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Full-Text Articles in Education

Health + Equality + School Engagement: Scenarios Usa Reinvents Sex Education, Rafael Mazin, Andrea Lynch Jan 2014

Health + Equality + School Engagement: Scenarios Usa Reinvents Sex Education, Rafael Mazin, Andrea Lynch

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

This issue of Quality/Calidad/Qualité highlights the experience of Scenarios USA, an innovative nonprofit program that has integrated a gender and rights perspective—and a critical-thinking approach—into sex education curricula, while fostering new pedagogies and greater awareness among teachers. Scenarios USA approaches sexual health not as a stand-alone issue but as intertwined with young people’s overall lives and agency. As such, the organization’s “sex ed” work is part of a broader strategy of fostering self-expression, leadership, and advocacy among youth, especially among those living in marginalized communities. The approach has made Scenarios a vanguard in the ...


Financial Inclusion Of Female Garment Workers, Sigma Ainul, Md. Irfan Hossain, Sajeda Amin, Ubaidur Rob Jan 2013

Financial Inclusion Of Female Garment Workers, Sigma Ainul, Md. Irfan Hossain, Sajeda Amin, Ubaidur Rob

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

Since the 1980s rapid growth in the manufacturing of ready-made garments for export has created new opportunities for women industrial workers in Bangladesh. This study explores ways of improving the financial capabilities of these young, inexperienced wage earners through a targeted program of financial education. It also aims to identify scalable financing models that can be replicated to increase the opportunities of garment workers. The project culminated in a workshop to share results from the research study and to elicit discussions and recommendations based on the findings of the study. Recommendations include a preference for in-factory training in peri-urban areas ...


The Contracting World Of Girls At Puberty: Violence And Gender-Divergent Access To The Public Sphere Among Adolescents In South Africa, Kelly Hallman, Nora Kenworthy, Judith A. Diers, Nick Swan, Bashi Devnarain Jan 2013

The Contracting World Of Girls At Puberty: Violence And Gender-Divergent Access To The Public Sphere Among Adolescents In South Africa, Kelly Hallman, Nora Kenworthy, Judith A. Diers, Nick Swan, Bashi Devnarain

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

This Population Council working paper describes a participatory mapping project undertaken with single-sex groups of grade 5 and grade 8–9 children in urban and rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. At grade 5, female self-defined community areas were equal to or larger in size than those of males in both sites. However, wide gender divergence in access to the public sphere was found among grade 8–9 children. Although curtailed spatial access, especially in urban areas, is intended to protect post-pubescent girls, grade 8–9 girls reported most spaces in their small navigable areas unsafe. Reducing girls’ access to the public ...


Challenges Facing The Egyptian Education System: Access, Quality, And Inequality, Caroline Krafft Jan 2012

Challenges Facing The Egyptian Education System: Access, Quality, And Inequality, Caroline Krafft

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

This brief analyzes and summarizes young people's responses to the 2009 Survey of Young People in Egypt (SYPE) to identify the greatest challenges facing the Egyptian educational system, focusing specifically on primary through secondary schooling. Results show that access to school has improved, but some youth, especially females in rural Upper Egypt, remain outside the school system and are increasingly marginalized. The Egyptian school system is delivering low-quality education that is irrelevant to the labor market and has problems with repetition, absenteeism, and drop out which reduce the efficiency of the education system. Unequal distribution of resources in the ...


Is Early Childhood Care And Education A Good Investment For Egypt? Estimates Of Educational Impacts, Costs, And Benefits [Arabic], Caroline Krafft Jan 2012

Is Early Childhood Care And Education A Good Investment For Egypt? Estimates Of Educational Impacts, Costs, And Benefits [Arabic], Caroline Krafft

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

This summary details the impact of early childhood education in Egypt. The results show that early childhood care and education has an impact on educational attainment that is both statistically significant and sizeable. Such interventions increase overall educational attainment by approximately one year, primarily due to decreased primary and preparatory drop out. The impact on educational attainment is reflected in improved school performance, such as higher test scores, decreased grade repetition, and improvements in school tracking, during the early years. Investments in early childhood education can be a powerful approach to improving educational outcomes, and the research suggests that increases ...


Challenges Facing The Egyptian Education System: Access, Quality, And Inequality [Arabic], Caroline Krafft Jan 2012

Challenges Facing The Egyptian Education System: Access, Quality, And Inequality [Arabic], Caroline Krafft

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

This brief analyzes and summarizes young people's responses to the 2009 Survey of Young People in Egypt (SYPE) to identify the greatest challenges facing the Egyptian educational system, focusing specifically on primary through secondary schooling. Results show that access to school has improved, but some youth, especially females in rural Upper Egypt, remain outside the school system and are increasingly marginalized. The Egyptian school system is delivering low-quality education that is irrelevant to the labor market and has problems with repetition, absenteeism, and drop out which reduce the efficiency of the education system. Unequal distribution of resources in the ...


Is Early Childhood Care And Education A Good Investment For Egypt? Estimates Of Educational Impacts, Costs, And Benefits, Caroline Krafft Jan 2012

Is Early Childhood Care And Education A Good Investment For Egypt? Estimates Of Educational Impacts, Costs, And Benefits, Caroline Krafft

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

This brief examines Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) in Egypt. Findings suggest that expansion of ECCE is a good investment. Providing kindergarten to all Egyptian children, and particularly those from disadvantaged backgrounds, could be an important step toward greater equality, efficiency, and attainment in the education system.


The Power Of Girls' Schooling For Young Women's Empowerment And Reproductive Health, Batool Zaidi, Zeba Sathar, Minhaj Ul Haque, Fareeha Zafar Jan 2012

The Power Of Girls' Schooling For Young Women's Empowerment And Reproductive Health, Batool Zaidi, Zeba Sathar, Minhaj Ul Haque, Fareeha Zafar

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

This report comprises evidence that increases our understanding of girls' schooling in Pakistan. It is useful for policymakers, donors, civil society, program/intervention designers, evaluators, and researchers alike. The findings of this report should be used to guide points of influence and policies on girls' education in Pakistan.


Increasing Opportunities To Delay Marriage And Promote Schooling: Results From A Baseline Survey In Rural Tanzania, Eunice N. Muthengi, Annabel Erulkar Jan 2012

Increasing Opportunities To Delay Marriage And Promote Schooling: Results From A Baseline Survey In Rural Tanzania, Eunice N. Muthengi, Annabel Erulkar

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

This research brief describes girls' experience of early marriage, education, and sexual behavior in the Tabora region of Tanzania. Research shows that a considerable proportion of girls married early, have only limited discussions on health issues with their spouses, experience intimate partner violence, and have high unmet need for family planning. Tabora Development Foundation Trust, in partnership with the Population Council, is implementing strategies—including community awareness, support to get girls back into school and keep them there, and conditional transfers—to increase marriage age in the rural Tabora region. The goal is to identify effective, sustainable, and cost-effective approaches ...


Addis Birhan Wendoch ('New Light Boys'): Working With Boys And Young Men To Create Healthier Futures, Woldemariam Girma, Diane Rubino, Annabel Erulkar, Worku Ambelu, Ayenechew Kerie Jan 2012

Addis Birhan Wendoch ('New Light Boys'): Working With Boys And Young Men To Create Healthier Futures, Woldemariam Girma, Diane Rubino, Annabel Erulkar, Worku Ambelu, Ayenechew Kerie

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

The Population Council and the Ethiopian Ministry of Women, Children, and Youth Affairs designed Addis Birhan Wendoch to impart life skills and promote gender-equitable, nonviolent, and healthy behaviors among boys and young men aged 10 to 24. The program helps out-of school boys and young men in Ethiopia navigate toward a healthier future by providing them with trained, compassionate mentors and safe environments in which they can find the support needed to share ideas and take positive actions. Through frank and open discussions, boys have the opportunity to get the facts on a range of essential topics from financial literacy ...


Berhane Hewan ('Light For Eve'): Increasing Opportunities To Delay Marriage And Promote Schooling, Annabel Erulkar, Eunice N. Muthengi Jan 2012

Berhane Hewan ('Light For Eve'): Increasing Opportunities To Delay Marriage And Promote Schooling, Annabel Erulkar, Eunice N. Muthengi

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

This policy brief describes the findings of a pilot study on girls’ experience of early marriage, education, and sexual behavior in rural Amhara Region, Ethiopia. The brief also discusses efforts in the region to delay marriage and promote girls’ schooling. The Amhara Bureau of Women, Children and Youth Affairs and the Population Council pilot-tested a program to delay marriage and support schooling in rural Amhara Region. The program, entitled Berhane Hewan (Amharic for “Light for Eve”), included community conversations, support for remaining in school, and conditional cash transfers if girls remained unmarried and in school for the duration of the ...


Biruh Tesfa ('Bright Future') Program Provides Domestic Workers, Orphans And Migrants In Urban Ethiopia With Social Support, Hiv Education And Skills, Annabel Erulkar, Herma Gebru, Gebeyehu Mekonnen Jan 2011

Biruh Tesfa ('Bright Future') Program Provides Domestic Workers, Orphans And Migrants In Urban Ethiopia With Social Support, Hiv Education And Skills, Annabel Erulkar, Herma Gebru, Gebeyehu Mekonnen

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

This brief provides details about the Biruh Tesfa (“Bright Future”) program in Ethiopia established by the former Ethiopia Ministry of Youth and Sports (currently Ministry of Women, Children and Youth) with technical assistance from the Population Council. Biruh Tesfa aims to address the social isolation of adolescent girls by building their social capital and participation and giving them access to basic literacy, life skills, and HIV and reproductive health information. This evaluation of Biruh Tesfa shows early success and the program, which was initially pilot-tested in the low-income area of Mercato in Addis Ababa, was ultimately expanded to four urban ...


When Girls' Lives Matter: Ending Forced And Early Marriage In Cameroon, Sajeda Amin, Andrea Lynch Jan 2011

When Girls' Lives Matter: Ending Forced And Early Marriage In Cameroon, Sajeda Amin, Andrea Lynch

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

The program presented in this case study, the Association for the Struggle Against Violence Against Women (ALVF, from its name in French) in Cameroon, provides counseling, language and literacy training, economic support, and empowerment activities for girls who have fled (or been thrown out of) early or forced marriages to help them overcome their adversities. ALVF also seeks to bring about broader social change by highlighting in the public sphere—as well as among parents and husbands—the plight of girls who were married early and/or by force. Hence, ALVF’s prevention strategy is based on a broad understanding ...


Understanding Adolescent Girls' Protection Strategies Against Hiv: An Exploratory Study In Urban Lusaka, Joseph Simbaya, Martha Brady, Allison Stone, Maya Vaughan-Smith Jan 2010

Understanding Adolescent Girls' Protection Strategies Against Hiv: An Exploratory Study In Urban Lusaka, Joseph Simbaya, Martha Brady, Allison Stone, Maya Vaughan-Smith

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

This report provides a descriptive analysis of how adolescent girls and young women in Lusaka, Zambia construct notions of risk and safety, perceive reproductive health and HIV risks, and identify behaviors and actions they can take to protect themselves. Findings suggests stronger social support networks, improved access to the range of reproductive health services and products, and safe and supportive spaces for girls would be beneficial. The report points to several areas for potential program attention, including more focused attention on the structural and environmental drivers of girls’ vulnerability.


Schooling And Conflict In Darfur: A Snapshot Of Basic Education Services For Displaced Children, Cynthia B. Lloyd, Safaa El-Kogali, Jenny Perlman Robinson, Johanna Rankin, Ali Rashed Jan 2010

Schooling And Conflict In Darfur: A Snapshot Of Basic Education Services For Displaced Children, Cynthia B. Lloyd, Safaa El-Kogali, Jenny Perlman Robinson, Johanna Rankin, Ali Rashed

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

Schooling and Conflict in Darfur, a joint project of the Population Council and the Women's Refugee Commission, is a report based on a 2008 survey designed to provide a more accurate picture of the state of formal and non-formal education for displaced children of primary school age (6-14) in North and West Darfur. The findings are based on a scientifically selected sample of internally displaced persons (IDP) communities in North and West Darfur. The goal of the report is to provide donors, policymakers, and practitioners information to help plan and implement effective, targeted education programs for internally displaced children ...


White Paper: Enhancing Adolescent Financial Capabilities Through Financial Education In Bangladesh, Sajeda Amin, Laila Rahman, Sigma Ainul, Ubaidur Rob, Bushra Zaman, Rinat Akter Jan 2010

White Paper: Enhancing Adolescent Financial Capabilities Through Financial Education In Bangladesh, Sajeda Amin, Laila Rahman, Sigma Ainul, Ubaidur Rob, Bushra Zaman, Rinat Akter

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

This white paper addresses a growing concern about the problems of financial exclusion of the poor. It is based on a scoping study and a pilot program providing financial education to adolescents in Bangladesh. The Population Council worked with BRAC and Underprivileged Children’s Educational Program (UCEP) to expand these life skills. The result and tools of the study inspired UCEP to commit introduction of financial literacy in 52 schools for the under privileged children from next year while BRAC expressed interest to accumulate resources and initiate discussions with their donors and consortium partners for gradually introducing the financial literacy ...


Youth In India: Situation And Needs 2006-2007, Andhra Pradesh, International Institute For Population Sciences (Iips), Population Council Jan 2010

Youth In India: Situation And Needs 2006-2007, Andhra Pradesh, International Institute For Population Sciences (Iips), Population Council

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

This report is the result of a sub-national study undertaken by the International Institute for Population Sciences, Mumbai and the Population Council, New Delhi, as part of a project to collect information on key transitions experienced by youth in India, including those related to education, work force participation, sexual activity, marriage, health and civic participation; the magnitude and patterns of young people’s sexual and reproductive practices before, within and outside of marriage as well as related knowledge, decision-making and attitudes. The project was implemented in six states of India: Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, and Tamil Nadu.


Ethiopia Gender Survey: A Study In Seven Regions, Annabel Erulkar, Abebaw Ferede, Worku Ambelu, Woldemariam Girma, Helen Amdemikael, Behailu Gebremedhin, Berhanu Legesse, Ayehualem Tameru, Messay Teferi Jan 2010

Ethiopia Gender Survey: A Study In Seven Regions, Annabel Erulkar, Abebaw Ferede, Worku Ambelu, Woldemariam Girma, Helen Amdemikael, Behailu Gebremedhin, Berhanu Legesse, Ayehualem Tameru, Messay Teferi

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

“Ethiopia Gender Survey: A Study in Seven Regions” is a 2009 population-based survey. Over 8,000 Ethiopian women aged 15 to 49 were interviewed to examine a better understanding of HIV behavior, gender issues and reproductive health in Ethiopia. The information serves as the baseline survey for four initiatives in Ethiopia related to adolescent health and development, gender-based violence, women’s empowerment, and female genital cutting/ mutilation.


Education And Transition To Work Among Youth In Andhra Pradesh, International Institute For Population Sciences (Iips), Population Council Jan 2010

Education And Transition To Work Among Youth In Andhra Pradesh, International Institute For Population Sciences (Iips), Population Council

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

Looking at the current educational and employment situation of youth in Andhra Pradesh, this Population Council policy brief argues that significant investments in terms of appropriate policies and programs are required to enable the state to achieve the Millennium Development Goals of universal primary education and elimination of gender disparity in primary and secondary education, harness its demographic dividend, and enable its youth to participate in and benefit from global development. Notwithstanding the state’s existing policy commitments, findings indicate that several challenges remain. The brief recommends a number of policies and programs to overcome these challenges.


Building Programs To Address Child Marriage: The Berhane Hewan Experience In Ethiopia, Eunice N. Muthengi, Annabel Erulkar Jan 2010

Building Programs To Address Child Marriage: The Berhane Hewan Experience In Ethiopia, Eunice N. Muthengi, Annabel Erulkar

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

The development of a context-appropriate program to delay marriage in rural Ethiopia took place over many years and in stages. The program that ultimately became known as “Berhane Hewan” was developed by building an evidence base of understanding on the populations being served and developing partnerships between the Population Council and like-minded agencies with complementary expertise. The Berhane Hewan pilot demonstrated that significant impacts can be made on the social, educational, and health status of adolescent girls in a short period of time, through well designed and implemented support programs. However, high levels of exposure to all project components, make ...


L'Adolescence Des Filles Au Burkina Faso: Une Clé De Voûte Pour Le Changement Social, Martha Brady, Lydia Saloucou, Erica Chong Jan 2010

L'Adolescence Des Filles Au Burkina Faso: Une Clé De Voûte Pour Le Changement Social, Martha Brady, Lydia Saloucou, Erica Chong

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

Although a number of innovative programs have been created to meet their needs, Burkinabé adolescent girls continue to face many threats to their well-being. They still need considerable support and opportunities to improve their social and economic status and health status. This report, using a number of data sources, including Population Council studies and programs, and the Demographic and Health Survey of Burkina Faso, aims to provide a general overview of these young girls’ adolescence—the realities of life and the policy and program initiatives designed for them. The Population Council hopes that this report will make a significant contribution ...


Poverty, Marriage Timing, And Transitions To Adulthood In Nepal: A Longitudinal Analysis Using The Nepal Living Standards Survey, Ashish Bajracharya, Sajeda Amin Jan 2010

Poverty, Marriage Timing, And Transitions To Adulthood In Nepal: A Longitudinal Analysis Using The Nepal Living Standards Survey, Ashish Bajracharya, Sajeda Amin

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

This working paper examines the influence of household poverty experienced during early childhood on early marriage and outcomes in schooling and workforce participation during adolescence for girls in Nepal. Much of the evidence concerning these relationships is drawn from cross-sectional data that cannot be used, and has not been able, to address causality. This Population Council study uses longitudinal data from the Nepal Living Standards Survey (NLSS), a two-wave panel in which the waves were conducted eight years apart to address these questions. Analyzing the data by household-wealth quintiles reveals surprisingly nonlinear results indicating that these associations are largest for ...


The Nature Of Mothers' Work And Children's Schooling In Nepal: The Influence Of Income And Time Effects, Ashish Bajracharya Jan 2010

The Nature Of Mothers' Work And Children's Schooling In Nepal: The Influence Of Income And Time Effects, Ashish Bajracharya

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

Using nationally representative cross-sectional data from the Nepal Living Standards Survey, this Population Council working paper examines the influence of the nature of mothers’ work on Nepali children’s schooling outcomes. It analyses whether the engagement of mothers (and fathers) in nonagricultural work has significant consequences for their children’s school attendance and grade attainment, compared with these consequences when parents’ work is in traditional subsistence agriculture. Results indicate that children of parents who both work in the nonagriculture sector are significantly more likely to have attended or currently be attending school and have higher grade attainment, compared with children ...


Adolescent Girls In Urban Ethiopia: Vulnerability And Opportunity, Abebaw Ferede, Annabel Erulkar Jan 2009

Adolescent Girls In Urban Ethiopia: Vulnerability And Opportunity, Abebaw Ferede, Annabel Erulkar

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

In 2008, the Population Council undertook a survey of out-of-school, adolescent girls (aged 10 to 19) in slum areas of urban Ethiopia—a population that is highly vulnerable to HIV infection. The survey serves as a baseline for HIV prevention programs designed and implemented jointly by the Ministry of Youth and Sports, Regional Bureaus of Youth and Sports, and the Population Council. This study provided valuable direction for programmers interested in supporting adolescent girls, particularly early adolescent (10 to 14 years old) and out-of-school girls who are highly vulnerable and in need of dedicated attention. Special efforts are needed to ...


And How Will You Remember Me, My Child? Redefining Fatherhood In Turkey, Gary Barker, Deniz Dogruoz, Debbie Rogow Jan 2009

And How Will You Remember Me, My Child? Redefining Fatherhood In Turkey, Gary Barker, Deniz Dogruoz, Debbie Rogow

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

This issue of Quality/Calidad/Qualité profiles the AÇEV Father Support Program, a series of 13-week-long support groups for fathers across Turkey. Fatherhood (and men’s roles in the lives of children in general) is an ideal starting point for engaging men in gender equality for two key reasons: most men want to be involved in the lives of children, whether their own biological children or younger siblings, nieces, or nephews; and responsibility for the care of children is at the heart of gender inequality. The program reached nearly 10,000 men, teaching them about their role in the development ...


Educational Inequalities In The Midst Of Persistent Poverty: Diversity Across Africa In Educational Outcomes, Cynthia B. Lloyd, Paul C. Hewett Jan 2009

Educational Inequalities In The Midst Of Persistent Poverty: Diversity Across Africa In Educational Outcomes, Cynthia B. Lloyd, Paul C. Hewett

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

This working paper explores inequalities in education across sub-Saharan Africa, focusing mostly on primary school completion rates, with attention also given to literacy as a more proximate indicator of human capital acquisition. Using data from the Demographic and Health Surveys and UNICEF’s Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, we explore cross-country variations in primary school completion rates, gender and wealth gaps in education, and literacy rates in relation to one another and in relation to cross-country variations in national income per capita. While these data paint a picture of overall educational progress, particularly for girls, this general picture is juxtaposed against ...


Looking Beyond Universal Primary Education: Gender Differences In Time Use Among Children In Rural Bangladesh, Sajeda Amin, S. Chandrasekhar Jan 2009

Looking Beyond Universal Primary Education: Gender Differences In Time Use Among Children In Rural Bangladesh, Sajeda Amin, S. Chandrasekhar

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

This paper addresses gender equity in parents’ educational investments in children in a context of rising school attendance in rural Bangladesh. Using data from the nationally representative 2005 Bangladesh Adolescent Survey, we analyze correlates of time spent in school, studying outside school, and work, using a data set on time-use patterns of schoolgoing children and adolescents. We find that time spent in work varies inversely with the amount of time spent studying at home, while time at school shows no such association. We find support for two hypotheses regarding household influences on education: that time spent in school is insensitive ...


Marriage Considerations In Sending Girls To School In Bangladesh: Some Qualitative Evidence, Sajeda Amin, Lopita Huq Jan 2008

Marriage Considerations In Sending Girls To School In Bangladesh: Some Qualitative Evidence, Sajeda Amin, Lopita Huq

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

This working paper analyzes parents’ decisions about girls’ schooling in the context of marriage through in-depth exploration of case studies in two rural areas of northern Bangladesh. The villages are sites of a long-term community study from 1991 and 2002, a time when significant changes were underway, partly as a result of new school incentive programs introduced in 1994. The data show that the rise of dowry demands, a relatively recent practice that is barely a generation old among Muslims in these areas, asserts an important and independent influence on marriage decisions and indirectly influences decisions about schooling. The influence ...


Girls' Adolescence In Burkina Faso: A Pivot Point For Social Change, Martha Brady, Lydia Saloucou, Erica Chong Jan 2007

Girls' Adolescence In Burkina Faso: A Pivot Point For Social Change, Martha Brady, Lydia Saloucou, Erica Chong

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

As closer attention is paid to the lives of adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa, girls are found to be clearly disadvantaged, compared with their male counterparts. Burkinabé girls are frequently married at a young age, and more than one-third of married girls find themselves in polygamous unions as second or third wives, married to much older men. Understanding and recognizing girls’ realities is an important first step in planning appropriate and meaningful interventions for them. Girls who are unmarried, “promised,” engaged, or married face different constraints and merit different program approaches. This report by the Population Council aims to fill gaps ...


Teacher Absence As A Factor In Gender Inequalities In Access To Primary Schooling In Rural Pakistan, Sharon Ghuman, Cynthia B. Lloyd Jan 2007

Teacher Absence As A Factor In Gender Inequalities In Access To Primary Schooling In Rural Pakistan, Sharon Ghuman, Cynthia B. Lloyd

Poverty, Gender, and Youth

This paper examines the case of Pakistan, where primary school enrollment among girls in rural areas is substantially lower than among children in urban areas and boys in rural areas, owing to lack of access to government girls’ schools. The focus is on teacher absence as a further barrier to schooling for girls. Using data from a panel study of primary schooling in rural Punjab and NWFP in 1997 and 2004, the report examines trends in teacher absence, examine the factors correlated with teacher absence in the government and private sector, and assesses the implications of these absence levels for ...