of a 'social contract' - one little used in disciplinary debates about Geography's past ...


Adesão Ao Tratamento Nas Perturbações Psiquiátricas: O Impacto Das Atitudes E Das Crenças Em Profissionais De Serviços De Psiquiatria E Saúde Mental Em Portugal. Parte I: Aspetos Conceptuais E Metodológicos, Ana Cardoso, Mitchell K. Byrne, Miguel Xavier Jan 2016

Adesão Ao Tratamento Nas Perturbações Psiquiátricas: O Impacto Das Atitudes E Das Crenças Em Profissionais De Serviços De Psiquiatria E Saúde Mental Em Portugal. Parte I: Aspetos Conceptuais E Metodológicos, Ana Cardoso, Mitchell K. Byrne, Miguel Xavier

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

Introduction Among the chronic health diseases are psychiatric disorders and it is well established that within this population there is a particularly high prevalence of non‐adherence to treatment. Methods Narrative review, of relevant literature. Results The majority of the research has focused primarily on the factors related to the patient that interfere with treatment adherence. However, there are studies that seem to indicate that the responsibility for increasing adherence is more related with the health professional than the patient. Conclusions Through the identification of factors associated with clinicians, we enable the development strategies to increase skills in mental health ...


Transition Of Children With Disabilities Into Early Childhood Education And Care Centres, Jane D. Warren, Wilma Vialle, Roselyn M. Dixon Jan 2016

Transition Of Children With Disabilities Into Early Childhood Education And Care Centres, Jane D. Warren, Wilma Vialle, Roselyn M. Dixon

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

This paper reports on findings from research which sought to understand, in the New South Wales (NSW) context, the factors impacting on the transition into early childhood education and care (ECEC) centres for children with disabilities from the perspective of both parents of children with disabilities and educators in ECEC centres. The study aimed to identify successes and barriers, and consider potential interventions and procedures that might increase the participation of children with disabilities in ECEC centres. This paper will discuss findings from the educator perspective only, including 37 completed questionnaires and semi-structured interviews from 10 teacher participants. Thematic analysis ...


Investigating University Educators' Design Thinking And The Implications For Design Support Tools, Sue Bennett, Shirley Agostinho, Lori Lockyer Jan 2016

Investigating University Educators' Design Thinking And The Implications For Design Support Tools, Sue Bennett, Shirley Agostinho, Lori Lockyer

Faculty of Social Sciences - Papers

All university educators perform design work as they prepare and plan learning experiences for their students. How such design work is undertaken, conceptualised, and optimally supported is the focus of ongoing research for the authors. The purpose of this article is to present the results of a research study that sought to gain a richer understanding of university educators' design work; investigate how the idea of Learning Design could support design work; and examine how learning designs could be made available within a Learning Management System (LMS) as a design support tool. An overview of the outcomes from the entire ...