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Articles 1 - 30 of 34
Full-Text Articles in Education
Exploring The Relevance Of Art Therapy In Public Education, Jarrell
This thesis will explore art education as a therapeutic tool in a public education system. This topic will serve as a continuation of research that I conducted previously but will bring more focus upon bringing a certified art therapist into public school districts in West Virginia. Data will be collected through student surveys, interviews of professional art therapists, and administrative officials. Data will also be collected through a review of the literature surrounding the benefits of art therapy to children and adolescents. Through these sources I will explore the attitudes, beliefs, and practices of educational professionals, art therapists, administrators and ...
Preliteracy Skills Promoted In Children’S Spanish-Language Books, Suter
As of July 1, 2013, the latest census figures indicate that there are approximately 54 million Latinosliving in the U.S. (US Census Bureau, 2013). However, many Latino children still do not receive the services or resources they need to perform well academically. The primary aim of this research study is to determine if the books available to Spanish-speaking Latino1 populations in two Michigan Counties contain features that might be used to facilitate beginning pre-literacy skills.
Children’s Spanish-language books from bookstores and public libraries were analyzed to determine the presence of features that might facilitate print awareness, phonological ...
Executive Functions And Social Interactions: Developing Social Scenarios, Waite
The aim of this study was to develop a series of vignettes to form the basis for an assessment of executive functions (EFs) for 9 – 12 year old children. Although EFs are necessary for effective social communication and positive social interactions, currently, most EF assessments focus on impersonal activities. Little research exists that incorporates real-time processing using ecologically valid social scenarios. The current study aims to develop realistic scenarios that children could encounter in daily life. Ethnographic interviews were conducted with six participants, who worked in a school with 9-12 year old children, to gain their perspective on social interactions ...
Explicit Teacher-Implemented Phoneme Awareness Instruction: Preschool Effects, Osterhouse
The purpose of the current study was to investigate the impact of explicit, concentrated, teacher-implemented phonological awareness instruction for ―at risk‖ 4- year-olds. Early childhood educators were trained to implement a 10-week program delivered for 20-minute sessions, four times a week, in their classrooms. The program focused on phonological awareness beginning at the level of letter-sound knowledge and advancing to blending and segmenting constituent phonemes in words. Pre- to post-treatment comparisons of phonological awareness and letter knowledge skills indicated that children in the experimental group made significant gains in comparison to the control group in phoneme blending and letter knowledge ...
Preschoolers With Speech And Language Impairment: Case Studies From A Teacher-Delivered Phonological Awareness Program, Wickham
Past and present research demonstrates early reading success related to phonological awareness (PA) instruction conducted individually or in small groups outside of the preschool classroom. This study investigated the effects of an explicit, intensive and teacher-delivered PA instruction for children with speech sound disorder and language impairment as part of the preschool curriculum. The investigator examined the performance of individual cases in both groups, those who received instruction and the control. Two participants in each of the experimental (E1 and E2) and control (C1 and C2) groups had standardized scores indicating deficits in speech and/or language. These children who ...
Effectiveness Of Improving Performance With The Bigger Faster Stronger In-Season Training Program, Crelinsten
This study investigated the effectiveness of improving performance of adolescents with the in-season Bigger Faster Stronger (BFS) program. Thirty seven high school athletes were divided into three groups; BFS (n=l4 ), traditional weight training (n= l0), and control (n= 13 ). Each participant went through a battery of seven performance pre-tests and post-tests ( estimated 1 ORM incline bench, broad jump, one minute sit-up test, t-test, line drill, 40 yard sprint, 1.5 mile run). Following the pre-testing, the control group continued to participate in their sport. The BFS group participated in the in-season BFS program (30 minute supervised session consisting of ...
Measuring Spelling Growth Over Time In Elementary Writing Samples, Ansell
Developmental spelling stage theories have been proposed and disputed for 30 years. The current study used Gentry's (1982) model to assign category ratings to narrative writing samples produced by 32 students over two years to observe developmental growth over time. In addition, quantitative measures were obtained from the samples, including an index of control (Laminack & Wood, 1996) and a percentage correct. Analyses were also used to test the effectiveness of using a writing lab approach (Nelson, Bahr & Van Meter, 2004) on spelling development. During the last half of second grade, all 32 students received intervention guided by the writing ...
Effects Of Adult Modeling On Literacy Behaviors Of Head Start Preschoolers, Kerbel
This project explored the uses of literacy artifacts in the dramatic play of preschool children from diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds who live in poverty in Kalamazoo County. The purpose of this 9-week study was to determine the impact of adult modeling on the frequency and quality of use of literacy artifacts during the dramatic play of at-risk preschoolers. Two Head Start classrooms received different types of intervention: (a) a literacy-enriched dramatic play area with adult modeling for 5 minutes at the start of each play period ( once per week); and (b) a literacy-enriched dramatic play area without adult modeling ...
Temporal And Emg Relationships Among The Phases Of Vertical And Depth Jumps, Albright
Plyometric exercises blend speed and strength training and are often used to help an athlete reach his or her ultimate power potential. Specifically, plyometric training is a technique that enhances neuromuscular excitability, which may in tum increase the ability to achieve a greater work output.
The purpose of this study was to examine the temporal and EMG differences between two different jumping techniques: a vertical jump and depth jumps of varying heights. The study consisted of 20 female physical education majors grouped as skilled or unskilled. Temporal and EMG data were collected for (a) the duration of time spent in ...
The Effect Of The Hapad Longitudinal Metatarsal Arch Pad On Ground Reaction Forces And Rear Foot Angle, Rocker
The effectiveness of the Hapad Longitudinal Metatarsal Arch Pad (HLMAP) to correct for pronation was investigated using 30 female volunteer student subjects. The investigation consisted of measuring ground reaction forces measured by a force plate and rear foot angle (RFA) measured by video digitization. The repeated measures design consisted of l grouping variable with 3 levels, supinators, mildpronators, and over pronators, and 2 research variables, 10 trials, and pad/no-pad. The results indicated (a) no significant difference for medial or lateral force, propulsive force, vertic al thrust, negative torque among groups, or between pad/no-pad; (b) a significant difference was ...
A Validation Of Target Heartrate Formulas Used In Swimming, Litwinski
The purpose of this study was to explore whether procedures used to establish target heart rates (THRs) for running are applicable to front crawl swimming. Eight male and 22 female fitness swimmers from Western Michigan University participated in this study. Their exercise durations under three experimental conditions were compared. The conditions were: (a) Condition 1, a treadmill run at an intensity equal to a THR of 85% of heart rate reserve (HRR); (b) Condition 2, a front crawl swim at an intensity equal to 85% of HRR; and (c) Condition 3, a front crawl swim at an intensity equal to ...
Kinematic Analysis Of Sprinting With And Without The Speed Chute, West
The problem under investigation was to determine if kinematic differences existed when sprinting with and without the speed chute. Eight Western Michigan University Track and Field Athletes were filmed at 100 frames per second as they sprinted two trials with and without the speed chute.
Three ANOVAs and descriptive statistics were used to evaluate the effects of sprinting with and without the speed chute. Descriptive statistics provided information for numerous dependent variables. Although statistically significant differences (R < .05) existed between sprinting with and without the speed chute, those differences may not be practical for the coach to use in terms of evaluation of sprinting technique, because the differences would be difficult for the human eye to see. Therefore, the speed chute may be a viable training tool as kinematics were only minimally affected.
Attitudes Of Occupational Therapy Students Toward The Mentally Disabled, Mccarthy
Thirty-nine undergraduate occupational therapy and fifty-seven entry-level graduate occupational therapy students from eight randomly selected academic programs were surveyed using the Opinions About Mental Illness Scales ([OMI], Cohen and Struening, 1959) and the Mental Health Information Questionnaire ([MHIQ], Nunnally, 1961). Results revealed that both student groups’ knowledge toward the mentally disabled was more similar to the general public’s knowledge. Using a one-tailed t-test to compare the MHIQ factors revealed there was no statistically significant difference between the occupational therapy student groups.
Both student groups’ OMI factor scores were similar to an expert group for Factors A B, and D ...
Story Writing By Students With Hearing Impairments, Ketchum
Students with hearing impairments (N = 21) wrote a personal narrative each academic year from 1990 to 1992. These narratives were rated on maturity of the story as a whole and maturity of the language used in the story by senior undergraduate students in the education department at Western Michigan University. The method used for rating was a holistic magnitude estimation technique.
Significant change over time was found for story scores, but not language scores. Grade level was found to have no significant effect on change from first to last ratings for either story scores or language scores. Degree of hearing ...
The Effect Of Varying Weightload Intensities On Biceps Curl Technique, Gailhouse
This study described biomechanical deviations from proper biceps curl technique specifically in the shoulder, trunk, body and knee angles, that occurred in response to varying intensities of an individual's 1 RM (repetition maximum). Ten college age males participated in the study. Subjects were required to perform one repetition at 60%, 70%, 80%, 90% and 100% of his 1 RM. The only differentiating factor was the order in which the five intensities were performed. Condition order was randomized to minimize bias. Movement was filmed with a high-speed motion picture camera, digitized and then analyzed with computer software.
The findings indicated ...
The R Value At Vo2 Max During Maximal Graded Exercise Treadmill Tests Of Coronary Artery Diseased And Nondiseased Subjects, Williams
This study examined the R value at VO2 max during maximal graded treadmill exercise tests to determine if it was a reliable indicator of VO2 max and could therefore be used as a test termination criterion. The subjects in this study were 160 coronary artery diseased (CAD) patients and 170 nondiseased individuals. Data were collected from existing stress test records. The R value was also analyzed to determine if proportions of diseased and nondiseased subjects were the same. The time it took 100 CAD patients to reach VO2 max and exhaustion once R rose above 1.00 was also examined ...
Reinforcement Effects On The I.Q. Scores Of Institutionalized Children And Adults With Developmental Disabilities, Lewis
Eighteen institutionalized school-age and adult subjects with severe/profound developmental disabilities were evaluated for the effects of self-selected reinforcement for correct responding on their I.Q. scores when tested with the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (Terman & Merrill, 1960) or the Leiter International Performance Scale (Arthur, 1952). Subjects were tested under both standard and reinforcement conditions. The results indicated that overall, subjects when tested under reinforcement conditions showed a significant increase in mean I.Q. scores when compared with the same subjects tested one month previously under standard conditions. Several features of the data reveal intriguing results with regard to subjects and ...
Differences In Values And Goals Of Occupational Therapy Students, Danka
This study compared professional values and goals of three levels of occupational therapy students: (1) seniors in baccalaureate programs (n = 337), (2) students in professional master's programs (n = 95), and (3) students in post-professional master's programs (n = 62). Demographic characteristics and factors influencing career choice were also examined.
Significant differences were found among the three student groups for three professional goals: (1) contributing to theory, (2) doing research, and (3) educating occupational therapy students, and four professional values: (1) intellectual stimulation, (2) exciting life, (3) comfortable life, and (4) helpfulness. The demographic differences among the three student groups ...
The Effects Of Aerobic Conditioning Upon The Resting Metabolic Rate, Davis
This study com pared the metabolic rate following an exercise bout to the resting metabolic rate (RM R) established in pretesting procedures for twelve college age females. The only factor differentiating the groups was length o f the training period (one week, two weeks, four weeks, and five weeks). Training took place on a Bosch cycle ergometer three times a week, for 30 minutes each session, at 70 to 85 percent o f the subjects' heart rate reserve (HRR). Breath analysis was measured on a Beckman Metabolic Cart in both pretesting and post-testing procedures.
The findings indicated that aerobic exercise ...
Teacher And Student Discourse Variables In Academic Communication, Sturm
This study was designed to analyze the oral communication exchanges between first, third, and fifth grade teachers and their students. It was based on the hypothesis that discourse parameters of linguistic quantity and complexity and communication acts change over grade level, much as the discourse parameters of caregivers with young children have been found to do. The language of teachers and students in 15 classrooms was examined by measuring 6 form and quantity variables and 11 communication act variables. Results showed significant differences for some form variables (MLU, mazes, and Type-token ratio) and some communication acts (convey content, mark content ...
The Effects Of Added Purpose On Fine Motor Performance In Learning Disabled Children, Austin
The idea that occupations which offer added levels of purpose elicit a high quality of performance is widely accepted within occupational therapy. In this experiment involving fine motor performance, fifty-three learning disabled children were randomly assigned to two groups. It was hypothesized that children cutting out a circle, presented as a wheel which would complete a paper truck, would cut more accurately than those who cut out the same circle without the suggestion of it being used as a wheel. Accuracy was assessed by measuring the area of the children's cutting errors. The experimental design included the use of ...
Pentylenetetrazol-Induced Seizures In Pigeons And The Effects Of Ethosuximide Thereon, Jakubow
Previous research has shown that ethosuximide in high enough doses will disrupt operant responding in pigeons. Whether or not these same doses will protect against seizure activity in this species has not been previously tested.
To test this question a system for scoring pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures in pigeons was developed and the effects of ethosuximide on such seizures were evaluated. In Experiment 1 pentylenetetrazol at 15, 27 and 47 mg/kg reliably induced seizures. In Experiment 2 non-behaviorally active and behaviorally active doses of ethosuximide were tested for their seizure controlling effectiveness.
Doses of 20, 40, 80, 160 and 320 mg ...
A Biomechanical Analysis Of The Effect Wear Patterns Of Running Shoes Have On Kinematic Variables Of The Lower Extremities, Randall
The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between wear patterns of running shoes and selected kinematic variables of the lower extremities. Statistical analyses were completed by using a case study design for two male subjects. Subjects were filmed for ten strides on six different sessions over a three-month period. A two-way ANOVA design, with repeated measures, evaluated the dependent variables: (a) footstrike, (b) midstance and (c) toeoff phases. The degree of change was determined by digitizing ten points on the body. A University of California, Los Angeles, BMDP2V statistical package was used to determine differences between means ...
The Effects Of A Performance-Management Procedure On High School Students With Poor Academic Achievement, Harwood
This study evaluated the effectiveness of contracting for all classes and the contigent presentation of incentives for school work completed. fifteen high school students who earned a grade point average below 1.5 (on a 4.0 scale) volunteered for the contracting classroom. The subjects were ranked and randomly assigned to the first experimental group, the second experimental group, or the control group. The first experimental group had incentives contingent upon contracts completed, the second experimental group received the incentive noncontigent upon contract completion, and the control group did not attend the contract completion, and the control group did not ...
A Comparison Of The Effects Of Student-Generated Versus Instructor-Generated Questions On The Comprehension Of Written Material, Pratt
Twelve college students volunteered to participate in a special section of an introductory psychology course at Western Michigan University. A multiple baseline design across groups was used to assess differences in reading comprehension between students who received study objectives written by the instructor and students trained to write their own study objectives. Quizzes and examinations were used to assess students' reading comprehension of course materials. A comparison of pre- and post-test scores on the Nelson-Denny Reading Comprehension Test was used to determine whether students had acquired skills which aided their comprehension of other materials. Results indicated no statistically significant differences ...
Teaching Change Computation To The Developmentally Disabled, Daeschlein
This study evaluated a procedure for teaching three developmentally disabled adults to compute monetary change combinations. Also, the procedure assessed generalization to the skills of computing change with bills, verifying the correctness of change received, and computing change with both coins and bills. Subjects were first trained to make change using pennies and then were trained to use each successive denomination in combination with those previously trained. A multipleprobe design was used, including generalization probes of the above-cited skills. Results indicated that each subject acquired the behavior of change computation with coins as a function of the training procedure. Also ...
The Effects Of Emg Biofeedback Assisted Relaxation Training On The Classroom Behaviors Of Emotionally Impaired Children, Akey
No abstract provided.
The Effects Of Behavioral Contracting On Student Participator Activities In A Junior High Student Service Center, Bickel
No abstract provided.
The Use Of Classroom And Home-Based Reinforcement To Increase Verbal Responses To Questions In Preschool Children, Muir
No abstract provided.
The Effects Of Dental Hygiene Information And Consequation On Plaque Control, Walker
No abstract provided.