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Full-Text Articles in Education

Childhood Inequality In China - Accepted Manuscript (Am).Pdf, Natalie A.E. Young, Emily C. Hannum Dec 2017

Childhood Inequality In China - Accepted Manuscript (Am).Pdf, Natalie A.E. Young, Emily C. Hannum

Emily C. Hannum

In recent decades, China has transformed from a relatively egalitarian society to a highly unequal one. What are the implications of high levels of inequality for the lives of children? Drawing on two newly available, nationally representative datasets, the China Family Panel Studies and the China Education Panel Survey, we develop a comprehensive portrait of childhood inequality in post-reform China. Analyses reveal stark disparities between children from different socioeconomic backgrounds in family environments and in welfare outcomes, including physical health, psychosocial health, and educational performance. We argue that childhood inequality in China is driven not only by the deprivations of ...


School Violence In China: A Multi-Level Analysis Of Student Victimization In Rural Middle Schools, Jennifer Adams, Emily C. Hannum Dec 2016

School Violence In China: A Multi-Level Analysis Of Student Victimization In Rural Middle Schools, Jennifer Adams, Emily C. Hannum

Emily C. Hannum



 Motivation: Physical victimization at school is little studied in impoverished developing country contexts. Moreover, the role of school and classroom contexts as risk factors remains poorly understood. 
 
Purpose: The aim of the study is to investigate the prevalence of physical victimization in rural Chinese middle schools as well as the individual, teacher/classroom, and school level risk factors associated with experiencing physical victimization.
 
Design: We use two waves of longitudinal, representative survey data to perform a multi-level logistic regression analysis of physical victimization among middle school students from 100 villages in one of China’s poorest provinces. We focus on ...


Education, Emily C. Hannum, Yu Xie Apr 2016

Education, Emily C. Hannum, Yu Xie

Emily C. Hannum

This manuscript offers an overview of key research in the social sciences regarding links between poverty and education. We begin by discussing conceptual definitions of poverty and education and the ways these concepts have been operationalized in the literature. We then review literatures related to two broad themes: how poverty shapes educational outcomes, and how education affects chances of living in poverty. Within each theme, wherever possible, we consider research at the national, sub-national, and household or individual level.


Linguistic Capital, Information Access And Economic Opportunity Among Rural Young Adults In Western China*, Emily C. Hannum, Huayu Sebastian Cherng Sep 2014

Linguistic Capital, Information Access And Economic Opportunity Among Rural Young Adults In Western China*, Emily C. Hannum, Huayu Sebastian Cherng

Emily C. Hannum

Facility with a country’s dominant language, a key form of linguistic capital, has a role to play in processes of social stratification and mobility, and this role is poorly understood. We have sought, in this paper, to explore access to this form of linguistic capital, and the implications of possessing linguistic capital, for a group of young adults who have been historically disadvantaged: rural young adults in western minority areas. Three main results emerge. First, there is a great deal of variability in linguistic capital, defined as standard Mandarin facility, across provinces and ethnic groups covered in the CHES ...


It's Not Just About The Money: Motivations For Youth Migration In Rural China, Yilin Chiang, Emily C. Hannum, Grace Kao Jun 2013

It's Not Just About The Money: Motivations For Youth Migration In Rural China, Yilin Chiang, Emily C. Hannum, Grace Kao

Emily C. Hannum

This study investigates the incentives for labor migration of youth in rural China using panel data from the Gansu Survey of Children and Families, a longitudinal study of youth in rural Gansu Province of China. We investigate the individual and altruistic economic motivations featured prominently in demographic and economic research on migration. However, we propose that the non-economic goal of personal development, a motivation suggested in numerous qualitative studies of women migrants in China and elsewhere, is also important, especially for young migrants. Analyzes indicate that, while young men and young women hold different motivations for migration, the desire for ...


Sociological Perspectives On Ethnicity And Education In China: Views From Chinese And English Literatures, Hua-Yu Sebastian Cherng, Emily C. Hannum, Chunping Lu Jun 2012

Sociological Perspectives On Ethnicity And Education In China: Views From Chinese And English Literatures, Hua-Yu Sebastian Cherng, Emily C. Hannum, Chunping Lu

Emily C. Hannum

This paper reviews Chinese- and English-language literature on ethnic minorities and education in China. Six major research topics emerge from the Chinese-language research: (1) Marxism and ethnic minority education; (2) patriotism and national unity in education for ethnic minority students; (3) multicultural education; (4) determinants of ethnic differences in education; (5) school facilities and teacher quality; and (6) preferential / affirmative action policies. Four research themes are identified from the English-language literature: (1) policy overviews; (2) education and ethnic identity; (3) incentives and disincentives for buy-in to the education system; and (4) educational stratification. The majority of quantitative research from both ...


Globalization, Changing Demographics, And Educational Challenges In East Asia, Emily Hannum, Hyunjoon Park, Yuko Goto Butler May 2010

Globalization, Changing Demographics, And Educational Challenges In East Asia, Emily Hannum, Hyunjoon Park, Yuko Goto Butler

Emily C. Hannum

In recent decades, globalization and regional integration have brought significant economic and demographic changes in East Asia, including rising economic inequality, growing population movements within and across borders, and the emergence or renewed geopolitical significance of cultural and linguistic minority populations. These trends have coincided with significant changes in family formation, dissolution, and structures. How have these changes played out in the diverse educational systems of East Asia? In what innovative ways are East Asian governments addressing the new demographic realities of their student populations? This volume offers a snapshot of key educational stratification issues in East Asian nations, and ...


Editors’ Introduction: Emerging Issues For Educational Research In East Asia, Emily C. Hannum, Hyunjoon Park, Yuko Goto Butler May 2010

Editors’ Introduction: Emerging Issues For Educational Research In East Asia, Emily C. Hannum, Hyunjoon Park, Yuko Goto Butler

Emily C. Hannum

In recent decades, globalization and regional integration have brought significant economic and demographic changes in East Asia, including rising economic inequality, growing population movements within and across borders, and the emergence or renewed geopolitical significance of cultural and linguistic minority populations. These trends have coincided with significant changes in family formation, dissolution, and structures. How have these changes played out in the diverse educational systems of East Asia? In what innovative ways are East Asian governments addressing the new demographic realities of their student populations? This volume offers a snapshot of key educational stratification issues in East Asian nations, and ...


Ethnicity, Socioeconomic Status, And Social Welfare In China, Emily C. Hannum, Meiyan Wang Dec 2009

Ethnicity, Socioeconomic Status, And Social Welfare In China, Emily C. Hannum, Meiyan Wang

Emily C. Hannum

This chapter investigates poverty and social welfare among China’s minority groups. Focusing on the Zhuang, Manchu, Hui, Miao, and Uygur populations, China’s five largest minority groups, as well as other minorities in the aggregate, this chapter will begin by providing an introduction to the classification of ethnic groups in China. We consider the relationship of this classification scheme to the concept of indigenous populations, and develop working definitions of minority status and ethnic group for use in the chapter. We then discuss recent economic trends and introduce some of the main government policies targeted toward ethnic minorities. With ...


Girls In Gansu, China: Expectations And Aspirations For Secondary Schooling, Jennifer Adams, Emily C. Hannum Nov 2009

Girls In Gansu, China: Expectations And Aspirations For Secondary Schooling, Jennifer Adams, Emily C. Hannum

Emily C. Hannum

Gender stratification in education is declining in China, but some recent research suggests that girls' schooling is still vulnerable in poor rural areas. This chapter investigates girls' educational vulnerability in Gansu, one of China's poorest provinces. Specifically, it analyzes the Gansu Survey of Children and Families, a multisite survey that interviewed 2,000 rural children, along with their families, teachers, principals, and community leaders, in 2000 (when children were 9–12) and 2004 (when children were 13–16). Drawing on comparative and China-specific literature on gender and exclusion, we investigate several questions. First, do gender gaps favoring boys exist ...


Family Sources Of Educational Gender Inequality In Rural China: A Critical Assessment, Emily C. Hannum, Peggy A. Kong, Yuping Zhang Nov 2009

Family Sources Of Educational Gender Inequality In Rural China: A Critical Assessment, Emily C. Hannum, Peggy A. Kong, Yuping Zhang

Emily C. Hannum

In this paper, we investigate the gender gap in education in rural northwest China. We first discuss parental perceptions of abilities and appropriate roles for girls and boys; parental concerns about old-age support; and parental perceptions of different labor market outcomes for girls' and boys' education. We then investigate gender disparities in investments in children, children's performance at school, and children's subsequent attainment. We analyze a survey of nine to twelve year-old children and their families conducted in rural Gansu Province in the year 2000, along with follow-up information about subsequent educational attainment collected seven years later. We ...


Poverty, Parental Ill Health And Children’S Access To Schooling In Rural Gansu, China, Emily Hannum, Tanja Sargent, Shengchao Yu Nov 2009

Poverty, Parental Ill Health And Children’S Access To Schooling In Rural Gansu, China, Emily Hannum, Tanja Sargent, Shengchao Yu

Emily C. Hannum

As reforms to China's health care system have raised costs to users in recent decades, studies suggest that ill health has become intimately tied to social stratification as both a precipitant and a consequence of poverty. The problem may be particularly pronounced in China’s poorest rural populations. Focusing on Gansu Province, one of China’s poorest, this paper investigates the possibility that the ill health of adults also carries cross-generational consequences, through interfering with the education of children. Analyzing a survey of children in 100 rural villages, we find that parental illness is experienced disproportionately by the most ...


Girls In Gansu, China: Expectations And Aspirations For Secondary Schooling, Jennifer Adams, Emily C. Hannum Nov 2009

Girls In Gansu, China: Expectations And Aspirations For Secondary Schooling, Jennifer Adams, Emily C. Hannum

Emily C. Hannum

Gender stratification in education is declining in China, but some recent research suggests that girls' schooling is still vulnerable in poor rural areas. This chapter investigates girls' educational vulnerability in Gansu, one of China's poorest provinces. Specifically, it analyzes the Gansu Survey of Children and Families, a multisite survey that interviewed 2,000 rural children, along with their families, teachers, principals, and community leaders, in 2000 (when children were 9–12) and 2004 (when children were 13–16). Drawing on comparative and China-specific literature on gender and exclusion, we investigate several questions. First, do gender gaps favoring boys exist ...


Family Sources Of Educational Gender Inequality In Rural China: A Critical Assessment, Emily C. Hannum, Peggy A. Kong, Yuping Zhang Nov 2008

Family Sources Of Educational Gender Inequality In Rural China: A Critical Assessment, Emily C. Hannum, Peggy A. Kong, Yuping Zhang

Emily C. Hannum

In this paper, we investigate the gender gap in education in rural northwest China. We first discuss parental perceptions of abilities and appropriate roles for girls and boys; parental concerns about old-age support; and parental perceptions of different labor market outcomes for girls’ and boys’ education. We then investigate gender disparities in investments in children, children’s performance at school, and children’s subsequent attainment. We analyze a survey of nine to twelve year-old children and their families conducted in rural Gansu Province in the year 2000, along with follow-up information about subsequent educational attainment collected seven years later. We ...


Education In The Reform Era, Emily C. Hannum, Jere Behrman, Meiyan Wang, Jihong Liu Dec 2007

Education In The Reform Era, Emily C. Hannum, Jere Behrman, Meiyan Wang, Jihong Liu

Emily C. Hannum

No abstract provided.


Urban-Rural Disparities In Access To Primary And Secondary Education Under Market Reform, Emily C. Hannum, Meiyan Wang, Jennifer H. Adams Dec 2007

Urban-Rural Disparities In Access To Primary And Secondary Education Under Market Reform, Emily C. Hannum, Meiyan Wang, Jennifer H. Adams

Emily C. Hannum

No abstract provided.


Beyond Cost: Rural Perspectives On Barriers To Education, Emily C. Hannum, Jennifer H. Adams Dec 2007

Beyond Cost: Rural Perspectives On Barriers To Education, Emily C. Hannum, Jennifer H. Adams

Emily C. Hannum

No abstract provided.


Educational Resources And Impediments In Rural Gansu, China, Emily Hannum, Peggy Kong Apr 2007

Educational Resources And Impediments In Rural Gansu, China, Emily Hannum, Peggy Kong

Emily C. Hannum

This report seeks to provide a portrait of schools serving rural communities in northwest China, and to shed light on factors that encourage and discourage school persistence among children in this region. To achieve these goals, we analyze a survey of rural children and their families, schools, and teachers in Gansu province. The project interviewed children in the year 2000, when children were 9 to 12 years old, and again four years later.

In part one of the paper, we provide a descriptive overview of the material, human, and cultural resources available in sampled primary and middle schools. Where possible ...