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Medicine and Health Sciences

Graduate Research Papers

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Determining The Benefits And Designing An Externship Program For Medical Office Students At Marshalltown Community College, Kristin Murphy Jan 2014

Determining The Benefits And Designing An Externship Program For Medical Office Students At Marshalltown Community College, Kristin Murphy

Graduate Research Papers

The focus of this paper is to explore the potential benefits of and best design for an externship experience for the Medical Office program at Marshalltown Community College (MCC) in Marshalltown, Iowa. To that end, this paper provides background on Marshalltown Community College's Medical Office program; defines extemship education; highlights the value of extemships to the community college, students, instructors, and employers, as well as potential benefits specific to MCC's Medical Office program; discusses the design/setup factors that influence an effective externship program; and provides recommendations based on the findings for pursuing and implementing an externship program ...


What Are The Mechanisms Of Action Of Stereotype Threat And How Does It Contribute To The Development Of Cardiovascular Disease In African Americans, Anthony Gage Jan 2013

What Are The Mechanisms Of Action Of Stereotype Threat And How Does It Contribute To The Development Of Cardiovascular Disease In African Americans, Anthony Gage

Graduate Research Papers

The rate of hypertension and cardiovascular disease for African Americans is disproportionately higher compared to Whites Americans. Previous research has focused much of its attention on biological and socioeconomic differences as a pathway to explain the disparity in rates of cardiovascular disease. Reviewed is the connection between socioeconomic status and cardiovascular disease, but also extends the reach of etiology to include racially induced cardiovascular reactivity responses in African American. Stereotype threat occurs when a member of a stereotyped group encounters a situation where a stereotype exists, the threat of confirming the stereotype produces an exaggerated cardiovascular response. This model takes ...


Applying Forgiveness Therapy To Survivors Of Intimate Partner Violence (Ipv), Tiffany L. Clark Jan 2010

Applying Forgiveness Therapy To Survivors Of Intimate Partner Violence (Ipv), Tiffany L. Clark

Graduate Research Papers

Twenty-five percent of women in the United States will report some form of intimate partner violence (IPV) within their lifetimes (Mac, Ferron, & Crosby, 2009). At these rates, IPV has become an epidemic, touching the lives of most people. The effects of lPV on victim's physical and psychological health may be severe and chronic (Weaver & Clum, 1995). Finding potent therapy approaches with this population is essential. The author of this paper proposes forgiveness therapy as an approach worthy of further investigation. This paper focuses on explaining what forgiveness is and is not, describes common sequelae of lPV, reviews Enright's ...


Major Depression : Diagnosis And Intervention, Lindsay Linck Jan 2010

Major Depression : Diagnosis And Intervention, Lindsay Linck

Graduate Research Papers

This paper will be an analysis of the psychological disorder of major depression. First, the classification of this disorder using the DSM-IV-TR will be reviewed. The areas of etiology, differential diagnosis, and treatment will then be considered. Following, a theory-specific approach to the disease including theoretical framework, diagnosis and treatment, and outcomes of using this approach, will be examined. Finally a personal reflection on the subject of major depression, and lessons learned from this project, will be discussed.


Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, Angela Bigelow Jan 2010

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, Angela Bigelow

Graduate Research Papers

Obsessive Compulsive Disorders have the potential to destroy people's lives. The negative consequences of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder can affect so many people-the people suffering from the disorder, the family of the sufferer, as well as the lack of insight of the disorder within the community. According to the Obsessive Compulsive Foundation (2010), the disorder affects between 2 to 3 million adults in the United States and around 500,000 children and teens have Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Due to the alarming statistics and the secret lives of incredible pain and humiliation OCD sufferers' experience, it is imperative that mental health ...


Social Phobia, Sarah S. Cosley Jan 2009

Social Phobia, Sarah S. Cosley

Graduate Research Papers

Social phobia is a common diagnosis for people of all ages. In the United States alone millions of people suffer from Social Phobia. People who suffer from social phobia can have problems in many areas of their life including: work, school, relationships, and daily functioning. Symptoms associated with social phobia can range from general fears to specific fears. A discussion of the definition of social phobia, symptoms, treatment, and application will be explored in the following paper.


Dance Therapy, Darcy Gene Feuerbach Jan 2009

Dance Therapy, Darcy Gene Feuerbach

Graduate Research Papers

"The arts, often a source of joy and expression, have helped us to say what we could not say in words" says Fran Levy, who is a psychotherapist and creative arts therapist. Whether it is music or drama, art or dance, all of the arts can have implications for the counseling process. This project focuses specifically on Dance Movement Therapy. Dance/movement therapy has been developing ever since the early 1900s and it is based on the notion that mind and body are inseparable. (Levy 1)


Reactive Attachment Disorder, Kalen J. Espy Jan 2009

Reactive Attachment Disorder, Kalen J. Espy

Graduate Research Papers

Reactive Attachment Disorder, or RAD, has several possible causes usually stemming from traumatic childhood events. The attachment disorders were initially explored in 1948 by John Bowlby which led to the attachment theory being established in the 1960's. Attachment is the bond a child makes with other human beings, allowing for a healthy emotional and psychological growth. Attachment is developed primarily from birth to two years of age and up to the age of five.

There are four attachment styles and four phases that a child must go through to develop a healthy attachment to a caregiver. A child who ...


Aspergers Syndrome, Miquel K. Anastasi Jan 2009

Aspergers Syndrome, Miquel K. Anastasi

Graduate Research Papers

Aspergers Syndrome has recently become a "popular" topic in the mental health fields. More and more school aged children are being formally diagnosed with the disorder. Yet, many professionals do not truly understand the nature of Aspergers syndrome beyond being a form of autism. In this paper Aspergers Syndrome is defined and compared with Autism and the causes and possible treatments are discussed, particularly from biological and sociocultural points of view.


Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, Dorothy M. Bartleson Jan 2009

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, Dorothy M. Bartleson

Graduate Research Papers

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a neurobiological disorder. The disorder OCD is now the fourth most common psychiatric disorder among Americans. (Adams & Burke, 1999) Two percent of adults have some level of OCD and many others have experienced signs at some point. (Campost & Leckaman, 1999) The number of children that have this disorder is one out of two hundred. (Black) The causes of OCD can be physical or emotional or both. (Barlow, 2002) Treatments for OCD include Cognitive Behavior therapy, Visual Reality therapy, medications, social skills training, support groups and individual and family therapy. (Lutz, 2002) Neurological disorders associated with ...


An Exploration Of The Diagnostic Criterion, Etiology, And Treatment Of Binge Eating Disorder, Amy C. Ebert Jan 2009

An Exploration Of The Diagnostic Criterion, Etiology, And Treatment Of Binge Eating Disorder, Amy C. Ebert

Graduate Research Papers

An exploration of the DSM IV-TR research diagnostic criterion of Binge Eating Disorder (BED), its etiology, and viable treatments was conducted. The purpose of this literature review was to provide more information for mental health professionals treating clients who may fit the criteria for BED. Published research literature and treatment manuals were utilized in this review. It was concluded that there are many potential risk/maintenance factors linked to the development of BED, and that treatment interventions involving mindfulness appear to be effective in minimizing the symptoms of BED. Given the current obesity statistics among U.S. adults, it seems ...


Exercise : Nature's Defense Against Depression And Anxiety, Holly A. Dorenkamp Jan 2007

Exercise : Nature's Defense Against Depression And Anxiety, Holly A. Dorenkamp

Graduate Research Papers

Exercise and mental health is a relatively new area of study within health care and mental health disciplines. Whereas many mental health professionals focus on the mental status of clients, research suggests that physical health, exercise in particular, has a positive impact on mental health and well-being. Currently, typical treatment approaches lean toward psychotropic medication, psychotherapy, or a combination of both. However, mental health issues such as depression and anxiety are becoming so widespread that other effective and affordable treatment approaches and options are greatly needed and vital to the overall mental health of society. Utilizing exercise in the treatment ...


Introversion : Relationship With Mental Well-Being, Elizabeth A. Balder Jan 2007

Introversion : Relationship With Mental Well-Being, Elizabeth A. Balder

Graduate Research Papers

This paper explores connections between introversion and decreased mental well-being. The author sought to discover whether introverts are more vulnerable to depressive symptoms than extroverts. Overall findings show introverts are more vulnerable than extroverts to depression and decreased mental well-being. Introverts are more likely to be compliant and have lower self-esteem than extroverts, and also have less social support than extroverts, which can be detrimental when experiencing depression. Western culture gives preference to extroverted individuals, which pressures introverts to attempt to change their personalities.


Understanding The Mind-Body Connection For Optimal Health And Healing, Molly M. Cretsinger Jan 2006

Understanding The Mind-Body Connection For Optimal Health And Healing, Molly M. Cretsinger

Graduate Research Papers

The purpose of the research paper is to understand how a person's attitudes and beliefs shape their life and influence their health and healing. It is fundamental for someone in the helping profession to gain insight into the role of love, faith, hope, and forgiveness in overall health and healing. The key to health and healing is to understand, accept, and believe in the notion of control over one's thinking and the ability to be who one chooses to be. Every day and every thought is a choice. It is crucial for health and overall wellness that individuals ...


Nebbe's Nature Nest : A Summary Of An Animal Assisted Therapy Camp, Trisha L. Ames Jan 2006

Nebbe's Nature Nest : A Summary Of An Animal Assisted Therapy Camp, Trisha L. Ames

Graduate Research Papers

Two graduate students conducted a small animal assisted therapy camp. The main goal for this camp was to enhance and promote the campers' socialization skills and self-esteem through the use of animal assisted therapy. Two pre and post measurement scales were used to evaluate the children's loneliness and self-concept. The campers participated in a one-week camp lasting approximately three hours a day. To meet desired lesson goals, the campers engaged in direct animal contact and specific animal assisted activities. The following is a complete description and reaction to the animal assisted therapy camp led by Trisha (Hobbiebrunken) Ames, Nicole ...


Optimal Characteristics For Happy And Satisfying Marriages, Britni J. Anderson Jan 2006

Optimal Characteristics For Happy And Satisfying Marriages, Britni J. Anderson

Graduate Research Papers

For many people, having a happy satisfying marriage is the ultimate goal in a marital relationship. However, what constitutes a happy marriage is not always clear. Many people go into marriage with high ideals and expectations, but without the reality that marriage is an entity in its own right that needs to be maintained daily. Communication, including conflict resolution, is a large part of a successful marriage. Other characteristics include sharing positive feelings, having more positive than negative interactions, having a solid friendship, maintaining a strong commitment, and staying focused on the positive aspects of the marriage. Marriage is difficult ...


An Introduction To Body Dysmorphic Disorder For Mental Health Counselors, Teresa M. Barrett Jan 2006

An Introduction To Body Dysmorphic Disorder For Mental Health Counselors, Teresa M. Barrett

Graduate Research Papers

Although researchers have been studying Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) for almost two decades, the majority of research findings with regard to the disorder have only recently been reviewed and published. Additional research is needed to better understand and treat BDD. But those that currently suffer from BDD cannot wait for these studies to be published; they are in need of adequate treatment and competent professionals to assist them with their disorder. Information from published literature has been synthesized within this paper to provide mental health counselors with an awareness of BDD including the definition of BDD, the relation of gender ...


Oppositional Defiant Disorder : Using Family Therapy And Parent Training Techniques For Effective Treatment Outcomes, Caroline S. Dieken Jan 2005

Oppositional Defiant Disorder : Using Family Therapy And Parent Training Techniques For Effective Treatment Outcomes, Caroline S. Dieken

Graduate Research Papers

Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) clinically affects children and adolescents through the display of unwanted disruptive, hostile, defiant, and oppositional behaviors. Development of these can be linked to parental psychopathology, family and marital dysfunction, poor parent-child interaction, atypical parenting, maternal age, substance abuse, poor supervision, and inconsistent or harsh discipline. The effects of ODD lead to impaired social functioning, depression, low self-esteem, academic failure, substance abuse, delinquency, and family discord. Compared to other treatments ( e.g., medication, behavior modification, punishment, or removal from the home) the most effective course of treatment for ODD is the use of family therapy and parent ...


Ukimwi : Hiv/Aids In Kenya, Virginia Wangui Gathua Jan 2005

Ukimwi : Hiv/Aids In Kenya, Virginia Wangui Gathua

Graduate Research Papers

This manuscript points out the deficiencies school counseling programs in Kenya for children/adolescents affected/infected by HIV/AIDS. In addition, the paper is intended to inform, guide, and encourage policy makers, program developers, and school counselors as they develop school counseling interventions for the disease. The focus of the paper is limited to children/adolescents because they bear the greatest burden of HIV/ AIDS infections. The paper also provides evidence for planning and implementation of culturally and developmentally relevant, school-based counseling interventions. The paper explores the impact of HIV/AIDS on Kenyan children/adolescents infected/affected by HIV/AIDS ...


Women Alcoholics And Addicts : An Examination Of The Role Of Gender-Specific Treatment Programs In Substance Abuse Counseling, Adarienne L. Burrow Jan 2004

Women Alcoholics And Addicts : An Examination Of The Role Of Gender-Specific Treatment Programs In Substance Abuse Counseling, Adarienne L. Burrow

Graduate Research Papers

Traditionally, substance abuse treatment programs have been developed based on data collected on male substance abusers. Women entering into these traditional treatment programs often are not successful at recovery. Male-based treatment programs are not designed to meet the complex set of needs of women substance abusers and addicts. The purpose of this research is two-fold. First, to identify the specific needs of women substance abusers and addicts. And secondly, determine how to address these identified needs in a substance abuse treatment program in order to provide a holistic approach to substance abusing and addicted women.


Childhood Depression And Schools, Jeni Barry Jan 2003

Childhood Depression And Schools, Jeni Barry

Graduate Research Papers

Depression in children is a problem that is becoming more prevalent. With children and adolescents under more stress and pressure than ever before, the seriousness of the issues children deal with is also intensifying. Depression in children is a major concern because it can interfere with school and academics, social functioning, and even lead to somatic symptoms. If depression is left untreated it can lead to other mental disorders. An important concern is that children who are depressed are at great risk of suicide. Population studies show that at any one time between 10 and 15 percent of the child ...


Coping With Divorce, Amanda Sue Lawless Anderson Jan 2003

Coping With Divorce, Amanda Sue Lawless Anderson

Graduate Research Papers

This research paper targets children who are experiencing divorce in their families. The purpose of this paper is to assist counselors in knowing how divorce affects children and how to work effectively with children and families experiencing divorce. A look at the various developmental stages, the grief process of divorce, practical interventions to be used with children experiencing divorce, and providing resources for educators and parents will assist counselors and parents in helping children to cope with their experience.


The Discovery Of Extramarital Affairs : Clients In Crisis And Implications For Counseling, Alyssa A. Drury Jan 2003

The Discovery Of Extramarital Affairs : Clients In Crisis And Implications For Counseling, Alyssa A. Drury

Graduate Research Papers

Extramarital affairs are one of the most common issues presented to counselors and other professionals in clinical settings. This issue has also been said to be one of the most difficult to treat among clinicians. In this paper, a review of the literature is presented regarding the nature of extramarital affairs and different types of affairs. Following this brief literature review, interventions are discussed for professionals when working with this population. Crisis intervention is specifically addressed in addition to practical, clinical interventions that may be used following resolution of crises.


The Importance Of Behavioral Interventions And Stimulant Medication Effects On Reducing Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Elizabeth Alvarez Jan 2002

The Importance Of Behavioral Interventions And Stimulant Medication Effects On Reducing Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Elizabeth Alvarez

Graduate Research Papers

Overall, various avenues of research state that ADHD is a complex disorder that requires treatment by multiple modalities. Most research states that a combination of medication and behavior therapy is necessary to resolve the symptoms. It should be noted that the dose of stimulant medication prescribed to a child with ADHD should be adjusted based on the child's response to a behavioral intervention, as well as the combination of the behavioral and pharmacological treatments. Rapport et al. (1982), as well as others, have found that medication alone will not "cure" ADHD. But with multiple methods of treatment the symptoms ...


Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder : Developments In The Last Decade Concerning Causes And Treatments, Phyllis Damgaard Jan 2000

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder : Developments In The Last Decade Concerning Causes And Treatments, Phyllis Damgaard

Graduate Research Papers

The last ten years have brought major advances in the fields of medicine and technology, advances that have illuminated many of the dark comers of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). This article seeks to pull together those illuminating advances, condensing the voluminous information available into comprehensive, but readable, pages. The causes of the disorder are discussed from both the scientific and psychological/social perspectives. The controversy resulting from medicating so many, so young is an integral part of this country's interest in ADHD, due largely to coverage by the popular media.

Research concerning successful treatment strategies is also discussed ...


Examining Counseling Strategies For African American Adolescent Crack Abusers, Paula Reed Dorris Jan 2000

Examining Counseling Strategies For African American Adolescent Crack Abusers, Paula Reed Dorris

Graduate Research Papers

The author of this paper has addressed the significance of the development of treatment strategies to implement with African American adolescent crack addicts. An integral basis for tailoring culturally specific treatment approaches for African American adolescents relates to the unique circumstances, which may promote more extensive crack abuse by this group. Depression was the difficulty which the author chose to focus upon. Several different methods of helping these adolescents are discussed. The intervention strategies which show promise in helping African American adolescent crack addicts include: (a) Interpersonal Therapy; (b) psycho-educational programs; (c) involvement of family members in treatment; (d) use ...


Relational Counseling, Janice E. Drury Jan 2000

Relational Counseling, Janice E. Drury

Graduate Research Papers

The author of this paper explores the relational approach to counseling and its potential benefit to clients. The relational approach, in comparison to the more traditional approach to counseling, can give the counselor an alternative framework in which to explore and understand human development and apply counseling methods. Relational theory and its application to women is specifically addressed in this paper, as this approach to counseling may better assist women to speak and be heard in a pattern that makes sense to them. The author also identifies the need for research that expands current realms of thinking in mental health ...


Oppositional Defiant Disorder (Odd) In Children And Adolescents, Maria J. Garlie Jan 2000

Oppositional Defiant Disorder (Odd) In Children And Adolescents, Maria J. Garlie

Graduate Research Papers

This paper is a review of the literature on Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) in children and adolescents. Included in this review is information on the history of changes through which the diagnosis of ODD has gone, a comparison of children with ODD to "normal" children in terms of development, gender differences, co-morbidity, etiology, and treatment interventions.


"Epidemic" Depression In School-Age Youth, Trudy L. Erickson Jan 1999

"Epidemic" Depression In School-Age Youth, Trudy L. Erickson

Graduate Research Papers

With the traditional image of children as happy and care-free, it has been troubling to think of them suffering the effects of major depression and dysthymia. Successful intervention for.depressive youth is complicated by failure to diagnose, limited referral or consuItation, and resolute parental denial.

The purpose of this paper is to inform the reader about depression in today's student population. Depression will be defined and described as it is manifested in youth. Typical symptoms and proposed etiologies will be discussed. Finally, suggested interventions will be addressed, although research concerning interventions for depressed youth, particularly children, has been sparse.


Dual Diagnosis Treatment Models, Lauretta M. Cufr Jan 1998

Dual Diagnosis Treatment Models, Lauretta M. Cufr

Graduate Research Papers

The increase in the size of the identified Dual Diagnosis population and the increase in focus on cost effectiveness of treatment interventions and outcomes, has made clear the need for improvements in the knowledge base of treatment providers. Treatment models currently in use as partially developed approaches need to be studied in order to provide the DD population with the most effective treatment possible. (Minkoff, 1994).

This paper will examine literature pertaining to the three current treatment models: the serial, the parallel, and the integrated. It will also report findings regarding one innovative program currently under study for clients who ...