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Full-Text Articles in Education

Typology Of Teacher Leadership Programs, Jill Harrison Berg, Peter Horn, Jonathan A. Supovitz, Jason Margolis Jan 2019

Typology Of Teacher Leadership Programs, Jill Harrison Berg, Peter Horn, Jonathan A. Supovitz, Jason Margolis

CPRE Research Reports

Education leaders are perennially seeking new ways to build the capacity of teachers to enhance learning experiences for all students. Teacher leadership, which we define as teachers’ support of the improvement of teaching and learning beyond their own classroom, has long been a source of interest and experimentation (Wenner & Campbell, 2017; York-Barr & Duke, 2004). Teacher leadership recognizes teachers’ instructional expertise as an asset for educational improvement, capitalizes upon teachers’ relationships with their colleagues to support change, and may provide career advancement opportunities to improve job satisfaction and the professionalization of teaching. For these and other reasons, states, districts, funders and teachers themselves have become increasingly interested in the promise of teacher leadership.

In this study, we map the landscape of teacher leadership programs across the U.S. and identify commonalities and distinctions amongst the range of programs. Using a variety of search approaches to capture publicly-available information, we document 285 state, local, university, and foundation-sponsored programs that use a variety of techniques to support teachers as leaders. We then categorize the forms of support, attending to program models, objectives, sponsorship, and audience.

We identify three major forms of support provided by teacher leadership programs: (1) preparation of teachers with knowledge and skills that can help them to lead; (2) positioning of teachers in leadership roles to capitalize upon their expertise; and (3) recognition of teachers as leaders through awards and other forms of appreciation or acknowledgement. While some programs focus only on one of these approaches, most employed a combination of these forms of support. Based on this ...


Monasteries Of The Future, Miles G. Bukiet Aug 2018

Monasteries Of The Future, Miles G. Bukiet

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

For millennia, monasteries have been at the forefront of training virtues such as compassion, transcendence, service, gratitude, forgiveness, and grit, as well as foundational psychological capacities such as self-regulation, sustained, voluntary attention, emotional intelligence, and meta-cognitive awareness. Monasteries of the Future are modern institutions, both secular and religious, designed to provide the requisite financial, social, intellectual, and instructional support necessary to train a new generation of contemplative adepts. Forming a network of centers which collaborate and compete, Monasteries of the Future will establish and uphold the highest standards in the contemplative field. By partnering with modern science, most notably positive ...


School Vouchers In The Trump Era: How Political Ideology And Religion Shape Public Opinion, Rand Quinn, Tina Cheuk Jan 2018

School Vouchers In The Trump Era: How Political Ideology And Religion Shape Public Opinion, Rand Quinn, Tina Cheuk

CPRE Policy Briefs

Expanding school vouchers is a central component of the Trump Administration’s education agenda.1 However, the extent to which the Administration can fully realize this policy goal may hinge, in part, on the level of public support or opposition for the voucher method of reform and on the particular components of any proposed voucher system. In this policy brief, we report on a randomized survey experiment we conducted to identify how two key dimensions of school voucher systems—source of funding and scope of coverage—affect public opinion across various sectors of the American public.


Let's Talk About Sex: Why The Topic Of Sexual Violence Prevention Should Be Prioritized In K-12 Sex Education, Abbie Starker Mar 2017

Let's Talk About Sex: Why The Topic Of Sexual Violence Prevention Should Be Prioritized In K-12 Sex Education, Abbie Starker

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

While campus sexual assault has recently garnered a lot of attention in the United States, there has been less recognition of individuals who experience sexual and gender-based violence outside of the university/college system. Many people who experience sexual violence have never attended a post-secondary institution, or they experienced sexual violence before they were college-aged. Because of this reality, it is important that there are resources and education about sexual violence for people at a younger age. Through an analysis of public policy, interviews with experts in the field, and a survey that I administered, this thesis examines both formal ...


#Commoncore Project (2017) How Social Media Is Changing The Politics Of Education, Jonathan A. Supovitz, Christian Kolouch, Alan J. Daley, Miguel Del Fresno Mar 2017

#Commoncore Project (2017) How Social Media Is Changing The Politics Of Education, Jonathan A. Supovitz, Christian Kolouch, Alan J. Daley, Miguel Del Fresno

The #commoncore Project—How Social Media is Changing the Politics of Education

Fueled by impassioned social media activists, the Common Core State Standards have been a persistent flashpoint in the debate over the direction of American education. In this innovative and interactive website we explore the Common Core debate on Twitter. Using a distinctive combination of social network analyses and psychological investigations we reveal both the underlying social structure of the conversation and the motivations of the participants. The central question guiding our investigation is: How are social mediaenabled social networks changing the discourse in American politics that produces and sustains social policy?

ABOUT #COMMONCORE PROJECT

In the #commoncore Project, authors Jonathan ...


Joyous Reading: Aspects Of Literature Enjoyment For Black/African American Fourth Grade Students, Sherea Mosley Jan 2017

Joyous Reading: Aspects Of Literature Enjoyment For Black/African American Fourth Grade Students, Sherea Mosley

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This study primarily explores the types of books African American children in a local fourth grade classroom like and enjoy. Books students are interested in reading and other related aspects that contribute to their literary enjoyment are also explored. It is during the upper elementary years that many students who eventually express little or no preference for reading first “become ambivalent toward reading… because they [can] no longer find reading material that interest[s] them” (Davila and Patrick, 2010, p. 200). Even when children select a book on their own, they are almost always selecting from books preselected for them ...


Randomized Controlled Trials, Robert Boruch, Rui Yang, Jordan Hyatt, Herb Turner Iii Oct 2016

Randomized Controlled Trials, Robert Boruch, Rui Yang, Jordan Hyatt, Herb Turner Iii

GSE Publications

This paper covers the topic of randomized controlled trials in social, educational, criminological, health, and other human service sectors. It is studded with illustrations from developed and developing countries. We address the basic ideas that underlie trials in different ways, and cover contemporary definitions and vernacular, some history, and idea of cumulating evidence from such trials including recent work on replication and meta-analyses. Standards for evidence and reporting are considered. We attend to statistical matters and also recognize important non-statistical matters that must be taken into account in designing and executing such trials. Cluster randomized, place randomized, and other designs ...


Literacy, Strategy, And Identity In Interaction: Vietnamese And Mexican Immigrant Students In Urban Catholic Schooling, Robert Leblanc Jan 2016

Literacy, Strategy, And Identity In Interaction: Vietnamese And Mexican Immigrant Students In Urban Catholic Schooling, Robert Leblanc

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This year-long interactional ethnography of four first- and second-generation Vietnamese and Mexican immigrant youth enrolled in an urban Catholic school traced how participants used a series of literacy-focused interactional strategies to negotiate the complexities of the contemporary Catholic school landscape. Urban US Catholic schools have undergone a radical transformation in the last 40 years, from overenrolled neighborhood parochial schools serving largely white Catholic students (Walch, 2003), to contracting decentralized schools serving Catholic immigrants from Asia and Latin American alongside large numbers of non-Catholic African American students (Hunt & Walch, 2010; Irving & Fosters, 1996; Louie & Holdaway, 2009; NCEA, 2014). This dissertation study represents an effort to describe how ...


Ambient Positional Instability Among Ohio Math And Science Teachers: 2008 To 2014, John Baker, Robert Boruch Apr 2015

Ambient Positional Instability Among Ohio Math And Science Teachers: 2008 To 2014, John Baker, Robert Boruch

GSE Publications

This briefing is on teacher retention and Ambient Positional Instability (API) rates from 2008-09 to 2013-14 for math and science teachers in the state of Ohio. API is investigated in two ways; first, the cohort of math and science teachers teaching in the 2008-09 school year are followed over five years and, second, the population of math and science teachers are tracked from one year to the next over the same time period. Data analyses are presented with key findings identified. Instability rates tend to be stable year-to-year. Teachers in non-charter public schools in the five largest cities in Ohio ...


Taken Out Of Context: Defending Civic Education From The Situationist Critique, Sigal R. Ben-Porath, Gideon Dishon Jan 2015

Taken Out Of Context: Defending Civic Education From The Situationist Critique, Sigal R. Ben-Porath, Gideon Dishon

GSE Publications

Situationists have suggested that educational efforts to improve character and instill virtues should be abandoned, as individuals’ behavior is predicted by contexts and situations rather than by character traits. More recently it has been suggested that civic education and especially the effort to cultivate civic virtues are ineffective for similar reasons and should be replaced by the introduction of desirable social norms and institutions. After surveying the debate on this topic in the first part of the essay, we suggest that in fact virtues should not be judged as existing within one person and absent from another based on their ...


Never Been: An Exploration Of The Influence Of Dis/Ability, Giftedness, And Incarceration On Adolescents In Adult Correctional Facilities, Kelsey Marie Jones Jan 2015

Never Been: An Exploration Of The Influence Of Dis/Ability, Giftedness, And Incarceration On Adolescents In Adult Correctional Facilities, Kelsey Marie Jones

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This dissertation study explores the experiences of incarcerated youth, specifically the relationships between dis/ability (Baglieri& Knopf, 2004), giftedness, and incarceration in the lives of these young people. The extant literature rarely addresses these relationships through the voices of young people who have experienced incarceration first-hand; furthermore, the research pathologizes incarcerated youth and removes the challenges they encounter from their systemically oppressive contexts. This research places the unique experiences of the participants in the larger conversations of deficit-thinking, racism, ecological systems and theories of critical praxisâ??specifically, through the lenses of Dis/ability Studies in Education and Critical Race Theory.

As a qualitative research study, this dissertation includes the stories and experiences of three formerly-incarcerated individuals who were held in adult correctional facilities as adolescents, as well as a non-profit ...


Evaluation Of The I3 Scale-Up Of Reading Recovery | Year Two Report, 2012-13, Henry May, Heather Goldsworthy, Michael Armijo, Abigail M. Gray, Philip M Sirinides, Toscha J. Blalock, Helen Anderson-Clark, Andrew J. Schiera, Horatio Blackman, Jessica Gillespie, Cecile Sam Dec 2014

Evaluation Of The I3 Scale-Up Of Reading Recovery | Year Two Report, 2012-13, Henry May, Heather Goldsworthy, Michael Armijo, Abigail M. Gray, Philip M Sirinides, Toscha J. Blalock, Helen Anderson-Clark, Andrew J. Schiera, Horatio Blackman, Jessica Gillespie, Cecile Sam

CPRE Research Reports

Reading Recovery is a short-term early intervention designed to help the lowest-achieving readers in first grade reach average levels of classroom performance in literacy. Students identified to receive Reading Recovery meet individually with a specially trained Reading Recovery teacher every school day for 30-minute lessons over a period of 12 to 20 weeks. The purpose of these lessons is to support rapid acceleration of each child’s literacy learning. In 2010, The Ohio State University received a Scaling Up What Works grant from the U.S. Department of Education Investing in Innovation (i3) Fund to expand the use of Reading ...


Teacher Churn In Missouri’S Five Biggest Cities, 2005-2014: A Briefing, Jill Bowdon, Robert Boruch Sep 2014

Teacher Churn In Missouri’S Five Biggest Cities, 2005-2014: A Briefing, Jill Bowdon, Robert Boruch

GSE Publications

This policy brief:

(1) contrasts the proportion of math and science teachers who leave STEM fields within one year, three years, five years, and ten years with the proportion of English or Social Studies teachers who turnover during these intervals

(2) examines stability of the year-to-year turnover from STEM fields

(3) describes how teachers who leave math or science teaching assignments move into other STEM assignments, to non-STEM assignments, or leave the public schools of Missouri entirely, and

(4) describes the rates at which teachers who are still teaching in STEM fields remain in the same school and district, shift ...


Improving Educational Quality Through Enhancing Community Participation: Results From A Randomized Field Experiment In Indonesia, Menno Pradhan, Daniel Suryadarma, Amanda Beatty, Maisy Wong, Arya Gaduh, Armida Alisjahbana, Rima Prama Artha Apr 2014

Improving Educational Quality Through Enhancing Community Participation: Results From A Randomized Field Experiment In Indonesia, Menno Pradhan, Daniel Suryadarma, Amanda Beatty, Maisy Wong, Arya Gaduh, Armida Alisjahbana, Rima Prama Artha

Real Estate Papers

Education ministries worldwide have promoted community engagement through school committees. This paper presents results from a large field experiment testing alternative approaches to strengthen school committees in public schools in Indonesia. Two novel treatments focus on institutional reforms. First, some schools were randomly assigned to implement elections of school committee members. Another treatment facilitated joint planning meetings between the school committee and the village council (linkage). Two more common treatments, grants and training, provided resources to existing school committees. We find that institutional reforms, in particular linkage and elections combined with linkage, are most cost-effective at improving learning.


Holding The Hunger Games Hostage At The Gym: An Evaluation Of Temptation Bundling, Katherine L. Milkman, Julia A. Minson, Kevin. G. Volpp Feb 2014

Holding The Hunger Games Hostage At The Gym: An Evaluation Of Temptation Bundling, Katherine L. Milkman, Julia A. Minson, Kevin. G. Volpp

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

We introduce and evaluate the effectiveness of temptation bundling—a method for simultaneously tackling two types of self-control problems by harnessing consumption complementarities. We describe a field experiment measuring the impact of bundling instantly gratifying but guilt-inducing “want” experiences (enjoying page-turner audiobooks) with valuable “should” behaviors providing delayed rewards (exercising). We explore whether such bundles increase should behaviors and whether people would pay to create these restrictive bundles. Participants were randomly assigned to a full treatment condition with gym-only access to tempting audio novels, an intermediate treatment involving encouragement to restrict audiobook enjoyment to the gym, or a control condition ...


Technical And Vocational Education And Training In India - A Study Of Choice And Returns, Namrata Tognatta Jan 2014

Technical And Vocational Education And Training In India - A Study Of Choice And Returns, Namrata Tognatta

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

India has made remarkable progress and achieved near universal enrollment in primary school education. However, the quality of learning and progress beyond primary education are of concern; nearly 50 percent of fifth graders are unable to read second grade material and retention rates at the secondary level are quite low. The higher education sector has also shown impressive growth but faces several challenges around inequitable access and low quality. Low outcomes at the secondary and higher education levels have resulted in a significant deficit in employable and vocationally trained individuals in the workforce. Evidence shows that just 14 percent of ...


Information And Quality When Motivation Is Intrinsic: Evidence From Surgeon Report Cards, Jonathan T. Kolstad Dec 2013

Information And Quality When Motivation Is Intrinsic: Evidence From Surgeon Report Cards, Jonathan T. Kolstad

Health Care Management Papers

If profit maximization is the objective of a firm, new information about quality should affect firm behavior only through its effects on market demand. I consider an alternate model in which suppliers are motivated by a desire to perform well in addition to profit. The introduction of quality "report cards" for cardiac surgery in Pennsylvania provides an empirical setting to isolate the relative role of extrinsic and intrinsic incentives in determining surgeon response. Information on performance that was new to surgeons and unrelated to patient demand led to an intrinsic response four times larger than surgeon response to profit incentives.


The Unanticipated Consequences Of Postponing The Employer Mandate, Mark. V. Pauly, Adam. A. Leive Aug 2013

The Unanticipated Consequences Of Postponing The Employer Mandate, Mark. V. Pauly, Adam. A. Leive

Health Care Management Papers

No abstract provided.


Risk Management And Climate Change, Howard Kunreuther, Geoffrey Heal, Myles Allen, Ottmar Edenhofer, Christopher B. Field, Gary Yohe May 2013

Risk Management And Climate Change, Howard Kunreuther, Geoffrey Heal, Myles Allen, Ottmar Edenhofer, Christopher B. Field, Gary Yohe

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

The selection of climate policies should be an exercise in risk management reflecting the many relevant sources of uncertainty. Studies of climate change and its impacts rarely yield consensus on the distribution of exposure, vulnerability or possible outcomes. Hence policy analysis cannot effectively evaluate alternatives using standard approaches, such as expected utility theory and benefit-cost analysis. This Perspective highlights the value of robust decision-making tools designed for situations such as evaluating climate policies, where consensus on probability distributions is not available and stakeholders differ in their degree of risk tolerance. A broader risk-management approach enables a range of possible outcomes ...


Correcting The Past: Failures To Replicate Psi, Jeff Galak, Robyn. A. Leboeuf, Leif. D. Nelson, Joseph. P. Simmons Dec 2012

Correcting The Past: Failures To Replicate Psi, Jeff Galak, Robyn. A. Leboeuf, Leif. D. Nelson, Joseph. P. Simmons

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

Across 7 experiments (N = 3,289), we replicate the procedure of Experiments 8 and 9 from Bem (2011), which had originally demonstrated retroactive facilitation of recall. We failed to replicate that finding. We further conduct a meta-analysis of all replication attempts of these experiments and find that the average effect size (d = 0.04) is no different from 0. We discuss some reasons for differences between the results in this article and those presented in Bem (2011).


Protective Measures, Personal Experience, And The Affective Psychology Of Time, Ellen Peters, Howard Kunreuther, Namika Sagara, Paul Slovic, Dan R. Schley Dec 2012

Protective Measures, Personal Experience, And The Affective Psychology Of Time, Ellen Peters, Howard Kunreuther, Namika Sagara, Paul Slovic, Dan R. Schley

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

We examined the role of time and affect in intentions to purchase a risk-protective measure (Studies 1 and 2) and explored participant abilities to factor time into the likelihood judgments that presumably underlie such intentions (Study 3). Participants worried more about losing their possessions and were more likely to purchase a protective measure given a longer term lease than a short-term lease, but only if their belongings were described in affect-poor terms. If described instead as being particularly special and affect-rich, participants neglected time and were about equally likely to purchase a risk-protective measure for shorter and longer term leases ...


Causal Effects Of Single-Sex Schools On College Entrance Exams And College Attendance: Random Assignment In Seoul High Schools, Hyunjoon Park, Jere R. Behrman, Jaesung Choi Jan 2012

Causal Effects Of Single-Sex Schools On College Entrance Exams And College Attendance: Random Assignment In Seoul High Schools, Hyunjoon Park, Jere R. Behrman, Jaesung Choi

PSC Working Paper Series

Despite the voluminous literature on the potentials of single-sex schools, there is no consensus on the effects of single-sex schools because of student selection of school types. We exploit a unique feature of schooling in Seoul, the random assignment of students into single-sex versus coeducational high schools, to assess causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exam scores and college attendance. Our validation of the random assignment shows comparable socioeconomic backgrounds and prior academic achievement of students attending single-sex schools and coeducational schools, which increases the credibility of our causal estimates of single-sex school effects. Attending all-boys schools or ...


Essays In Problems Of Optimal Sequential Decisions, Alessandro Arlotto Jan 2012

Essays In Problems Of Optimal Sequential Decisions, Alessandro Arlotto

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

In this dissertation, we study several Markovian problems of optimal sequential decisions by focusing on research questions that are driven by probabilistic and operations-management considerations. Our probabilistic interest is in understanding the distribution of the total reward that one obtains when implementing a policy that maximizes its expected value. With this respect, we study the sequential selection of unimodal and alternating subsequences from a random sample, and we prove accurate bounds for the expected values and exact asymptotics. In the unimodal problem, we also note that the variance of the optimal total reward can be bounded in terms of its ...


The Roots Of Educational Inequality: Germantown High School, 1907-2011, Erika M. Kitzmiller Jan 2012

The Roots Of Educational Inequality: Germantown High School, 1907-2011, Erika M. Kitzmiller

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The Roots of Educational Inequality: Germantown High School, 1907 - 2011

Erika M. Kitzmiller

Dr. Michael B. Katz (History)

Dr. Stanton E.F. Wortham (Education)

This study, The Roots of Educational Inequality, examines the political, economic, and social factors that led to the transformation of Germantown High School and its urban community throughout the twentieth century. This longitudinal study, accomplished through a careful analysis of daily events rather than sampling key turning points, maximizes the benefits of a case study approach by connecting local conditions to the larger transformation of urban schools, urban communities, and the social welfare state. Using a ...


Usercentric Operational Decision Making In Distributed Information Retrieval, Kartik Hosanagar Dec 2011

Usercentric Operational Decision Making In Distributed Information Retrieval, Kartik Hosanagar

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

Information specialists in enterprises regularly use distributed information retrieval (DIR) systems that query a large number of information retrieval (IR) systems, merge the retrieved results, and display them to users. There can be considerable heterogeneity in the quality of results returned by different IR servers. Further, because different servers handle collections of different sizes and have different processing and bandwidth capacities, there can be considerable heterogeneity in their response times. The broker in the DIR system has to decide which servers to query, how long to wait for responses, and which retrieved results to display based on the benefits and ...


From Policy To Practice: Implementation Of The Legislative Objectives Of Charter Schools, Katherine M Barghaus, Erling E. Boe Nov 2011

From Policy To Practice: Implementation Of The Legislative Objectives Of Charter Schools, Katherine M Barghaus, Erling E. Boe

GSE Publications

Key legislative objectives of charter schools are to provide more school and classroom options, increase teacher influence over decision making, and increase school autonomy from state and district policy. Using national data from the 2003–4 School and Staffing Survey, we found that charter schools attained these legislative objectives when compared with regular schools, although increases in teacher influence and school autonomy were modest. Although charter schools have been implemented much as intended by legislation, other research has shown that charter schools in general have not improved student achievement—a major objective of charter school legislation. Our results suggest that ...


Intuitive Biases In Choice Versus Estimation: Implications For The Wisdom Of Crowds, Joseph P. Simmons, Lief D. Nelson, Jeffrey Galak, Shane Fredrick Jun 2011

Intuitive Biases In Choice Versus Estimation: Implications For The Wisdom Of Crowds, Joseph P. Simmons, Lief D. Nelson, Jeffrey Galak, Shane Fredrick

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

Although researchers have documented many instances of crowd wisdom, it is important to know whether some kinds of judgments may lead the crowd astray, whether crowds’ judgments improve with feedback over time, and whether crowds’ judgments can be improved by changing the way judgments are elicited. We investigated these questions in a sports gambling context (predictions against point spreads) believed to elicit crowd wisdom. In a season-long experiment, fans wagered over $20,000 on NFL football predictions. Contrary to the wisdom-of-crowds hypothesis, faulty intuitions led the crowd to predict “favorites” more than “underdogs” against point spreads that disadvantaged favorites, even ...


Gender (In)Query: Young Adults Learning, Unlearning, And Relearning Gender In A Queer Majority Space, Erin G. Cross Aug 2010

Gender (In)Query: Young Adults Learning, Unlearning, And Relearning Gender In A Queer Majority Space, Erin G. Cross

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

As today’s discursive frames available to queer young adults reflect a stressful, shifting historical context for sexuality from ‘struggle and survive’ to emancipation, they still are confined by U.S. sexual norms assuming the authority of ‘truth’ while demanding heterosexuality. Consequently, sexuality and gender are linked inextricably as heterosexuality relies on the gender binary and the gender binary relies on heterosexuality. Via gender, queer, and situated learning theories this qualitative study decouples such mutual reinforcement to explore how queer young adults – who are already positioned outside of obligatory heterosexuality – learn, unlearn, or relearn gender in queer majority spaces. Research ...


Federal Policy And The Rise In Disability Enrollment: Evidence For The Veterans Affairs’ Disability Compensation Program, Mark Duggan May 2010

Federal Policy And The Rise In Disability Enrollment: Evidence For The Veterans Affairs’ Disability Compensation Program, Mark Duggan

Health Care Management Papers

The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs compensates 13 percent of the nation’s military veterans for service‐related disabilities through the Disability Compensation (DC) program. In 2001, a legislative change made it easier for Vietnam veterans to receive benefits for diabetes associated with military service. In this paper, we investigate this policy’s effect on DC enrollment and expenditures as well as the behavioral response of potential beneficiaries. Our findings demonstrate that the policy increased DC enrollment by 6 percentage points among Vietnam veterans and that an additional 1.7 percent experienced an increase in their DC benefits, which ...


Group Cooperation Under Uncertainty, Min Gong, Joanne Baron, Howard Kunreuther Dec 2009

Group Cooperation Under Uncertainty, Min Gong, Joanne Baron, Howard Kunreuther

Operations, Information and Decisions Papers

Previous research has shown an ‘interindividual-intergroup discontinuity effect’: intergroup interactions generally lead to less cooperative outcomes than interindividual interactions. We replicate the discontinuity effect in the deterministic prisoner’s dilemma, but find that groups are more cooperative than individuals in a stochastic version of the game. Three major factors that underlie the usual discontinuity effect are reduced in the stochastic environment: greed, fear, and persuasion power. Two group mechanisms are proposed to explain the reversed discontinuity effect: the motivation to avoid guilt and blame when making decisions that affect others’ welfare, and the social pressure to conform to certain norms ...