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Metabolism and Nutrition

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Effects Of A 28-Day Carbohydrate-Restricted Diet On Metabolic And Performance Markers In Professional Firefighters, Andrew E. Gonzalez, Hunter S. Waldman, Matthew J. Mcallister Feb 2019

Effects Of A 28-Day Carbohydrate-Restricted Diet On Metabolic And Performance Markers In Professional Firefighters, Andrew E. Gonzalez, Hunter S. Waldman, Matthew J. Mcallister

International Journal of Exercise Science: Conference Proceedings

PURPOSE:Firefighters (FF) experience acute physiological and psychological stressors such as disturbed sleep patterns, frequent snacking, smoke exposure, and intense physical exertion, likely contributing to a significant risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and sudden cardiac death. Additionally, FF have high obesity prevalence rates and low cardiovascular fitness levels. Proper dietary and exercise regime interventions may decrease CVD risk. Carbohydrate-restricted diets (CRD) may benefit FF health through increased metabolic flexibility, decreased fat mass, and improved body composition, without negatively affecting the strength and aerobic performance. METHODS:Twenty-one healthy, male professional FF recruited from local fire departments underwent 9 testing sessions: Trials ...


Exercise Participation And Indicators Of Skeletal Muscle Health In Women With Hypothyroidism, Ryan A. Gordon, Gena D. Guerin, Emily L. Zumbro, Ann O. Amuta, Anthony A. Duplanty Feb 2019

Exercise Participation And Indicators Of Skeletal Muscle Health In Women With Hypothyroidism, Ryan A. Gordon, Gena D. Guerin, Emily L. Zumbro, Ann O. Amuta, Anthony A. Duplanty

International Journal of Exercise Science: Conference Proceedings

Women with hypothyroidism report undesirable skeletal muscle symptoms at rest and during exercise. The severity of skeletal muscle symptoms may influence an individual’s willingness and capacity to exercise. PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine the relationship between exercise and skeletal muscle symptoms at rest and during exercise in women with hypothyroidism. METHODS: An online survey was completed by female participants diagnosed with hypothyroidism currently undergoing prescribed thyroid hormone treatment (n=580). Participants responded to questions related to basal muscle symptoms (MS), and muscle pain (MP) and fatigue (MF) experienced during exercise. Participants reported the type of exercise they performed ...


Predicting Resting Metabolic Rate In Healthy Adults Using Body Composition And Circumference Measurements, Kristi L. Chase, Kyle T. Patek, John L. Walker, Joni A. Mettler Ph.D Feb 2019

Predicting Resting Metabolic Rate In Healthy Adults Using Body Composition And Circumference Measurements, Kristi L. Chase, Kyle T. Patek, John L. Walker, Joni A. Mettler Ph.D

International Journal of Exercise Science: Conference Proceedings

Measurement of resting metabolic rate (RMR) is an important factor for weight management. Previous research has reported several variables to estimate RMR such as body size, percent fat (%BF), age, and sex; however, little is known regarding the effect of circumference measures in estimating RMR. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to develop a model to estimate RMR using waist circumference (WC), an easily obtainable measure, and cross-validate it to previously published models. METHODS:Subjects were 140 adult men and women, ages 18-65 years. RMR was measured through indirect calorimetry, %BF was measured through air displacement plethysmography, and fat ...


Impact Of Time Restricted Feeding On Markers Of Cardiometabolic Health, Liliana I. Renteria, Elias Villalobos, Hunter S. Waldman, Matthew J. Mcallister Feb 2019

Impact Of Time Restricted Feeding On Markers Of Cardiometabolic Health, Liliana I. Renteria, Elias Villalobos, Hunter S. Waldman, Matthew J. Mcallister

International Journal of Exercise Science: Conference Proceedings

Time restricted feeding (TRF) is a form of intermittent fasting in which all calories are consumed within a certain amount of time (i.e. 6-8 hrs) only water is ingested for the remainder of the day. Previous research shows improvements in body composition and some markers of cardiometabolic health, but it is not clear if these results were due to the decreased eating window, or due to a decrease in caloric intake that typically occurs with fasting protocols. PURPOSE: to assess whether a caloric deficit is necessary to achieve improvements in cardiometabolic health as well as evaluate the impact TRF ...


The Effect Of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation On Metabolic Changes In A Sedentary Population: A Pilot Study, Michelle Galvan, Jasmin Jenkins, Sudip Bajpeyi Feb 2019

The Effect Of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation On Metabolic Changes In A Sedentary Population: A Pilot Study, Michelle Galvan, Jasmin Jenkins, Sudip Bajpeyi

International Journal of Exercise Science: Conference Proceedings

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2015) declared that 80% of U.S. adults do not meet exercise recommendations by ACSM. Skeletal muscle contraction has been shown to increase mitochondrial content (energy production) and glucose uptake (decreased insulin resistance). Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES) utilizes electrical impulses to induce muscle contractions and can be used as an alternate strategy to induce muscle contraction in sedentary adults. However, it is not clear if NMES induced muscle contraction may improve insulin sensitivity and metabolic health. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of two weeks of NMES on ...


A Family History Of Type 2 Diabetes Does Not Impact Skeletal Muscle Lipid Content, Jasmin Jenkins, Sudip Bajpeyi Feb 2019

A Family History Of Type 2 Diabetes Does Not Impact Skeletal Muscle Lipid Content, Jasmin Jenkins, Sudip Bajpeyi

International Journal of Exercise Science: Conference Proceedings

A high intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) has been associated not only with insulin resistance, obesity, and type 2 diabetes; but also in insulin sensitive endurance trained athletes – known as “athlete’s paradox”. A family history of type 2 diabetes (FH+) has been shown as a risk factor for the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, it is unclear whether a FH+ affects IMCL content and exercise induced changes in IMCL when compared to those without a family history of type 2 diabetes (FH-). PURPOSE: The purpose of this study were 1) to compare IMCL content between normoglycemic ...


Exercise Leads To Increase In Smaller Lipid Droplet Morphology In Peripheral Region Of Muscle Fiber, Victoria Rosas Feb 2019

Exercise Leads To Increase In Smaller Lipid Droplet Morphology In Peripheral Region Of Muscle Fiber, Victoria Rosas

International Journal of Exercise Science: Conference Proceedings

In a previous study, we have shown that high fat overfeeding results in decreased smaller lipid droplet density in the peripheral region of skeletal muscle fiber. This decrease was associated with high fat overfeeding induced weight gain and insulin resistance. However, it is not clear whether an acute bout of exercise (elevated fat oxidation state) affects lipid droplet size. PURPOSE: To determine the effects of a single bout of endurance exercise on skeletal muscle lipid content and lipid droplet size. METHODS: Ten healthy male volunteers (Mean ± SEM; age: 23.11 ± 0.98; BMI: 23.27 ± 0.50 kg/m2 ...


A Comparison Of High-Intensity Interval Exercise And Continuous Moderate-Intensity Exercise On Postprandial Metabolism: A Pilot Analysis., David J. Buckley, Broderick L. Dickerson, James R. Rowe Jr Feb 2019

A Comparison Of High-Intensity Interval Exercise And Continuous Moderate-Intensity Exercise On Postprandial Metabolism: A Pilot Analysis., David J. Buckley, Broderick L. Dickerson, James R. Rowe Jr

International Journal of Exercise Science: Conference Proceedings

Both moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICE) (performed for ≥ 1 hour) and high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) (performed for ≤ 30 minutes) has been reported to reduce the magnitude of postprandial lipemia and glycemia. It is unclear if low-volume MICE and HIIE performed for a similar duration and expending similar amounts of energy would have a comparable or different effect on postprandial lipemia or glycemia. PURPOSE: Examine the effects of low-volume MICE and HIIE on postprandial glucose, insulin, and triglyceride (TG) concentration following a mixed meal (MM) ingested at 0.5 hours and 15.5 hours post-exercise. METHODS: Recreationally active men (n = 7; age ...


Curcumin And Boswellia Serrata Supplementation Result In Reduced Inflammation Following Eccentric Leg Press Exercise, Asheal A. Davis, Elizabeth A. Tanner, Melody A. Gary, Brian K. Mcfarlin Feb 2019

Curcumin And Boswellia Serrata Supplementation Result In Reduced Inflammation Following Eccentric Leg Press Exercise, Asheal A. Davis, Elizabeth A. Tanner, Melody A. Gary, Brian K. Mcfarlin

International Journal of Exercise Science: Conference Proceedings

Repetitive exercise on consecutive days is a key component of many long-term training plans. This type of exercise results in muscle inflammation and soreness that limits the capacity to sustain exercise at a high effort. Several dietary polyphenols have the capacity to manage inflammation and thus supplementation may be an effective component of a long-term training plan. PURPOSE:The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of combined oral supplementation with curcumin and boswellia serrata prior to and following three consecutive days of intense interval exercise. METHODS:All protocols were approved by the University IRB committee and participants ...


Inflammation-Associated Rna Signaling Is Reduced Following A Half-Marathon Race When Supplemented With Curcumin And A Pomegranate Extract, Elizabeth A. Tanner, Melody A. Gary, Asheal A. Davis, Brian K. Mcfarlin Feb 2019

Inflammation-Associated Rna Signaling Is Reduced Following A Half-Marathon Race When Supplemented With Curcumin And A Pomegranate Extract, Elizabeth A. Tanner, Melody A. Gary, Asheal A. Davis, Brian K. Mcfarlin

International Journal of Exercise Science: Conference Proceedings

Prolonged endurance exercise performances provide a unique model for investigating the combined effects of oxidative stress and eccentric muscle contraction on differential gene expression with nutritional interventions known to blunt inflammation. Dietary polyphenols (i.e. curcumin, pomegranate, etc.) have been shown to reduce exercise-induced inflammation associated mRNA and protein expression with fewer side effects than NSAIDs. PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of combined curcumin (500-1000 mg/d; Longvida®) and pomegranate extract (500-1000 mg/d; Pomella®) supplement for 30-days on mRNA expression following a half marathon race. METHODS: All protocols were approved by the University IRB committee and participants gave written ...


Using Dietary Polyphenols To Manage Post Exercise Inflammation, Melody A. Gary, Elizabeth A. Tanner, Brian K. Mcfarlin, Asheal A. Davis Feb 2019

Using Dietary Polyphenols To Manage Post Exercise Inflammation, Melody A. Gary, Elizabeth A. Tanner, Brian K. Mcfarlin, Asheal A. Davis

International Journal of Exercise Science: Conference Proceedings

Individuals participating in prolonged exercise sessions and associated training experience regular inflammation and muscle soreness. Natural products with known anti-inflammatory and/or oxidative stress blocking effects represent attractive options to traditional NSAID treatments. PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of combined curcumin (500-1000 mg/d; Longvida®), pomegranate extract (500-1000 mg/d; Pomella®), and Methylsulfonylmethane (500-1000 mg/d; OptiMSM®) supplement for 30-days on protein inflammatory biomarkers, inflammation-associated RNA, and oxidative. METHODS: All protocols were approved by the University IRB committee and participants gave written informed consent. Subjects were supplemented for 30-d prior to the half marathon race. Venous blood samples were collected ...


Effects Of Caffeine Dose Timing On The Time-Course Of Diuresis During Sodium-Aided Hyperhydration, Phillip D. Wickenheiser, Shelby Greene, Elizaveta Roslanova, Dave Morris Feb 2019

Effects Of Caffeine Dose Timing On The Time-Course Of Diuresis During Sodium-Aided Hyperhydration, Phillip D. Wickenheiser, Shelby Greene, Elizaveta Roslanova, Dave Morris

International Journal of Exercise Science: Conference Proceedings

When used alone, both caffeine and sodium-aided hyperhydration (SAH) can be ergogenic. Caffeine, when used with SAH, promotes diuresis, but hyperhydration can be achieved, albeit at lower levels than with SAH alone. In previous caffeine and SAH work, caffeine induced diuresis occurred only within 15 min of consumption of a bolus of caffeine, NaCl, and H2O. This suggests that caffeine-induced diuresis may occur for only 15 min after its consumption, and/or that the diuretic effect of caffeine is dependent on hydration levels. Caffeine has been shown to be ergogenic when taken as little as 5 min before ...


Effects Of Caffeine Dose Timing On Total Urine Excretion During Sodium-Aided Hyperhydration Protocols, Shelby L. Greene, David M. Morris Feb 2019

Effects Of Caffeine Dose Timing On Total Urine Excretion During Sodium-Aided Hyperhydration Protocols, Shelby L. Greene, David M. Morris

International Journal of Exercise Science: Conference Proceedings

When used alone, both caffeine and sodium-aided hyperhydration (SAH) can be ergogenic. Although caffeine use in conjunction with SAH promotes diuresis, hyperhydration can be achieved, albeit at lower levels compared to SAH alone. Previous caffeine and SAH work has suggested most of the caffeine induced diuresis occurs within 15 min of consumption of a bolus of caffeine, sodium and water. This response suggests that caffeine-induces diuresis for only 15 min following its consumption, and/or that the diuretic effects of caffeine are dependent on hydration levels. PURPOSE: To determine the effects of caffeine, consumed at different time-points, on diuresis during ...


Muscle Glycogen Depletion And Replenishment: A Meta-Analytic Review, Ian Macklin, Frank Wyatt, Malaeni Ramos, Grant Ralston Feb 2019

Muscle Glycogen Depletion And Replenishment: A Meta-Analytic Review, Ian Macklin, Frank Wyatt, Malaeni Ramos, Grant Ralston

International Journal of Exercise Science: Conference Proceedings

Muscle glycogen depletion and replenishment rates have been associated with sport performance, biomechanical movement and immune system alterations. PURPOSE: the purpose of this study is to determine, through a meta-analytic review, the mechanisms of muscle glycogen depletion and replenishment. METHODS: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis research design was utilized. Inclusion-exclusion criteria were the following: Glycogen depletion- replenishment studies; subjects in studies had no pathologies; human and animal studies were accepted; Studies with diet manipulation were accepted; articles accepted for coding were peer reviewed, original publications. Coded studies were summarized and statistically analyzed. Coded variables were presented as means and ...


Antibiotics Reduce While Forced-Exercise Increases Inflammation In The Small Intestine, P. Wisniewski, L. Joseph, S. Lightfoot, R. Dowden, J. Guers, S. Vatner, S. Campbell May 2018

Antibiotics Reduce While Forced-Exercise Increases Inflammation In The Small Intestine, P. Wisniewski, L. Joseph, S. Lightfoot, R. Dowden, J. Guers, S. Vatner, S. Campbell

International Journal of Exercise Science: Conference Proceedings

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Comparison Of Measured And Predicted Resting Energy Expenditure In Obese Pre-Bariatric Surgery Patients, C. Wenrich, S. Jamieson, C. Wood, A. Cook, C. Still, L. Haile, C. Dixon, J. Andreacci May 2018

Comparison Of Measured And Predicted Resting Energy Expenditure In Obese Pre-Bariatric Surgery Patients, C. Wenrich, S. Jamieson, C. Wood, A. Cook, C. Still, L. Haile, C. Dixon, J. Andreacci

International Journal of Exercise Science: Conference Proceedings

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The Effect Of Differing Fluid Replacement Strategies On Running Performance, S. Wendelschaefer, J. Gordon, M. Healey, E. Koehler, M. Tonkovich, P. Prins May 2018

The Effect Of Differing Fluid Replacement Strategies On Running Performance, S. Wendelschaefer, J. Gordon, M. Healey, E. Koehler, M. Tonkovich, P. Prins

International Journal of Exercise Science: Conference Proceedings

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Effects Of Energy Drinks On Resting Cardiovascular Measures, W. Peveler, A. Bosak, G. Sanders May 2018

Effects Of Energy Drinks On Resting Cardiovascular Measures, W. Peveler, A. Bosak, G. Sanders

International Journal of Exercise Science: Conference Proceedings

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The Effects On Caffeine On Cycling Performance In College-Aged Males, A. Mross, K. Heston, S. Myles, S. Munford, E. Sauers, S. Davis May 2018

The Effects On Caffeine On Cycling Performance In College-Aged Males, A. Mross, K. Heston, S. Myles, S. Munford, E. Sauers, S. Davis

International Journal of Exercise Science: Conference Proceedings

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Influence Of Acute Resistance Exercise On Glycemic Control, H. Miller, D. Hauck, S. Harting, A. Rightmyer, G. Hirsch, W. Braun May 2018

Influence Of Acute Resistance Exercise On Glycemic Control, H. Miller, D. Hauck, S. Harting, A. Rightmyer, G. Hirsch, W. Braun

International Journal of Exercise Science: Conference Proceedings

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Comparison Of Energy Expenditure Between Hacky Sack And Elliptical Cross Trainer, C. Lynch, B. Meister, A. Schwartz, C. Revel, R. Sapp, K. Lynch, A. Naboulsi, N. Carlini, Z. Valenti, W. Fountain, M. Ouarantillo, S. Mazzetti May 2018

Comparison Of Energy Expenditure Between Hacky Sack And Elliptical Cross Trainer, C. Lynch, B. Meister, A. Schwartz, C. Revel, R. Sapp, K. Lynch, A. Naboulsi, N. Carlini, Z. Valenti, W. Fountain, M. Ouarantillo, S. Mazzetti

International Journal of Exercise Science: Conference Proceedings

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Age And Waist Circumference Modify Discordance Of Body Fat Measurements In Adults With Obesity, S. Jamieson, C. Wood, C. Still, J. Seiler, A. Cook, P. Benotti, J. Andreacci, C. Dixon May 2018

Age And Waist Circumference Modify Discordance Of Body Fat Measurements In Adults With Obesity, S. Jamieson, C. Wood, C. Still, J. Seiler, A. Cook, P. Benotti, J. Andreacci, C. Dixon

International Journal of Exercise Science: Conference Proceedings

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The Influence Of Caffeine On Resistance Exercise Performance And Post-Exercise Glucose Control, D. Hauck, W. Braun May 2018

The Influence Of Caffeine On Resistance Exercise Performance And Post-Exercise Glucose Control, D. Hauck, W. Braun

International Journal of Exercise Science: Conference Proceedings

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Metabolic And Microbial Responses To Exercise In C57 Wild-Type And Adenylyl Cyclase 5 Ko Mice, R. Dowden, P. Wisniewski, J. Guers, M. Oydanich, S. Vatner, L. Mcguinness, L. Kerkhof, S. Campbell May 2018

Metabolic And Microbial Responses To Exercise In C57 Wild-Type And Adenylyl Cyclase 5 Ko Mice, R. Dowden, P. Wisniewski, J. Guers, M. Oydanich, S. Vatner, L. Mcguinness, L. Kerkhof, S. Campbell

International Journal of Exercise Science: Conference Proceedings

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Evaluation Of The Accuracy Of The Acsm Walking Metabolic Equations During The Bruce Protocol, K. Brennan, P. Fitzgerald, K. Wisniewski May 2018

Evaluation Of The Accuracy Of The Acsm Walking Metabolic Equations During The Bruce Protocol, K. Brennan, P. Fitzgerald, K. Wisniewski

International Journal of Exercise Science: Conference Proceedings

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Beetroot Juice Supplementation Lowers Oxygen Cost Of Vigorous Intensity Aerobic Exercise In Trained Endurance Athletes, N. Ashton, E. Lind, J. Fiddler, R. Fiddler May 2018

Beetroot Juice Supplementation Lowers Oxygen Cost Of Vigorous Intensity Aerobic Exercise In Trained Endurance Athletes, N. Ashton, E. Lind, J. Fiddler, R. Fiddler

International Journal of Exercise Science: Conference Proceedings

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Potential Diurnal Variation In Dual X-Ray Absorptiometry Collected Skeletal Muscle Mass Measures: A Pilot Study, Jeb F. Struder, Daniel Newmire Feb 2018

Potential Diurnal Variation In Dual X-Ray Absorptiometry Collected Skeletal Muscle Mass Measures: A Pilot Study, Jeb F. Struder, Daniel Newmire

International Journal of Exercise Science: Conference Proceedings

Skeletal muscle mass (SKMM) is ~30 to ~40 % of total body weight. Measuring SKMM is an important assessment for both exercise and nutritional research. There is biological variation in dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) estimates related to subject presentation, changes in tissue hydration, as well as GI tract contents. The consumption of water alone may increase lean mass estimates. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to examine how normal daily activities (e.g. eating, sleeping, exercise) may influence SKMM measures using DXA. METHODS: (Mean ± SEM; n = 8; ht: 170.2 ± 8.1 cm; wt: 70.6 ± 5.1 kg; body ...


Exercise-Induced Improvement In Oxygen Consumption At Ventilatory Threshold Is Unaffected By Family History Of Diabetes, Christopher Figueroa, Manuel Amador, Cesar Meza, Mario Garcia, Sudip Bajpeyi Feb 2018

Exercise-Induced Improvement In Oxygen Consumption At Ventilatory Threshold Is Unaffected By Family History Of Diabetes, Christopher Figueroa, Manuel Amador, Cesar Meza, Mario Garcia, Sudip Bajpeyi

International Journal of Exercise Science: Conference Proceedings

A family history of type 2 diabetes (FH+) has been reported to increase the risk for insulin resistance. However it is unknown whether a family history of diabetes impairs lipid oxidation capacity. PURPOSE: To investigate if FH impacts lipid oxidation capacity and oxygen consumption at ventilatory threshold (VT). Additionally, we investigated the effects of 8 weeks of combined exercise training on resting lipid oxidation and oxygen consumption at VT in healthy, sedentary, Mexican American males with and without (FH-) a family history of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: 19 sedentary, normoglycemic, Mexican American males underwent 8 weeks of combined exercise training ...


Assessment Of Total Plasma Macronutrient Contents By Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Following High-Fat Diet And Exercise, Jarrett Walbolt, Arish Bheraiya, Susanna Hamsley, Raegan Chunn, David Gresch, Olademehin Latunde, Sung Kim, Yunsuk Koh Feb 2018

Assessment Of Total Plasma Macronutrient Contents By Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Following High-Fat Diet And Exercise, Jarrett Walbolt, Arish Bheraiya, Susanna Hamsley, Raegan Chunn, David Gresch, Olademehin Latunde, Sung Kim, Yunsuk Koh

International Journal of Exercise Science: Conference Proceedings

High fat-low carbohydrate (HFLC) diets are a common approach to enhancing overall health and performance in endurance runners. Total macronutrient contents in plasma may change in response to diet and exercise. PURPOSE: To examine the responses of total plasma macronutrient contents in trained males following dietary manipulation in combination with aerobic exercise. METHODS: Eight distance runners that typically consumed high-carbohydrate (HC) diets switched to a HFLC diet for 3 weeks. The caloric intake during the HFLC intervention derived from 70% fats with ≤ 50g of carbohydrates. Participants maintained their normal fitness routines. Indoor treadmill exercise for 50 minutes at varying race ...


Fractional Synthetic Rate And Markers Of Protein Turnover Are Altered In The Diaphragms Of Cachectic Mice, Conner A. Benson, Nicholas P. Greene, Jacob L. Brown, Megan E. Rosa-Caldwell, Tyrone A. Washington, Richard A. Perry, Michael P. Wiggs Feb 2018

Fractional Synthetic Rate And Markers Of Protein Turnover Are Altered In The Diaphragms Of Cachectic Mice, Conner A. Benson, Nicholas P. Greene, Jacob L. Brown, Megan E. Rosa-Caldwell, Tyrone A. Washington, Richard A. Perry, Michael P. Wiggs

International Journal of Exercise Science: Conference Proceedings

Cancer cachexia, a wasting syndrome characterized by rapid skeletal muscle wasting and fat loss, directly accounts for up to 20-40% of cancer-related deaths. All muscles, including respiratory muscles, are susceptible to atrophy because cancer cachexia is a systemic disease. Atrophy of the primary breathing muscle, the diaphragm, can lead to respiratory distress, which is commonly associated with a cachectic phenotype. Indeed, the diaphragm is more susceptible to atrophy in certain conditions, but little is known about the effects of cancer-cachexia on protein turnover in the diaphragm. Therefore, investigations into the alterations in protein turnover could provide insight to the molecular ...