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Full-Text Articles in Education

The Exports Of Higher Education Services From Oecd Countries To Asian Countries. A Gravity Approach, John C. Beghin, Byung Yul Park Nov 2019

The Exports Of Higher Education Services From Oecd Countries To Asian Countries. A Gravity Approach, John C. Beghin, Byung Yul Park

Economics Working Papers

We analyze bilateral exports of higher education services between OECD countries and Asia, using a gravity equation approach, panel data from 1998 to 2016, and PPML regression. The approach treats higher education consumption by Asian countries as a consumable durable good reflecting investment in human capital. Asian Students come to OECD countries to obtain degrees from their universities. Structurally, the flow of students from Asian country j to OECD country i depends on the higher-education capacity of i, the perceived quality of universities in i, expected earnings in i, a series of bilateral transaction costs between i and j, the ...


Self-Determination Through Circus Arts: Exploring Youth Development In A Novel Activity Context, Jennifer P. Agans, Jacqueline L. Davis, Spyridoula Vazou, Tal Jarus Sep 2019

Self-Determination Through Circus Arts: Exploring Youth Development In A Novel Activity Context, Jennifer P. Agans, Jacqueline L. Davis, Spyridoula Vazou, Tal Jarus

Kinesiology Publications

Youth development takes place in many contexts, with different resulting participant outcomes. Broadening the scope of research to include non-traditional contexts such as youth circus arts programs, which are both similar to and different from other out-of-school-time contexts, may promote better understanding of the ways in which these programs impact youth development. The present study examined the prevalence of support for basic psychological needs and positive developmental outcomes among youth circus program participants. Single time-point quantitative surveys were completed by 111 youth members of the American Youth Circus Organization (62% female), ranging in age from 10 to 21. Results indicated ...


Extension Demonstration: Grameen Microfinance Methods And Capital Access For Low-Income Female Entrepreneurs, Mark A. Edelman Sep 2019

Extension Demonstration: Grameen Microfinance Methods And Capital Access For Low-Income Female Entrepreneurs, Mark A. Edelman

Economics Working Papers

A nonprofit community development financial institution and Extension collaborated to conduct a demonstration project to evaluate efficacy of Grameen peer-group microfinance methodology in addressing barriers faced by lowincome women entrepreneurs in a small metro area. Program performance metrics achieved by 284 low-income, culturally diverse, primarily women entrepreneurs over five years included: a loan repayment rate of 99+ percent, increased average client income, savings accumulation at a local bank, and increased opportunities to improve average credit scores. Client surveys indicated peer-group methods, program structure, incentives for individual behaviors and group responsibilities provided opportunity to develop confidence, leadership skills, and teamwork.


Non-Tenure Track Faculty Satisfaction: A Self-Determination Model, Kent A. Crick, Lisa M. Larson, Matthew Seipel Aug 2019

Non-Tenure Track Faculty Satisfaction: A Self-Determination Model, Kent A. Crick, Lisa M. Larson, Matthew Seipel

Psychology Publications

Full-time non-tenure track faculty, commonly referred to as NTT faculty, are increasingly utilized in higher education and shoulder much of the teaching load within academic institutions. Self-determination theory (SDT) has shown promise as a conceptual frame for characterizing the relationship between environmental support factors and NTT faculty satisfaction. Full-time NTT faculty were sampled nationwide (N = 3,527) to investigate an SDT-based model positing basic psychological needs (i.e., volitional autonomy and relatedness) as mediators between six environmental support indices and NTT faculty satisfaction (i.e., teaching/service and global satisfaction). Structural equation model results showed volitional autonomy and relatedness fully ...


Reading Race: Using Book Discussions To Start Dialogues On White Fragility And Other Racisms, Susan A. Vega García, Harrison W. Inefuku Aug 2019

Reading Race: Using Book Discussions To Start Dialogues On White Fragility And Other Racisms, Susan A. Vega García, Harrison W. Inefuku

Collections and Technical Services Conference Proceedings, Presentations and Posters

No abstract provided.


Positive Affective And Behavioral Gains Of First-Year Students In Course-Based Research Across Disciplines, Elizabeth Sandquist, Cinzia Cervato, Craig Ogilvie Jul 2019

Positive Affective And Behavioral Gains Of First-Year Students In Course-Based Research Across Disciplines, Elizabeth Sandquist, Cinzia Cervato, Craig Ogilvie

Geological and Atmospheric Sciences Publications

The Freshmen Research Initiative at Iowa State University promotes student interest and retention in science through introductory course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs). Successful strategies for the implementation of CUREs on a large scale in an affordable manner included the use of a postdoctoral coordinator and affiliation with student learning communities. Across multiple disciplines, students in single-semester introductory research courses reported personal gains related to research, to thinking and working like scientists, to attitudes and behaviors of a scientist, and to gains in skills as reported on the Undergraduate Research Student Self-Assessment. Key outcomes related to persistence in STEM, including self-efficacy ...


Strips Cooperator Survey: 2018 Results, J. Gordon Arbuckle May 2019

Strips Cooperator Survey: 2018 Results, J. Gordon Arbuckle

Sociology Technical Reports

The STRIPS (Science-based Trials of Rowcrops Integrated with Prairie Strips) project has developed collaborative partnerships with more than 35 farmers and landowners who have integrated prairie strips into their farm landscapes. One of the STRIPS project’s guiding principles is to “create and maintain feedback loops for information sharing among team members, farmer/farm landowner adopters, and other stakeholders.” A major goal of these feedback loops is to learn from cooperators who have adopted prairie strips so project staff can help current (and future) cooperators to successfully establish and manage prairie strips.


The Development Of The Infews-Er: A Virtual Resource Center For Transdisciplinary Graduate Student Training At The Nexus Of Food, Energy, And Water, Luis F. Rodríguez, Anna-Maria Marshall, Dan Cotton, Richard Koelsch, Jacek A. Koziel, Deanne Meyer, Dan Steward, Jill Heemstra, Anand Padmanabahn, John Classen, Nathan J. Meyer, Benjamin L. Ruddell, Sean M. Ryan, Ximing Cai, Emad Habib, Peter D. Saundry Apr 2019

The Development Of The Infews-Er: A Virtual Resource Center For Transdisciplinary Graduate Student Training At The Nexus Of Food, Energy, And Water, Luis F. Rodríguez, Anna-Maria Marshall, Dan Cotton, Richard Koelsch, Jacek A. Koziel, Deanne Meyer, Dan Steward, Jill Heemstra, Anand Padmanabahn, John Classen, Nathan J. Meyer, Benjamin L. Ruddell, Sean M. Ryan, Ximing Cai, Emad Habib, Peter D. Saundry

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Problems at the nexus of Food, Energy and Water Systems (FEWS) are among the most complex challenges we face. Spanning simple to complex temporal, geographic, social, and political framings, the questions raised at this nexus require multidisciplinary if not transdisciplinary approaches. Answers to these questions must draw from engineering, the physical and biological sciences, and the social sciences. Practical solutions depend upon a wide community of stakeholders, including industry, policymakers, and the general public. Yet there are many obstacles to working in a transdisciplinary environment: unfamiliar concepts, specialized terminology, and countless “blind” spots. Graduate education occurs in disciplinary ‘silos', often ...


Directions For The Future Of Technology In Pronunciation Research And Teaching, Mary G. O'Brien, Tracey M. Derwing, Catia Cucchiarini, Debra M. Hardison, Hansjorg Mixdorff, Ron I. Thomson, Helmer Strik, John M. Levis, Murray J. Munro, Jennifer A. Foote, Greta M. Levis Feb 2019

Directions For The Future Of Technology In Pronunciation Research And Teaching, Mary G. O'Brien, Tracey M. Derwing, Catia Cucchiarini, Debra M. Hardison, Hansjorg Mixdorff, Ron I. Thomson, Helmer Strik, John M. Levis, Murray J. Munro, Jennifer A. Foote, Greta M. Levis

English Publications

This paper reports on the role of technology in state-of-the-art pronunciation research and instruction, and makes concrete suggestions for future developments. The point of departure for this contribution is that the goal of second language (L2) pronunciation research and teaching should be enhanced comprehensibility and intelligibility as opposed to native-likeness. Three main areas are covered here. We begin with a presentation of advanced uses of pronunciation technology in research with a special focus on the expertise required to carry out even small-scale investigations. Next, we discuss the nature of data in pronunciation research, pointing to ways in which future work ...


College Environment And Basic Psychological Needs: Predicting Academic Major Satisfaction., Mary Schenkenfelder, Elisa A. Frickey, Lisa M. Larson Jan 2019

College Environment And Basic Psychological Needs: Predicting Academic Major Satisfaction., Mary Schenkenfelder, Elisa A. Frickey, Lisa M. Larson

Psychology Publications

The authors aimed to extend the literature in self-determination theory (SDT) to understand the relations between college environmental variables (faculty and peer support) and academic major satisfaction. The study was disseminated via an online platform to 320 students attending a large midwestern university. Based on SDT, it was hypothesized that student perceptions of their volitional autonomy, competence, and relatedness in their academic major would fully mediate the relations between perceived faculty and peer supports and major satisfaction. This hypothesized model was tested against a partially mediated model and an alternate model that further tested the directionality of the argument. Results ...


Training The Next Generation Of Extension Economists, Mykel Taylor, Wendong Zhang Jan 2019

Training The Next Generation Of Extension Economists, Mykel Taylor, Wendong Zhang

Economics Publications

Since its inception in the Smith–Lever Act of 1914, Extension has been a hallmark of the tripartite mission of U.S. land grant universities. In fact, arguably, Extension is a globally unique feature of the U.S. public universities that provide practical higher education opportunities to the public (Rasmussen, 1989; Gould, Steele, and Woodrum, 2014). Through the Cooperative Extension System, a unique partnership among federal, state, and county governments allows “useful and practical” researched-based knowledge to be disseminated beyond the campuses of various land grant universities to farmers, ranchers, and consumers. However, this century-old cooperative system is at a ...


Are College Tuition Increases Linked To Student Financial Stress?, Sara K. Ray, Rebecca Ray, Clinton G. Gudmunson, Megan Gilligan, Suzanne Bartholomae Jan 2019

Are College Tuition Increases Linked To Student Financial Stress?, Sara K. Ray, Rebecca Ray, Clinton G. Gudmunson, Megan Gilligan, Suzanne Bartholomae

Human Development and Family Studies Presentations, Posters and Proceedings

Discussion about the price of attending college occurs within and outside the university setting. Tuition increases are an important topic in political debates and on the floors of state legislatures; however, little is known empirically about the impact of tuition increases on college students’ well-being. This study examines the impact of college tuition increases on enrolled college students’ financial stress.


Bounding Average Returns To Schooling Using Unconditional Moment Restrictions, Desire Kedagni, Lixiong Li, Ismael Mourifie Dec 2018

Bounding Average Returns To Schooling Using Unconditional Moment Restrictions, Desire Kedagni, Lixiong Li, Ismael Mourifie

Economics Working Papers

Abstract. In the last 20 years, the bounding approach for the average treatment effect (ATE) has been developing on the theoretical side, however, empirical work has lagged far behind theory in this area. One main reason is that, in practice, traditional bounding methods fall into two extreme cases: (i) On the one hand, the bounds are too wide to be informative and this happens, in general, when the instrumental variable (IV) has little variation; (ii) while on the other hand, the bounds cross, in which case the researcher learns nothing about the parameter of interest other than that the IV ...


La Evaluación De La Destreza Oral Una Comparación Entre Cursos "Híbridos A Distancia" Y "Presenciales Alao", Cristina Pardo-Ballester Dec 2018

La Evaluación De La Destreza Oral Una Comparación Entre Cursos "Híbridos A Distancia" Y "Presenciales Alao", Cristina Pardo-Ballester

World Languages and Cultures Publications

In the last decade, university institutions have been increasing, which demand from the teaching staff a greater offer of courses where technology is effectively incorporated into teaching. Critical studies published today, relating to the use of different technological tools in conjunction with language teaching, repeatedly contain the terms "distance learning" or "online course", as well as the terms "hybrid" or "combined" for make reference to the same model, to the same type of course. This study distinguishes two terms to refer to two models of courses: "hybrid at a distance" and "face-to-face ALAO". The oral dexterity of 132 participants was ...


Promoting Transformative Learning: Extension Partnerships Focused On An Ethic Of Caring, Nancy K. Franz, Jerri Baumeister, Leslie Van Dyke, Barbara Wollan Dec 2018

Promoting Transformative Learning: Extension Partnerships Focused On An Ethic Of Caring, Nancy K. Franz, Jerri Baumeister, Leslie Van Dyke, Barbara Wollan

Education Publications

Extension is known for creating educational environments conducive to the transformative learning required for people to change their perspectives and make better decisions in their lives. However, creating such environments is not easy. The complex Extension context often produces barriers to including program components that support transformative learning. Extension partnerships with nonprofits, government units, and businesses can reduce these barriers and enhance the potential for transformative learning by fostering caring program environments. A partnership between Extension and United Way exemplifies one model for developing programs focused on creating caring educational environments that encourage and sustain transformative learning.


Design And Perception Of An Approach To Improving Chinese As A Foreign Language Learners’ Self-Regulated Learning Strategies, Shenglan Zhang Nov 2018

Design And Perception Of An Approach To Improving Chinese As A Foreign Language Learners’ Self-Regulated Learning Strategies, Shenglan Zhang

World Languages and Cultures Conference Papers, Posters and Proceedings

Self-regulated learning (SRL) is a social-cognitive construct in the realm of self-regulation that describes the ways in which individuals actively and constructively regulate their own congitive processes in an educational setting. SRL conceptualizes effective learning as a process of cognitive and motivational evaluation where a learner completes academic tasks (Heikkilä & Lonka, 2006; Pintrich, 2000; Zimmerman, 1990; 2008). Different models of SRL developed over the years (Boekaerts & Niemivirta, 2000; Borkowski, 1996; Pintrich, 2000; Winne & Hadwin, 1998; Zimmerman, 2000), but all models assume at least three phases: a preparatory or forethought phase, an actual performance or task completion phase, and an evaluation and adaptation phase. In the preparatory ...


More American Students Are Studying Abroad, New Data Show, Chad M. Gasta Nov 2018

More American Students Are Studying Abroad, New Data Show, Chad M. Gasta

World Languages and Cultures Publications

Kelsey Hrubes knew she had a challenge on her hands when she visited Germany as a study abroad student back in 2015.

“I was forced to adapt to cultural norms I had never considered before and try to comprehend everything in a new language,” recalls Hrubes, a software engineer at Microsoft and 2017 Iowa State graduate in German and computer science.

Hrubes says if she hadn’t studied abroad and learned to adjust to new surroundings, she wouldn’t be nearly as confident as she is in her career.


The Changing Face Of L2 Pronunciation Research And Teaching, Charlie Nagle, John M. Levis, Erin F. Todey Sep 2018

The Changing Face Of L2 Pronunciation Research And Teaching, Charlie Nagle, John M. Levis, Erin F. Todey

World Languages and Cultures Conference Papers, Posters and Proceedings

This paper discusses changes in the field of L2 pronunciation over the past decade, including research studies, resources, and changes in methodology. To do so, it revisits the history of PSLLT over its 10 years as a conference by considering the inclusion of both research and teaching and the effects of the conference on the field of L2 pronunciation. This paper also describes changes in how L2 pronunciation research is being carried out and the general categories of the papers in the Proceedings of the 10th annual PSLLT conference.


Perception, Production, And Perception-Production: Research Findings And Implications For Language Pedagogy, Charles Nagle Aug 2018

Perception, Production, And Perception-Production: Research Findings And Implications For Language Pedagogy, Charles Nagle

World Languages and Cultures Publications

When we are born our perceptual systems are capable of discriminating sounds that occur in English, Spanish, Hindi, or any other language. During the first year, our perception begins to zero in on the particular set of sounds that are contrastive in our native language(s) (L1s) (Kuhl et al., 2006). For example, a child whose parents are L1 English speakers will pick up on the fact that /b/ and /p/ are contrastive in English (e.g., “bet” vs. “pet”) and that the major difference is in the burst of air that occurs when the stop is released (i.e ...


Pronunciationforteachers.Com/ Key Concepts Factors Affecting Pronunciation Development, Charles Nagle Aug 2018

Pronunciationforteachers.Com/ Key Concepts Factors Affecting Pronunciation Development, Charles Nagle

World Languages and Cultures Publications

As Derwing (2010) observed nearly ten years ago, one of the goals of pronunciation research is to identify how different aspects of second language (L2) speech develop over time, providing teachers with information on the pronunciation problems that will work themselves out, versus those that will likely pose an ongoing challenge. At the same time, research must account for the cognitive, socio-affective, and experiential variables that shape pronunciation learning outcomes (Moyer, 2014a, 2014b).


Mujeres Supporting: How Female Family Members Influence The Educational Success Of Latino Males In Postsecondary Education, Victor B. Saenz, Claudia Garcia-Louis, Carmen De Las Mercedez, Sarah L. Rodriguez Jul 2018

Mujeres Supporting: How Female Family Members Influence The Educational Success Of Latino Males In Postsecondary Education, Victor B. Saenz, Claudia Garcia-Louis, Carmen De Las Mercedez, Sarah L. Rodriguez

Education Publications

The purpose of this multi-institutional qualitative study was to understand the educational pathways of Latino males by underscoring the unique role female family members play in their academic pursuits—through the voice of these young men. Findings demonstrate female family members were identified as being primary supporters of their educational pursuits, and actively leveraged different sources of cultural capital to help Latino males enroll and persist through postsecondary education. This study reinforces extant literature on the importance of family in the educational pathways of Latina/o students. Furthermore, it makes a unique contribution by highlighting the important role female family ...


Innovative Implementation Of A Web-Based Rating System For Individualizing Online English Speaking Instruction, Hyejin Yang, Elena Cotos Feb 2018

Innovative Implementation Of A Web-Based Rating System For Individualizing Online English Speaking Instruction, Hyejin Yang, Elena Cotos

English Publications

The primary goal of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) in general, and of online language instruction in particular, is to create and evaluate language learning opportunities. To be effective, online language courses need to be guided by an integrated set of theoretical perspectives to second language acquisition (SLA), as well as by specific curricular goals, learning objectives and outcomes, appropriate tasks and necessary materials, and learners’ characteristics and abilities – to name a few factors that are essential in both online and face-to-face teaching (Xu & Morris, 2007). Doughty and Long (2003) articulate pedagogical principles for computer-enhanced language teaching, which highlight the importance ...


A System For Adaptive High-Variability Segmental Perceptual Training: Implementation, Effectiveness, Transfer, Manman Qian, Evgeny Chukharev-Khudilaynen, John M. Levis Feb 2018

A System For Adaptive High-Variability Segmental Perceptual Training: Implementation, Effectiveness, Transfer, Manman Qian, Evgeny Chukharev-Khudilaynen, John M. Levis

English Publications

Many types of L2 phonological perception are often difficult to acquire without instruction. These difficulties with perception may also be related to intelligibility in production. Instruction on perception contrasts is more likely to be successful with the use of phonetically variable input made available through computer-assisted pronunciation training. However, few computer-assisted programs have demonstrated flexibility in diagnosing and treating individual learner problems or have made effective use of linguistic resources such as corpora for creating training materials. This study introduces a system for segmental perceptual training that uses a computational approach to perception utilizing corpusbased word frequency lists, high variability ...


“We’Re Not Dating. We’Re Just ‘Talking’.” Expectations Associated With Male–Female Relationship Labels, Mark V. Redmond Jan 2018

“We’Re Not Dating. We’Re Just ‘Talking’.” Expectations Associated With Male–Female Relationship Labels, Mark V. Redmond

English Technical Reports and White Papers

College students responded to a survey of their expectations for communication behaviors, qualities, activities, and personal disclosures they associate with male-female relationships labeled friends, hanging-out, talking, casual dating, dating, boyfriend/girlfriend, and romantic relationship. The results show specific relationship differences and suggest three relational categories: nonromantic (friend), preromantic (talking, hanging-out, and casual dating), and romantic (dating, boyfriend/girlfriend, and romantic relationship). Of the 23 activities evaluated, 17 significantly differed among the relationships. Although this study finds specific differences between relationship labels and categories, it also found a core set of expectations that exists across all relationships that might be regarded ...


Barriers And Motivators For Tractors Rops Retrofitting In Iowa, Charles V. Schwab, J. Gordon Arbuckle, H. Mark Hanna Jan 2018

Barriers And Motivators For Tractors Rops Retrofitting In Iowa, Charles V. Schwab, J. Gordon Arbuckle, H. Mark Hanna

Sociology Publications

Iowa State University Extension and Outreach conducted an assessment of Iowa farm operators’ perceptions about the barriers and motivators when considering retrofitting tractors with rollover protective structures (ROPS). A statewide sample of approximately 2,000 farm operators were surveyed in the 2017 Iowa Farm and Rural Life Poll. A series of questions were asked to evaluate the importance of potential barriers to decisions not to retrofit a tractor and potential motivators that could influence the decision to retrofit or purchase a tractor with ROPS. The survey received a 48% response rate with 999 responses. Among the 76% of Iowa farm ...


Utilizing Multivariate Analysis For Assessing Student Learning Through Effective College-Industry Partnerships, Caleb Burns, Shweta Chopra, Mack C. Shelley Ii, Gretchen A. Mosher Jan 2018

Utilizing Multivariate Analysis For Assessing Student Learning Through Effective College-Industry Partnerships, Caleb Burns, Shweta Chopra, Mack C. Shelley Ii, Gretchen A. Mosher

Political Science Publications

There is no doubt that college–industry collaborations are vital to the success of undergraduate students with engineering and technology majors. This collaboration provides students with an opportunity to bridge the gap between classroom education and real-world experience. Inviting industry representatives to engage in the classroom and involving students with professional organizations, student field trips, virtual plant tours, and industry-focused final projects are ways in which an instructor can incorporate student–industry engagement into their course. During their undergraduate degree program, students are required to participate in an internship program where they gain substantial industry engagement and opportunities to learn ...


Best Practices For Planning, Developing, And Sustaining Interdisciplinary Language-Based Study Abroad Programs, Chad M. Gasta Jan 2018

Best Practices For Planning, Developing, And Sustaining Interdisciplinary Language-Based Study Abroad Programs, Chad M. Gasta

World Languages and Cultures Publications

In seventeen years of experience as a study abroad program director, I have seen how university students, faculty members, and administrators have come to share a strategic mission for study or work abroad; namely that programs must provide a meaningful international credential that not only yields a more fruitful undergraduate experience but also creates the potential for a better and higher-paying job upon graduation. I have spoken with many job recruiters over the years who tout the importance of developing an international skill set that requires a profound understanding of other cultures and languages. General news outlets and trade magazines ...


The Landscape Of Rural Service Learning, And What It Teaches Us All, Nancy K. Franz Jan 2018

The Landscape Of Rural Service Learning, And What It Teaches Us All, Nancy K. Franz

Education Publications

Community-engaged scholars know that understanding the community context is critical for successful communitybased learning that results in community development. As a rural-focused and mostly rural-based educator, I’ve been surprised at the lack of attention over the decades by university– community engagement scholars to the characteristics, opportunities, challenges, and impacts of rural service-learning. The Rural Alliance for Service Learning has attempted to address this gap in the literature by publishing this 19-chapter anthology of interesting experiences, research, and insights about service-learning in rural America with a predominant focus on the upper Midwest.


Establishing A Common Language: The Meaning Of Researchbased And Evidence-Based Programming (In The Human Sciences), Debra M. Sellers, Lisa M. Schainker, Peggy A. Lockhart, Hsiu-Chen Yeh Dec 2017

Establishing A Common Language: The Meaning Of Researchbased And Evidence-Based Programming (In The Human Sciences), Debra M. Sellers, Lisa M. Schainker, Peggy A. Lockhart, Hsiu-Chen Yeh

Iowa State University Articles and Manuscripts

This article describes the development, implementation, and exploratory evaluation of a professional development series that addressed educators' knowledge and use of the terms research-based and evidence-based within Human Sciences Extension and Outreach at one university. Respondents to a follow-up survey were more likely to select correctly the commonly accepted standard for each term, and they reported asking more questions, talking with others, examining programs' evidence bases, and placing more value on fidelity and evaluation following participation in the professional development series. Educator reactions to the series were generally positive, although researchers interested in designing like programs might consider engaging educators ...


University Students And Sustainability. Part 1: Attitudes, Perceptions, And Habits, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Brianna R. Burke Dec 2017

University Students And Sustainability. Part 1: Attitudes, Perceptions, And Habits, Kurt A. Rosentrater, Brianna R. Burke

English Publications

Increased understanding amongst scientists and the general public about anthropogenic impacts in general, and climate change in particular, behooves us as educators to adjust our courses and curricula. “Sustainability” and “green” topics are increasingly being discussed and incorporated, but this should be done with deliberation. We undertook this study to understand attitudes, perceptions, and habits of the student body at Iowa State University, with a focus on environmental knowledge and behaviors. Overall, we found that, regardless of demographic, students appear to be interested in environmental topics, reducing their footprint, and improving the environment overall. But, they did not necessarily want ...