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Agricultural education and studies

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Sustainable Agriculture And The Perceptions Of High School Agriculture Teachers In The North Central Region Of The United States , Mathew Ajuoga Muma Jan 2006

Sustainable Agriculture And The Perceptions Of High School Agriculture Teachers In The North Central Region Of The United States , Mathew Ajuoga Muma

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The debate about the socio-economic and environmental challenges associated with conventional agricultural systems in the U.S.A. in the 1980s vis-a-vis sustainable agriculture (SA) has included the definition of SA, the role of education in addressing the challenges and what should be taught about SA in high school and beyond. Proponents of SA claim education about SA can facilitate solutions to the current problems in agriculture, stimulate rural economic development and enrich scientific teaching of SA (Feldman, 1999; Sanstone, 2003/2004). The purpose of this study was to identify the beliefs of high school agriculture teachers about SA, and ...


Food Safety Training As Adult Education: Determining Prior Knowledge In The Service Of Scientific Conceptual Change , Jason D. Ellis Jan 2006

Food Safety Training As Adult Education: Determining Prior Knowledge In The Service Of Scientific Conceptual Change , Jason D. Ellis

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

A common recommendation for addressing the serious issue of foodborne illness is to train foodservice managers to handle and store foods safely. Typically, food safety education is considered successful when managers become certified through such programs as ServSafeRTM, which is offered by Cooperative Extension and other organizations. However, sustained behavior change has been limited. The research contributed to understanding the nature of the limitations of current programs, toward betterment of food safety education. The goals of the research was to describe the type and extent of conceptual understandings possessed by trained and certified foodservice workers of scientific principles relevant to ...


An Analysis Of Pre-Service Teacher Preparation And Instructional Supervisory Practices In Agricultural Education , Moreetsi Thobega Jan 2006

An Analysis Of Pre-Service Teacher Preparation And Instructional Supervisory Practices In Agricultural Education , Moreetsi Thobega

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation contained three articles that explored teacher preparation in Agricultural Education. The first article was a descriptive-correlational study; it described the relationship between pre-service teachers' performance on PRAXIS II (initial teacher licensing examination) and their performance on college academic measures. The study utilized existing records from the Department Agricultural Education and studies at Iowa State University. Professional education GPA explained significant variability in principles of learning and teaching (PLT) scores. Males scored higher than females on the Agriculture content (AgC) test. Agriculture GPA did not explain significant variability in AgC scores. Additional research should be conducted to determine whether ...


The Enablers And Barriers Of Providing Professional Practical Skills Education To Rural Elementary School Students In Zhejiang, China , Difei Shen Jan 2006

The Enablers And Barriers Of Providing Professional Practical Skills Education To Rural Elementary School Students In Zhejiang, China , Difei Shen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Professional technical skills (technical skills) and professional practical skills (practical skills) are two kinds of education that are often discussed in terms of technical knowledge and life skills respectively. The acquisition of both technical and practical skills not only is the outcome of education, but also is required by a market economy. However, Chinese rural students are not provided practical skills under the traditional exam-oriented educational system. This study argues to build the educational infrastructure in rural China to provide both kinds of skills to improve the quality of its rural human resources;The purpose of this study is to ...


Agricultural Extension Educators' Perceptions Regarding The Teaching And Learning Process Related To Water Quality Issues In The North Central Region Of The United States , Mohamed Camara Jan 2006

Agricultural Extension Educators' Perceptions Regarding The Teaching And Learning Process Related To Water Quality Issues In The North Central Region Of The United States , Mohamed Camara

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The North Central Region of the United States is the largest grain producer in the world. Therefore, the soil is intensively exploited which will eventually affect the water in this region. Most of the states in the NCR border the Mississippi River, thus contributing to the quality of water in the Gulf of Mexico. A review of related studies indicated a lack of suitable educational programs to assist farmers, communities, and extension agencies in understanding issues regarding water quality issues. However, these past studies did not focus on agricultural extension educators' perceptions regarding the teaching and learning process related to ...


The Influence Of An Integrated Course Cluster On The Communication Skills, Technical Content Knowledge, And Problem-Solving Skills Of Upper-Level College Students , Cynthia Carolyn Crawford Barnett Jan 2006

The Influence Of An Integrated Course Cluster On The Communication Skills, Technical Content Knowledge, And Problem-Solving Skills Of Upper-Level College Students , Cynthia Carolyn Crawford Barnett

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to determine if upper-level college students who participated in AgPAQ, an integrated course cluster learning community, would demonstrate enhanced learning in the areas of oral communication, written communication, technical content knowledge, and problem-solving;The population (N=182) consisted of students who participated in AgPAQ, the treatment group (n=33), and five comparison groups: the AgEdS 450 farm management class (n=57); the Agronomy 356 class (n=36); the Agronomy 356/English 309 integration ( n=35); the paid AgPAQ volunteer group (n=7); and the paid non-AgPAQ volunteer group (n=14). Students in these ...


The Impact Of The Secondary Agricultural Education Program On Latino Students: Perspectives Towards The Agricultural Education Class, The Local Ffa Organization And The Supervised Agricultural Experiences Program In Iowa Public Schools , Aurelio Curbelo Jan 2006

The Impact Of The Secondary Agricultural Education Program On Latino Students: Perspectives Towards The Agricultural Education Class, The Local Ffa Organization And The Supervised Agricultural Experiences Program In Iowa Public Schools , Aurelio Curbelo

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Due to the increasing population of Latino students in the Iowa secondary agricultural education program and the need for minority leaders in agriculture, the goal of this study was to survey a group of students in agricultural classes to understand their perspectives towards the learning components of the program. This study found that Latino students in Iowa secondary schools were supportive of the agricultural education program and interested in participating in experiential programs. Recommendations from this study are to encourage Latino students to actively participate in secondary agricultural classes. A greater effort from educators to recruit and research minority students ...


Secondary Agricultural Educators' Validation Of Selected Agricultural Mechanics Objectives In Wisconsin , Richard Lee Bockhop Jan 2005

Secondary Agricultural Educators' Validation Of Selected Agricultural Mechanics Objectives In Wisconsin , Richard Lee Bockhop

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this descriptive study was to validate selected agricultural mechanics objectives in Wisconsin. The population consisted of all secondary agricultural education teachers in Wisconsin. The survey instrument was pilot-tested using 47 educators that had experience in agricultural mechanics and/or agricultural education. The instrument was sent electronically to 286 agricultural teachers. Overall, 269 usable responses were received for this study. Wisconsin agriculture teachers validated 99 agricultural mechanics objectives for consideration in secondary agricultural education programs. Additionally, teachers indicated strong support for pre-service and in-service training for the 99 validated objectives. Teachers averaged 14.1 years of experience and ...


Examining Non-Participation Through People's Functional Perspectives: A Q Methodology Study Of Non-Participating Uruguayan Dairy Farmers , Brett Andrew Kramer Jan 2004

Examining Non-Participation Through People's Functional Perspectives: A Q Methodology Study Of Non-Participating Uruguayan Dairy Farmers , Brett Andrew Kramer

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation illustrates how Q Methodology was used to solve a problem of low enrollment in a dairy herd genetic registry project in Uruguay to better understand the reasons why many farmer producers declined to participate. The results of Q Methodology led to a more satisfying understanding of the needs, interests, and values of non-participants in this agricultural extension project. The dissertation argues for expanded use of Q as a tool for educational program planning and evaluation in addition to its better known use as a research instrument.;Q statements were developed from in-depth interviews with non-participating producers and project ...


Education And Water Conservation In Tucson, Arizona: Towards An Educational Model For Saudi Arabia , Mohammad Sh Al-Shayaa Jan 2004

Education And Water Conservation In Tucson, Arizona: Towards An Educational Model For Saudi Arabia , Mohammad Sh Al-Shayaa

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Saudi Arabia and Tucson, Arizona are both surrounded by desert and rely on groundwater. Both places also suffer from similar types of water shortage problems. The average water usage, in gallons per person per day, in Tucson is 160. In contrast, in Saudi Arabia this figure is 260. Respectively, these factors encouraged the researcher to investigate the educational roles in Tucson. The findings and experience gleaned from Tucson will be used in Saudi Arabia where the researcher is planning to pursue his career.;Information circulated to the Tucson public about water conservation demonstrates effectiveness in addressing issues related to water ...


An Alumni Benchmark Analysis Of The Master Of Agriculture Program In Professional Agriculture At Iowa State University (1979-2004) , Mohamed Mamdouh Yacoub Jan 2004

An Alumni Benchmark Analysis Of The Master Of Agriculture Program In Professional Agriculture At Iowa State University (1979-2004) , Mohamed Mamdouh Yacoub

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The study assessed students' perceptions about the Master of Agriculture in professional agriculture (ProAg) program that is offered off-campus. It also provides information regarding the number of graduate students who enrolled in this program and are now working in agriculture related occupations. Alumni of the program provided feedback regarding the content of the ProAg program in agriculture. It serves as an analysis tool for assessing the effectiveness of the ProAg program in the College of Agriculture at Iowa State University. The College of Agriculture could use the data and information collected from this study for future program planning as well ...


Comparison Of Students' Opinions Toward Experiential Learning In Two Undergraduate Agricultural Capstone Courses Designed With Contrasting Delivery Techniques , Charles Russell Steiner Jan 2004

Comparison Of Students' Opinions Toward Experiential Learning In Two Undergraduate Agricultural Capstone Courses Designed With Contrasting Delivery Techniques , Charles Russell Steiner

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to determine similarities and differences in students' perceptions towards learning in two senior-level farm management experientially based capstone courses, similar in content, but vastly different in delivery and teaching methods. A secondary purpose was to determine if there was a favorable means for teaching farm business management concepts to young adult learners.;The objectives of the study were: (1) To examine selected demographic characteristics of the students enrolled in these two experientially-based capstone courses. (2) To determine the effectiveness of these two capstone courses using Crunkilton's criteria. (3) To identify the effectiveness of ...


The Role Of Bioscience And Biotechnology In Agricultural Education In The Secondary School Agriculture Curriculum As Perceived By Agricultural Educators , Theresa Adikinyi Sikinyi Jan 2003

The Role Of Bioscience And Biotechnology In Agricultural Education In The Secondary School Agriculture Curriculum As Perceived By Agricultural Educators , Theresa Adikinyi Sikinyi

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to identify perceptions of agriculture teachers regarding the role of biosciences/biotechnology in the study of agriculture in the North Central Region of the United States. The study sought to determine the degree to which teachers perceived the importance of infusing biosciences/biotechnology into the agriculture curriculum. Another objective of the study was to determine the extent to which competencies in biosciences/biotechnology could be taught if additional instructional materials and inservice training were provided to the teachers.;This was a survey research study, conducted with a stratified random sample of 610 individuals selected ...


Agricultural Educators Perceptions On The Role Of Distance Education In The Mission Of United States Public Higher Education , Paula Marie Teig Jan 2003

Agricultural Educators Perceptions On The Role Of Distance Education In The Mission Of United States Public Higher Education , Paula Marie Teig

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The resurgence of distance education, with the introduction of computer and communication technologies, has brought to the forefront the need for higher education to change the way it engages the lifelong learner. In addition, there is need to revisit the importance of the traditional land-grant mission in public higher education as universities and colleges seek to deliver education to the lifelong learner regardless of location or time. Distance education is becoming viewed as a means of meeting societal needs for lifelong learning.;In light of the Kellogg Commission report, the purpose of this research project was to assess the role ...


Instructional Supervision Of Student Teachers In Agricultural Education , Carrie Ann Fritz Jan 2002

Instructional Supervision Of Student Teachers In Agricultural Education , Carrie Ann Fritz

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The principal purpose of this dissertation was to explore supervision in agricultural education settings. The dissertation was divided into three specific papers that focused on some aspect of the supervisory process. The first paper presented the Escalation model for the supervision of agricultural instruction. The model is a growth continuum that consists of three levels. The supervisory models included in each level are placed along a continuum of structure and reward and risk. As the supervisor matures in the supervisory process, it is proposed that the model of supervision used should change. As their professional maturity increases and as the ...


Follow-Up Evaluation Of The Agriculture Minority Summer Research Internship Program , Nicole Lynn Gale Jan 2002

Follow-Up Evaluation Of The Agriculture Minority Summer Research Internship Program , Nicole Lynn Gale

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

As the world becomes more diverse, campus and communities must provide opportunities and conditions conducive to learning for all students of color. Iowa State University is attempting to increase awareness about agriculture-related areas among minority high school and undergraduate students. The College of Agriculture has sponsored an Agriculture Minority Summer Research Program (AMSRIP) each summer since 1994. Students utilize experiential learning skills working under the guidance of faculty mentors to conduct research in agriculture-related areas.;The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the experiences students received while attending the Iowa State University Agriculture Minority Summer ...


Issues Regarding Sustainable Agriculture As Perceived By Upper Level Undergraduate Students Involved In A Student Managed Farm At Iowa State University , Awoke Desta Dollisso Jan 2002

Issues Regarding Sustainable Agriculture As Perceived By Upper Level Undergraduate Students Involved In A Student Managed Farm At Iowa State University , Awoke Desta Dollisso

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to identify the perceptions of agriculture students regarding sustainable agriculture practices, issues related to sustainable agriculture and learning/teaching processes. These students were enrolled in a capstone course that involved managing a 2000-acre operation. Fifty-seven students participated in this census study. Participants completed a survey questionnaire and a select group of students answered questions in a focus group interview.;The participants in this study perceived that the sustainable agriculture movement promotes environmental concerns about farming more than economic concerns. The participants were mildly interested in learning more about practicing sustainable agriculture practices and how ...


Secondary School Teachers Perceptions Regarding The Process Of Teaching Sustainable Agriculture In The Agricultural Education Curriculum , Emmanuel Chukwunenye Okeafor Jan 2002

Secondary School Teachers Perceptions Regarding The Process Of Teaching Sustainable Agriculture In The Agricultural Education Curriculum , Emmanuel Chukwunenye Okeafor

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to determine perceptions held by high school teachers of agriculture in the North Central Region of the U.S. regarding teaching sustainable agriculture in the agriculture curriculum. This region is comprised of the states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin.;The specific objectives for this study were to: (1) identify perceptions of teachers regarding teaching sustainable agriculture, (2) identify the extent to which selected sustainable agriculture skills and knowledge were being taught, (3) identify the extent to which inservice training is needed in selected ...


An Analysis Of Institutional Engagement: Perceptions Of Faculty, Staff And Administration In The College Of Agriculture At Iowa State University , Michael Devitt Woods Jan 2001

An Analysis Of Institutional Engagement: Perceptions Of Faculty, Staff And Administration In The College Of Agriculture At Iowa State University , Michael Devitt Woods

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Significant movement is afoot in higher education around a reinvigoration of civic engagement as well as efforts to reform the 'ivory tower' from societal isolation and irrelevance. This movement is based on the assumption that land grant institutions should play a key role in sustaining our democracy and collaborating to solve complex societal problems. Against this backdrop, in February 1999, the Kellogg Commission on the Future of State and Land-Grant Universities issued the third of its reports, Returning to Our Roots: The Engaged Institution (NASULGC, 1999), calling for greater institutional engagement with society. Specifically the Commission concluded that it is ...


Risk Management Education: Assessment Of Attitudes And Perceptions Of Iowa Farmers , Scott Reed Mickelsen Jan 2001

Risk Management Education: Assessment Of Attitudes And Perceptions Of Iowa Farmers , Scott Reed Mickelsen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to examine the preferences of agriculture producers regarding the content and delivery of risk management education using Kolb's learning modes as a set of descriptors. Further, this study sought to analyze producers' attitudes about and perceptions of risk and risk management education and develop an educational model based on these preferences and perceptions.;This study was conducted using a descriptive survey design. A six-part questionnaire was developed and sent to members of the Iowa Farm Bureau Federation. Collection of the data via purposive sampling was done using three techniques. The first was a ...


Perceived Impact Of Internship And Practical Training Programs On Professional And Personal Growth: Implications To Agricultural And Extension Education , Andrew Vladimirovich Novotorov Jan 2001

Perceived Impact Of Internship And Practical Training Programs On Professional And Personal Growth: Implications To Agricultural And Extension Education , Andrew Vladimirovich Novotorov

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The main purpose of this study was to determine and analyze former students' perceptions regarding impact of internship programs at Iowa State University. The secondary purpose was to identify existing practical training programs in Nizhni Novgorod Agricultural Academy, Russia. The third purpose was to identify the implications of determined perceptions for the opportunity to apply a new model of internship programming based on both American and Russian experiences.;This study examined the perceptions of agriculture graduates enrolled in internship and practical training programs of agriculture and agribusiness. Those who are proponents of these paradigms differ drastically in their views of ...


Faculty And Staff Members' Perceptions Of Internships In The College Of Agriculture At Iowa State University , Chia-Hsing Wu Jan 2001

Faculty And Staff Members' Perceptions Of Internships In The College Of Agriculture At Iowa State University , Chia-Hsing Wu

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Given its theoretical potential, an experiential internship could serve substantial purposes for all that participate: students, educational institutions, and employers. The value of an internship in college curricula has received increased attention in recent years. Internships appear to offer benefits to all three entities. While the benefits of internships toward students and employers are generally well known, little information concerns their potential benefits to educational institutions. Faculty and staff members' support and commitment are vital in planning and implementing the program. Identification of their concerns and perceptions of internships is the first step in gaining respect for the programs.;The ...


An Assessment Of Instructional Technology In Secondary Agricultural Education Curricula In North Carolina And Virginia , Antoine Jerrod Alston Jan 2000

An Assessment Of Instructional Technology In Secondary Agricultural Education Curricula In North Carolina And Virginia , Antoine Jerrod Alston

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this descriptive/correlational study was to evaluate instructional technology availability and use in secondary agricultural education curricula in North Carolina and Virginia. The population for this study consisted of secondary agriculture teachers in North Carolina and Virginia that were listed in the 1998--99 North Carolina Agricultural Education Director (N = 370) and Virginia Vocational Agriculture Teacher's Association Directory (N = 313). Based on Krejcie and Morgan's (1970) formula for a 5% margin of error, a random sample of 242 would be required for a population of this size. The researcher based on the objectives of the study ...


Educational And Occupational Aspirations Of Rural High School Seniors In The Private And Public Schools In Northwest Iowa , Duane Harold Bajema Jan 1999

Educational And Occupational Aspirations Of Rural High School Seniors In The Private And Public Schools In Northwest Iowa , Duane Harold Bajema

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Research has suggested that rural youth have lower educational and occupational aspirations than their nonrural counterparts, and they may experience barriers to educational and occupational attainment. Discrepancies and barriers that may exist have implications for educational policy and educational planning;Seventeen rural high schools in northwest Iowa were examined; thirteen public and four private schools. Rural high school students were studied to examine their perceptions concerning potential educational and occupational barriers. Student characteristics and qualities were examined based on where the student lived and the type of school they attended. Students who had been involved in the agricultural curricula in ...


Predicting College Of Agriculture Professors' Adoption Of Computers And Distance Education Technologies For Self-Education And Teaching At The University Of Guadalajara, Mexico , Ana Ramírez Carr Jan 1999

Predicting College Of Agriculture Professors' Adoption Of Computers And Distance Education Technologies For Self-Education And Teaching At The University Of Guadalajara, Mexico , Ana Ramírez Carr

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This descriptive and associational study investigated whether personal and institutional characteristics of professors in the College of Agriculture in Guadalajara, Mexico, were related to the use of computers for traditional teaching, and for distance learning and teaching. These characteristics included: interest, attitudes, self-efficacy levels, uses, need for support for faculty development opportunities, and availability of equipment and communications. By using multiple regression and discriminant analysis a series of predictors were identified;Among the findings it was identified that, in general, professors were highly interested in the use of technology in teaching, and held a positive attitude toward the use of ...


Perceptions Of Urban Agriculture Education Stakeholders Toward Curriculum , Donn Harry Russell Jan 1999

Perceptions Of Urban Agriculture Education Stakeholders Toward Curriculum , Donn Harry Russell

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to focus on the perceptions of urban agriculture education stakeholders toward curriculum issues and curriculum content of urban agriculture education programs. The study sought to determine the importance of program linkages in urban agriculture education programs. The study will recommend a curriculum design model to enhance the development of urban agriculture education programs;This was a quantitative research study using descriptive survey methodology to describe curriculum and issues in urban agriculture education. The study also predicts "what will be" giving it the potential to be more useful to urban agriculture education stakeholders;Data were ...


Perceptions Of Costa Rican Agricultural Employers Regarding Skills And Competencies Needed By Agriculturalists , Xenia Ceville Gray Jan 1998

Perceptions Of Costa Rican Agricultural Employers Regarding Skills And Competencies Needed By Agriculturalists , Xenia Ceville Gray

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

During the last decade a gap has existed between the education offered by institutions of higher education in Latin America in the agricultural sciences and the concrete needs of farmers, potential employers and society. The graduates from colleges and universities in the region are not meeting the needs of agriculturally oriented national/international companies nor the demands from small farmers;The purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge and skills needed by Ingenieros Agronomos with the Licenciatura degree as perceived by their potential employers in the agriculture sector, namely private businesses, government and non-government agencies, and international development ...


Perceptions Regarding Sustainable Agricultural Practices Associated With Weed Management: Implications To Agricultural Extension Education , Dido Guyo Kotile Jan 1998

Perceptions Regarding Sustainable Agricultural Practices Associated With Weed Management: Implications To Agricultural Extension Education , Dido Guyo Kotile

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The main purpose of this study was to determine and analyze farmers' perceptions regarding the adoption of selected sustainable agriculture practices specifically associated with weed control in Iowa. A secondary purpose was to identify the implications to agricultural extension education;The study revealed that farmers use a combination of various weed control methods including chemical control, cultivation, soil fertility management, crop rotation, and crop diversification. Farmers in this study indicated that they were supportive of educational program focused on sustainable agricultural practices. The challenge that faces extension educators is to design educational programs that fit the needs of farmers;Farmers ...


Perceived Benefits Of Selected Experiential Learning Activities And Quality Of Instructional Techniques In A College Of Agriculture Capstone Course , Randall James Andreasen Jan 1998

Perceived Benefits Of Selected Experiential Learning Activities And Quality Of Instructional Techniques In A College Of Agriculture Capstone Course , Randall James Andreasen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to determine the perceptions of course completers in a college of agriculture capstone course regarding the benefits of selected experiential learning activities and instructional techniques. Further, this study sought to determine the quality of the learning activities and instructional techniques employed in capstone course and to develop a model for the integration of these experiential learning activities into capstone courses;This study was conducted using a descriptive survey design. A four part questionnaire was developed and sent to 214 capstone course completers of AgEdS 450, Farm Management and Operation, Iowa State University. This sample ...


Perceptions Regarding Integration Of Agricultural Awareness Activities By Elementary Teachers In East Central Iowa, Neil Armstrong Knobloch Jan 1997

Perceptions Regarding Integration Of Agricultural Awareness Activities By Elementary Teachers In East Central Iowa, Neil Armstrong Knobloch

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to analyze the status of agricultural awareness efforts in elementary grades in a selected area of Iowa and create a model of agricultural awareness for the community education system. The primary objectives of this study were: (1) identify elementary school teachers' perceptions on agricultural related issues; (2) identify the extent of current agricultural awareness activities; (3) compare selected demographic data with perceptions and activities of elementary school teachers in east central Iowa; and (4) develop a model for delivery of agricultural awareness programming. This study was conducted using a survey instrument that was distributed ...