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Full-Text Articles in Education

Relationship Between Health Risk And School Attendance Among Adolescents, Erin E. Centeio, Jessica Duncan Cance, Jeanne M. Barcelon, Darla M. Castelli Sep 2017

Relationship Between Health Risk And School Attendance Among Adolescents, Erin E. Centeio, Jessica Duncan Cance, Jeanne M. Barcelon, Darla M. Castelli

Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies

Background/Purpose: The prevalence of childhood obesity and school truancy are contemporary health issues, as millions of children do not attend school, when required. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between intent to be physically active, aerobic fitness, and school absences. Methods: Data from 1907 adolescents from the United States were collected during physical education. Participants completed a valid Theory of Planned Behavior survey and the FitnessGram, with the demographic data obtained from school records. Linear regressions controlling for gender, grade, free/reduced lunch, body mass index, and intent to be physically active were calculated. Results ...


The Have And Have Nots: An Ever-Present Digital Divide, Erin E. Centeio Jul 2017

The Have And Have Nots: An Ever-Present Digital Divide, Erin E. Centeio

Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies

This article brings attention to the digital divide that still exists between those who have access to the most recent technologies and those who do not. It describes how teachers can be more aware of this challenge before incorporating the use of technology into physical education and health classrooms.


Using Yoga To Reduce Stress And Bullying Behaviors Among Urban Youth, Erin E. Centeio, Laurel Whalen, Erica Thomas, Noel Kulik, Nate Mccaughtry Mar 2017

Using Yoga To Reduce Stress And Bullying Behaviors Among Urban Youth, Erin E. Centeio, Laurel Whalen, Erica Thomas, Noel Kulik, Nate Mccaughtry

Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies

Background/Purpose: Obesity and secondary conditions continue to disproportionally affect the health of children living in urban areas. Studies show that a lack of resources and physical activity-unfriendly communities discourage 60 minutes of daily activity, including strengthening exercises, as recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Using Social Ecological theory, the purpose of this study was to examine the multi-level influences of a yoga-based intervention on urban, inner city youth. Method: Using a mixed-methods design, ninety-three 3 - 5th grade students at five urban elementary schools participated in a ten-week yoga intervention. Analysis/Results: RM-ANOVA results revealed a ...


Implementing Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs: A Wayne State University Case Study, Erin E. Centeio, Nate Mccaughtry Jan 2017

Implementing Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs: A Wayne State University Case Study, Erin E. Centeio, Nate Mccaughtry

Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies

Comprehensive school physical activity programs (CSPAPs) have been highlighted by numerous public health and education agencies for their potential to improve the health and academic achievement of American youth. A CSPAP integrates physical activity throughout the school environment before, during and after school by engaging educators, children, families and community organizations. As the design, implementation and evaluation of effective CSPAP programs has inched forward, so has the call for physical education teacher education (PETE) programs to prepare the next generation of physical educators with the skills and knowledge needed to one day lead CSPAP efforts in K-12 schools. The purpose ...


Youth Program Adult Leader Supports And Development Of Adolescents’ Capacity For Agency, David Hansen, E. Whitney Moore, Nadia Jessop Jan 2017

Youth Program Adult Leader Supports And Development Of Adolescents’ Capacity For Agency, David Hansen, E. Whitney Moore, Nadia Jessop

Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies

No abstract provided.


Barriers, Motivations, And Preferences For Physical Activity Among Female African American Older Adults, Neha P. Gothe, Bradley J. Kendall Nov 2016

Barriers, Motivations, And Preferences For Physical Activity Among Female African American Older Adults, Neha P. Gothe, Bradley J. Kendall

Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, less than 11% of adults more than the age of 65 meet the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Among minority populations, only 5% of non-Hispanic Black older adults met the guidelines. Given our limited understanding of psychosocial and environmental factors that affect physical activity participation in these groups, the purpose of our focus groups was to investigate barriers, motivators, and preferences of physical activity for community-dwelling African American older adults. Three focus groups were conducted with female African American older adults (N = 20). Questions posed to each focus group targeted ...


Academic And Psychosocial Outcomes Of A Physical Activity Program With Fourth Graders: Variations Among Schools In Six Urban School Districts, Cheryl L. Somers, Erin E. Centeio, Noel Kulik, Alex Garn, Jeffry Martin, Bo Shen, Mariane Fahlman, Nathan A. Mccaughtry Oct 2016

Academic And Psychosocial Outcomes Of A Physical Activity Program With Fourth Graders: Variations Among Schools In Six Urban School Districts, Cheryl L. Somers, Erin E. Centeio, Noel Kulik, Alex Garn, Jeffry Martin, Bo Shen, Mariane Fahlman, Nathan A. Mccaughtry

Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies

The purpose was to examine academic achievement, school attachment, and peer acceptance before and after a comprehensive school-based physical activity program (CSPAP) with 378 children in 12 fourth-grade classrooms across six schools in primarily low-socioeconomic status (SES) districts of a large Midwestern metropolitan area. Both personal and normative rate of academic achievement improvement metrics were used. Overall, all students showed personal math and reading growth. However, effects varied by types of achievement indicator and comparison group, revealing noteworthy school-level demographic and implementation characteristics that are inextricably intertwined with program effectiveness and student growth. Implications, especially for minimizing generalizations, are significant.


Predicting Social Responsibility And Belonging In Urban After-School Physical Activity Programs With Underserved Children, Jeffry J. Martin, Brigid Byrd, Alex Garn, Nate Mccaughtry, Noel Kulik, Erin Centeio May 2016

Predicting Social Responsibility And Belonging In Urban After-School Physical Activity Programs With Underserved Children, Jeffry J. Martin, Brigid Byrd, Alex Garn, Nate Mccaughtry, Noel Kulik, Erin Centeio

Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies

The purpose of this cross sectional study was to predict feelings of belonging and social responsibility based on the motivational climate perceptions and contingent self-worth of children participating in urban after-school physical activity programs. Three-hundred and four elementary school students from a major Midwestern city participated. Based on multiple regression analyses we predicted 39 % of the variance in feelings of belonging largely due to perceptions of leadership emotional support and task climate and 31 % of the variance in feelings of social responsibility largely due to perceptions of a caring climate. Our findings support the importance of after school physical activity ...


Psychometric Properties Of The Abbreviated Perceived Motivational Climate In Exercise Questionnaire, E. Whitney G. Moore, Theresa C. Brown, Mary D. Fry Oct 2015

Psychometric Properties Of The Abbreviated Perceived Motivational Climate In Exercise Questionnaire, E. Whitney G. Moore, Theresa C. Brown, Mary D. Fry

Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies

The purpose of this study was to develop an abbreviated version of the Perceived Motivational Climate in Exercise Questionnaire (PMCEQ-A) to provide a more practical instrument for use in applied exercise settings. In the calibration step, 2 shortened versions’ measurement and latent model values were compared to each other and the original PMCEQ using a 3-group CFA invariance testing approach with previously collected exercise setting data (N = 5,427). Based on the model fit and reliability values, the 12-item version performed better than the 17-item version. The resultant 12-item PMCEQ-A’s CFA model estimates were then compared to the PMCEQ ...


Understanding Stress And Aggression Behaviors Among Urban Youth, Erin E. Centeio, Laurel Whalen, Noel Kulik, Erica Thomas, Nate Mccaughtry Jul 2015

Understanding Stress And Aggression Behaviors Among Urban Youth, Erin E. Centeio, Laurel Whalen, Noel Kulik, Erica Thomas, Nate Mccaughtry

Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies

Background/Objective: Youth violence, including school bullying and fighting, has become a global public health problem. Stress has been identified as a factor related to aggression (i.e., bullying behaviors, fighting, and anger), of which inner-city youth are particularly vulnerable given their often disproportionately high stress living environments. Stress and aggression are of particular concern in urban physical education (PE) given the proliferation of competitive, sport-based curricula, “culture of basketball”, and the often-limited supervision that takes place. Using the Social Ecological Model, the purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between stress and aggression in inner-city elementary PE ...


Yoga And Cognition: A Meta-Analysis Of Chronic And Acute Effects, Neha Gothe, Edward Mcauley Jul 2015

Yoga And Cognition: A Meta-Analysis Of Chronic And Acute Effects, Neha Gothe, Edward Mcauley

Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies

Objectives: To review and synthesize the existing literature on the effects of yoga on cognitive function by determining effect sizes that could serve as a platform to design, calculate statistical power, and implement future studies.

Methods: Through electronic databases, we identified acute studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of yoga that reported cognitive outcomes. Inclusion criteria included the following: use of an objective measure of cognition and sufficient data reported to estimate an effect size. The meta-analysis was conducted using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software. A random-effects model was used to calculate the overall weighted effect sizes, expressed as Hedge g.

Results ...


The Role And Impact Of Student Leadership On Participants In A Healthy Eating And Physical Activity Programme, Lila Gutuskey, Nate Mccaughtry, Bo Shen, Erin Centeio, Alex Garn Dec 2014

The Role And Impact Of Student Leadership On Participants In A Healthy Eating And Physical Activity Programme, Lila Gutuskey, Nate Mccaughtry, Bo Shen, Erin Centeio, Alex Garn

Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies

Objective: In the USA there are rising rates of obesity among children, at least in part due to unhealthy eating and physical inactivity. Implementing school-based health interventions with elementary school children focused on youth empowerment could lead to improved health environments and behaviours. The purpose of the present study was to examine elementary students’ perceptions of participating in a student-led school health improvement team. Empowerment theory guided the research, specifically the concept of including participants in programming to identify possible individual-level outcomes. Design: Qualitative research. Setting: One US elementary school formed a student-led school health improvement team, focusing on healthy ...


Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs: Characteristics Of Trained Teachers, Erin E. Centeio, Heather Erwin, Darla M. Castelli Oct 2014

Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs: Characteristics Of Trained Teachers, Erin E. Centeio, Heather Erwin, Darla M. Castelli

Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies

As public health concerns about physical inactivity and childhood obesity continue to rise, researchers are calling for interventions that comprehensively lead to more opportunities to participate in physical activity (PA). The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics and attitudes of trained physical education teachers during the implementation of a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program at the elementary level. Using a collective case study design, interviews, observations, field notes, open-ended survey questions, and an online forum monitoring guided the interpretation of teacher perceptions and development of emergent themes. Qualitative data analysis was conducted for each individual teacher and ...


Physical Activity Change Through Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs In Urban Elementary Schools, Erin E. Centeio, Nate Mccaughtry, Lila Gutuskey, Alex C. Garn, Cheryl Somers, Bo Shen, Jeffry J. Martin, Noel L, Kulik Oct 2014

Physical Activity Change Through Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs In Urban Elementary Schools, Erin E. Centeio, Nate Mccaughtry, Lila Gutuskey, Alex C. Garn, Cheryl Somers, Bo Shen, Jeffry J. Martin, Noel L, Kulik

Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies

he impact of Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs (CSPAPs) on urban children’s, educators’, and parents’ physical activity (PA) is relatively unknown. The purpose of this study was to explore overall changes in student, educator, and parent PA after an 8-month CSPAP-based program. This longitudinal, exploratory study implemented a CSPAP in 20 urban elementary schools, with six randomized for research. In-school PA was measured prepost for all fourth grade students using accelerometers. Parent and educator PA was self-reported using the IPAQ. RM-ANOVAs revealed significant prepost increases in minutes of student MVPA (P < .001). Parents significantly increased PA (P < .01) and although educators’ reported change in PA, it was not statistically significant (P = .50). This study provides unique information ...


Shear Force At Failure And Stiffness Of All-Inside Meniscal Repair Devices, William K. Kesto, Amanda O. Esquivel, David C. Markel Dec 2013

Shear Force At Failure And Stiffness Of All-Inside Meniscal Repair Devices, William K. Kesto, Amanda O. Esquivel, David C. Markel

Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies

The purpose of this study was to determine the failure load and stiffness of various meniscal repair devices. A total of 61 fresh-frozen porcine menisci (medial and lateral) were used for the study. A 30-mm vertical, full-thickness tear was created and repaired using one of three all-inside fixation devices and one inside–out repair in the vertical mattress pattern. We used the MaxBraid (Biomet, Warsaw, IN) inside–out suture as a control. The other devices tested were the Meniscal Cinch (Arthrex, Naples, FL), Ultra FasT-Fix (Smith & Nephew, Andover, MA), and the MaxFire MarXmen (Biomet, Warsaw, IN). In addition, two devices ...


The Acute Effects Of Yoga On Executive Function, Neha Gothe, Matthew B. Pontifex, Charles Hillman, Edward Mcauley May 2013

The Acute Effects Of Yoga On Executive Function, Neha Gothe, Matthew B. Pontifex, Charles Hillman, Edward Mcauley

Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies

Despite an increase in the prevalence of yoga exercise, research focusing on the relationship between yoga exercise and cognition is limited. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an acute yoga exercise session, relative to aerobic exercise, on cognitive performance. Methods: A repeated measures design was employed where 30 female college-aged participants (Mean age = 20.07, SD = 1.95) completed 3 counterbalanced testing sessions: a yoga exercise session, an aerobic exercise session, and a baseline assessment. The flanker and n-back tasks were used to measure cognitive performance. Results: Results showed that cognitive performance after the yoga ...


Concussion Management, Education, And Return-To-Play Policies In High Schools: A Survey Of Athletic Directors, Athletic Trainers, And Coaches, Amanda Esquivel, Sadiq Haque, Patrick Keating, Stephanie Marsh, Stephen Lemos May 2013

Concussion Management, Education, And Return-To-Play Policies In High Schools: A Survey Of Athletic Directors, Athletic Trainers, And Coaches, Amanda Esquivel, Sadiq Haque, Patrick Keating, Stephanie Marsh, Stephen Lemos

Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies

Background: Concussions represent 8.9% to 13.2% of all high school athletic injuries. How these injuries are managed is currently unknown.

Hypothesis: There are differences in concussion management and awareness between boys football, boys ice hockey, and boys and girls soccer.

Study Design: Descriptive epidemiologic study.

Methods: High school athletic directors were contacted via email and asked to complete an online survey with four separate sections for athletic directors, head coaches, team physicians, or certified athletic trainers.

Results: According to coaches, concussion awareness education was provided for football (97%), hockey (65%), and boys and girls soccer (57% and 47 ...


Underserved Adolescent Girls’ Physical Activity Intentions And Behaviors: Relationships With The Motivational Climate And Perceived Competence In Physical Education, Alex C. Garn, Nate Mccaughtry, Bo Shen, Jeffrey J. Martin, Mariane Fahlman May 2013

Underserved Adolescent Girls’ Physical Activity Intentions And Behaviors: Relationships With The Motivational Climate And Perceived Competence In Physical Education, Alex C. Garn, Nate Mccaughtry, Bo Shen, Jeffrey J. Martin, Mariane Fahlman

Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies

This study investigated underserved adolescent girls’ perceptions of the motivational climate in relationship to their perceptions of competence in urban physical education, self-reported physical activity, and future physical activity intentions. A total of two-hundred-seventy-six underserved (i.e., minority, urban, high poverty) adolescent girls completed questionnaires and a multi-step approach was used to test these relationships. First, a trichotomous model of the perceived motivational climate was tested using confirmatory factor analysis and results suggested a good fit of the data. Structural equation modeling analyses were then used to test both direct and indirect relationships between the perceived motivational climates in physical ...


Construct-Validity Of The Engagement With Challenge Measure For Adolescents: Structural- And Criterion-Validity Evidence, E. Whitney G. Moore, David Hansen Oct 2012

Construct-Validity Of The Engagement With Challenge Measure For Adolescents: Structural- And Criterion-Validity Evidence, E. Whitney G. Moore, David Hansen

Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies

For adolescents, engaging with challenge is a key developmental task, hypothesized to support development of adult-like competencies (e.g., agency and self-direction; Larson, 2000). This study aimed to assess the construct-validity (structural- and concurrent-validity) of a new self-report measure assessing adolescents’ engagement with challenge to help researchers understand how different settings and the conditions in these settings support adolescents’ development. The sample consisted of 337 adolescents in 10 FFA programs along with the adult advisors in each program. Adolescents completed a questionnaire, which included the Engagement with Challenge measure and the following criterion variables: number of contests completed, participation frequency ...


Urban High-School Girls' Sense Of Relatedness And Their Engagement In Physical Education, Bo Shen, Nate Mccaughtry, Jeffrey J. Martin, Mariane Fahlman, Alex C. Garn Jul 2012

Urban High-School Girls' Sense Of Relatedness And Their Engagement In Physical Education, Bo Shen, Nate Mccaughtry, Jeffrey J. Martin, Mariane Fahlman, Alex C. Garn

Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies

A sense of relatedness is individuals' views about themselves as connected to others and worthy of love and respect from others. Using the Self-System Model of Motivational Development as the framework, this study was designed to examine associations of urban high-school girls' relatedness toward teachers and peers with their behavioral and emotional engagements in physical education. Participants (N = 184, ages 15-18) completed questionnaires assessing relevant psychological and behavioral constructs while their teachers also completed corresponding measures during classes. Regression analyses revealed that relatedness toward teachers and peers had direct and interactive roles in both behavioral and emotional engagements. Although relatedness ...


Caudate Nucleus Volume Mediates The Link Between Cardiorespiratory Fitness And Cognitive Flexibility In Older Adults, Timothy D. Verstynen, Brighid Lynch, Destiny L. Miller, Michelle W. Voss, Ruchika Shaurya Prakash, Laura Chaddock, Chandramallika Basak, Amanda Szabo, Erin A. Olson, Thomas R. Wojcicki, Jason Fanning, Neha P. Gothe, Edward Mcauley, Arthur F. Kramer, Kirk I. Erickson Jun 2012

Caudate Nucleus Volume Mediates The Link Between Cardiorespiratory Fitness And Cognitive Flexibility In Older Adults, Timothy D. Verstynen, Brighid Lynch, Destiny L. Miller, Michelle W. Voss, Ruchika Shaurya Prakash, Laura Chaddock, Chandramallika Basak, Amanda Szabo, Erin A. Olson, Thomas R. Wojcicki, Jason Fanning, Neha P. Gothe, Edward Mcauley, Arthur F. Kramer, Kirk I. Erickson

Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies

The basal ganglia play a central role in regulating the response selection abilities that are critical formental flexibility. In neocortical areas, higher cardiorespiratory fitness levels are associated with increased gray matter volume, and these volumetric differences mediate enhanced cognitive performance in a variety of tasks. Here we examine whether cardiorespiratory fitness correlates with the volume of the subcortical nuclei that make up the basal ganglia and whether this relationship predicts cognitive flexibility in older adults. Structural MRI was used to determine the volume of the basal ganglia nuclei in a group of older, neurologically healthy individuals (mean age 66 years ...


Social Goals In Urban Physical Education: Relationships With Effort And Disruptive Behavior, Alex C. Garn, Nate Mccaughtry, Bo Shen, Jeffrey J. Martin, Mariane Fahlman Oct 2011

Social Goals In Urban Physical Education: Relationships With Effort And Disruptive Behavior, Alex C. Garn, Nate Mccaughtry, Bo Shen, Jeffrey J. Martin, Mariane Fahlman

Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies

This study investigated the relationships among four distinct types of social goals, effort, and disruptive behavior in urban physical education. Social responsibility, affiliation, recognition, status goals, along with effort and disruptive behavior in physical education were reported by high school physical education students (N = 314) from three urban schools. Findings from correlation and structural equa- tion modeling analyses revealed that social responsibility goals had a positive relationship with effort and an inverse relationship with disruptive behavior. Social status goals demonstrated a positive relationship with disruptive behavior and no relationship with effort. Social recognition goal results were mixed, as they had ...


Measuring Enjoyment Of Physical Activity In Older Adults: Invariance Of The Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (Paces) Across Group And Time, Sean P. Mullen, Erin A. Olson, Siobhan M. Phillips, Amanda N. Szabo, Thomas R. Wójcicki, Emily L. Mailey, Neha P. Gothe, Jason T. Fanning, Arthur F. Kramer, Edward Mcauley Sep 2011

Measuring Enjoyment Of Physical Activity In Older Adults: Invariance Of The Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (Paces) Across Group And Time, Sean P. Mullen, Erin A. Olson, Siobhan M. Phillips, Amanda N. Szabo, Thomas R. Wójcicki, Emily L. Mailey, Neha P. Gothe, Jason T. Fanning, Arthur F. Kramer, Edward Mcauley

Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies

The purpose of this study was to validate the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) in a sample of older adults. Participants within two different exercise groups were assessed at two time points, 6 months apart. Group and longitudinal invariance was established for a novel, 8-item version of the PACES. The shortened, psychometrically sound measure provides researchers and practitioners an expedited and reliable instrument for assessing the enjoyment of physical activity.


Psychosocial Aspects Of Physical Activity And Fitness In Special-Population, Minority Middle School Children, Jeffrey J. Martin, Nate Mccaughtry, Anne S. Murphy, Sara Flory, Kimberlydawn Wisdom Jan 2011

Psychosocial Aspects Of Physical Activity And Fitness In Special-Population, Minority Middle School Children, Jeffrey J. Martin, Nate Mccaughtry, Anne S. Murphy, Sara Flory, Kimberlydawn Wisdom

Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies

Special-population research predicting physical activity (PA) and fitness with minority middle school children from at-risk environments is rare. Hence, the purpose of our investigation was to evaluate the ability of important social cognitive and environment-based measures to predict PA and fitness with children with developmental delay, cognitive, and emotional impairments. Children (N = 89, ages 11-15) completed questionnaires assessing social cognitive and environment-based constructs, self report PA, and completed fitness testing. Correlational results supported some hypotheses. The descriptive and correlational results also indicated commonalities with similar research on non special-population minority middle school children from at-risk environments.


Developing A Caring Coaching Climate Fosters Confidence, E. Whitney G. Moore Oct 2010

Developing A Caring Coaching Climate Fosters Confidence, E. Whitney G. Moore

Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies

When athletes buy-in to a positive training climate their training effort, enjoyment, and desire to continue all increase. This article focuses on practical approaches coaches can use today to promote a safe, personalized, and respect-filled atmosphere – integral building blocks for developing a successful caring climate.


Multidimensional Physical Self-Concept Of Athletes With Physical Disabilities, Deborah R. Shapiro, Jeffrey J. Martin Oct 2010

Multidimensional Physical Self-Concept Of Athletes With Physical Disabilities, Deborah R. Shapiro, Jeffrey J. Martin

Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies

The purposes of this investigation were first to predict reported PA (physical activity) behavior and self-esteem using a multidimensional physical self-concept model and second to describe perceptions of multidimensional physical self-concept (e.g., strength, endurance, sport competence) among athletes with physical disabilities. Athletes (N = 36, M age = 16.11, SD age = 2.8) completed the Physical Self- Description Questionnaire. Participants reported mostly positive perceptions of self-esteem, global physical self-concept, endurance, body fat, sport competence, strength, flexibility, and physical activity (Ms ranging from 3.9 to 5.6 out of 6). Correlations indicated a number of significant relationships among self-esteem ...


Plasticity Of Brain Networks In A Randomized Intervention Trial Of Exercise Training In Older Adults, Michelle W. Voss, Ruchika S. Prakash, Kirk I. Erickson, Chandramallika Basak, Laura Chaddock, Jennifer S. Kim, Heloisa Alves, Susie Heo, Amanda N. Szabo, Siobhan M. White, Thomas R. Wójcicki, Emily L. Mailey, Neha Gothe, Erin A. Olson, Edward Mcauley, Arthur F. Kramer Aug 2010

Plasticity Of Brain Networks In A Randomized Intervention Trial Of Exercise Training In Older Adults, Michelle W. Voss, Ruchika S. Prakash, Kirk I. Erickson, Chandramallika Basak, Laura Chaddock, Jennifer S. Kim, Heloisa Alves, Susie Heo, Amanda N. Szabo, Siobhan M. White, Thomas R. Wójcicki, Emily L. Mailey, Neha Gothe, Erin A. Olson, Edward Mcauley, Arthur F. Kramer

Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies

Research has shown the human brain is organized into separable functional networks during rest and varied states of cognition, and that aging is associated with specific network dysfunctions. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine low-frequency (0.008 < f < 0.08 Hz) coherence of cognitively relevant and sensory brain networks in older adults who participated in a 1-year intervention trial, comparing the effects of aerobic and nonaerobic fitness training on brain function and cognition. Results showed that aerobic training improved the aging brain’s resting functional efficiency in higher-level cognitive networks. One year of walking increased functional connectivity between aspects of the frontal, posterior, and temporal cortices within the Default Mode Network and a Frontal Executive Network, two brain networks central to brain dysfunction in aging. Length of training was also an important factor. Effects in favor of the walking group were observed only after 12 months of training, compared to non-significant trends after 6 months. A non-aerobic stretching and toning group also showed increased functional connectivity in the DMN after 6 months and in a Frontal Parietal Network after 12 months, possibly reflecting experience-dependent plasticity. Finally, we found that changes in functional connectivity were behaviorally relevant. Increased functional connectivity was associated with greater improvement in executive function. Therefore the study provides the first evidence for exercise-induced functional plasticity in large-scale brain systems in the aging brain, using functional connectivity techniques, and offers new insight into the role of aerobic fitness in attenuating age-related brain dysfunction.


Validation Of The Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument: An Application Of The Korean Version, Yun Seok Choi, Minhee Seo, David Scott, Jeffrey J. Martin Mar 2010

Validation Of The Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument: An Application Of The Korean Version, Yun Seok Choi, Minhee Seo, David Scott, Jeffrey J. Martin

Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies

The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Korean version of the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI) based on the Competing Values Framework (CVF). More specially, cultural equivalence between the Korean version and the original English version of the OCAI was evaluated using 39 bilingual Koreans. Next, a field test was conducted to examine scale reliability and construct validity of the Korean version of the OCAI using 133 organizational members from the Korean Professional Baseball League (KPBL). The findings indicate that the Korean version was successfully translated, items maintained the same meaning of the original ...


Motivational Profiles And Their Associations With Achievement Outcomes, Bo Shen, Nate Mccaughtry, Jeffrey J. Martin, Mariane Fahlman Oct 2009

Motivational Profiles And Their Associations With Achievement Outcomes, Bo Shen, Nate Mccaughtry, Jeffrey J. Martin, Mariane Fahlman

Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies

With the belief that theoretical integration in motivation may help us better understand motivational behavior, we designed this study to explore adolescents’ motivational profiles and their associations with knowledge acquisition, leisure-time exercise behaviors, and cardiorespiratory fitness. Middle school students from a large urban inner-city school district (N = 603, ages 12–14) completed questionnaires assessing motivational constructs and leisure-time exercise behavior. Knowledge and cardiorespiratory fitness were also assessed with a knowledge test and the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) test, respectively. Using hierarchical cluster analysis, we found that students’ motivation in physical education could be explained from a multi-theoretical perspective ...


Multidimensional Self-Efficacy And Affect In Wheelchair Basketball Players, Jeffrey J. Martin Oct 2008

Multidimensional Self-Efficacy And Affect In Wheelchair Basketball Players, Jeffrey J. Martin

Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies

In the current study, variables grounded in social cognitive theory with athletes with disabilities were examined. Performance, training, resiliency, and thought control self-efficacy, and positive (PA) and negative (NA) affect were examined with wheelchair basketball athletes (N = 79). Consistent with social cognitive theory, weak to strong significant relationships among the four types of self-efficacy (rs = .22–.78) and among self-efficacy and affect (rs = -.40–.29) were found. Basketball players who were efficacious in their ability to overcome training barriers were also confident in their basketball skills and efficacious in their ability to overcome ruminating distressing thoughts while simultaneously cultivating positive ...