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Full-Text Articles in Education

Parental Perspectives On Physical Education Services For Children With Charge Syndrome, Kristi Jo Lane Apr 2019

Parental Perspectives On Physical Education Services For Children With Charge Syndrome, Kristi Jo Lane

Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education Synthesis Projects

Purpose: Although there is literature currently that addresses parental perspectives of their child’s physical education services related to specific disabilities (Columna, L., Streete, D., Hodge et. al., 2018; Dillion, S., Dolphin. Et. al. 2017; Perkins, Columna, Lieberman, & Bailey, 2013; Columna et. al., 2008; An & Hodge, 2013; Štěrbová & Kudláček, 2014), there is a lack of research in investigating parental perspectives and CHARGE Syndrome. The aim of this study was designed to explore parental perspectives with children who have CHARGE Syndrome and their experiences in physical education. Methods: In this descriptive qualitative study, the participants were 10 mothers of children with CHARGE Syndrome ages 6-23 years old. These parents completed a demographic survey and semi-structured interview discussing their perspectives regarding their child’s physical education services. Results: Three independent themes were revealed (a) holistic expectations, (b) multifaceted barriers, and (c) facilitators to quality physical education. Conclusions: The overall finding from this study that parents do find physical education services as an important part of the educational program; however, these programs currently do not meet their expectations in terms of programming, qualified physical education teachers, and mindfully implementing the general physical education curriculum in an effective means for students with multiple disabilities.


Effects Of Two Cognitive-Behavioral Physical Activity And Nutrition Treatments On Psychosocial Predictors Of Changes In Fruit/Vegetable And High-Fat Food Intake, And Weight, James J. Annesi, Monica Nandan, Kristin L. Mcewen Apr 2019

Effects Of Two Cognitive-Behavioral Physical Activity And Nutrition Treatments On Psychosocial Predictors Of Changes In Fruit/Vegetable And High-Fat Food Intake, And Weight, James J. Annesi, Monica Nandan, Kristin L. Mcewen

Monica Nandan

Improved mood may increase the consumption of healthy foods and decrease the intake of unhealthy foods. Increased physical activity might improve mood and, thus, eating behaviors. Adults (Mage = 45 years) with severe and morbid obesity (Mbody mass index = 41kg/m2) were randomly assigned to 6 months of either cognitive-behavioral physical activity and nutrition-support methods alone (n = 92), or those methods plus mood regulation training (n = 92). There were significant improvements in physical activity, mood, self-regulation and selfefficacy for controlling eating, and weight that did not differ by group. Improvement in mood was associated with greater fruit/vegetable intake. Change in ...


Critical Embodied Praxis For Social Justice And Peace Educators: A Story Of Personal Transformation Through Analysis Of My Jewish And Settler Identities, Cara Michelle Silverberg Apr 2019

Critical Embodied Praxis For Social Justice And Peace Educators: A Story Of Personal Transformation Through Analysis Of My Jewish And Settler Identities, Cara Michelle Silverberg

Capstone Collection

In this paper, I examine definitions of and relationships between violence, oppression, peace, liberation, and embodiment in the context of critical pedagogy in order to construct a theory of critical embodied praxis for social justice and peace educators. Considering the body to be a tangible vessel through which narratives and mechanisms of violence are expressed and maintained, I explore the potential of the body to be a vessel through which liberatory narratives may be generated and shared. After constructing a theory of critical embodied praxis, I illustrate this framework in action through a personal narrative that explores the intersections of ...


Healthy Families: A Family-Based Community Intervention To Address Childhood Obesity, Danae Dinkel, Melissa Tibbits, Emily Hanigan, Kelly Nielsen, Leah Jorgensen, Kay Grant Mar 2019

Healthy Families: A Family-Based Community Intervention To Address Childhood Obesity, Danae Dinkel, Melissa Tibbits, Emily Hanigan, Kelly Nielsen, Leah Jorgensen, Kay Grant

Danae Dinkel

The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of Healthy Families, a family-based community intervention, in improving the knowledge, self-efficacy, and health behaviors of overweight/obese children and their families as well as to explore the lessons learned. Results showed families who completed the program had significant improvements for children and parents in areas such as nutrition knowledge and self-efficacy in making healthy eating choices as well as participating in physical activity. Additionally, families reported decreasing their intake of sugar-sweetened beverages. Participating families and community partners provided valuable lessons for other communities seeking to implement a similar program.


Affordances In The Home Environment For Motor Development-Infant Scale, Spanish Translation, Danae Dinkel, Kailey Snyder, Priscila Cacola Mar 2019

Affordances In The Home Environment For Motor Development-Infant Scale, Spanish Translation, Danae Dinkel, Kailey Snyder, Priscila Cacola

Danae Dinkel

The home environment has a critical influence on an infant’s development and well-being. The Affordances in the Home Environment for Motor Development-Infant Scale (AHEMD-IS) is an instrument that has been developed to assess the home environment. This article illustrates the translation, validation, and cultural adaptation process of the AHEMD-IS from English to Spanish. The AHEMD-IS underwent a comprehensive process involving a four-phase translation process: (1) Forward translation, (2) Semantic equivalence, (3) Content equivalence testing, and (4) Final version development. Steps 1 and 2 resulted in linguistic alterations from the initial translation to enhance clarity for general public understanding. In ...


He’S Just Content To Sit: A Qualitative Study Of Mothers’ Perceptions Of Infant Obesity And Physical Activity, Danae Dinkel, Kailey Snyder, Anastasia Kyvelidou, Victoria Molfese Mar 2019

He’S Just Content To Sit: A Qualitative Study Of Mothers’ Perceptions Of Infant Obesity And Physical Activity, Danae Dinkel, Kailey Snyder, Anastasia Kyvelidou, Victoria Molfese

Danae Dinkel

Background: Rates of obesity among children ages zero to five are rapidly increasing. Greater efforts are needed to promote healthy behaviors of young children. Mothers are especially important targets for promoting health as mothers’ views play a vital role in helping their children foster healthy habits from an early age. Research has found parents’ views of infants’ weight may influence their feeding practices; however, limited research has explored mothers’ view of infants’ weight in relation to the promotion of physical activity. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of mothers of normal weight infants and overweight ...


They Just Need To Move: Teachers' Perception Of Classroom Physical Activity Breaks, Danae Dinkel, Connie Schaffer, Kailey Snyder, Jung Min Lee Mar 2019

They Just Need To Move: Teachers' Perception Of Classroom Physical Activity Breaks, Danae Dinkel, Connie Schaffer, Kailey Snyder, Jung Min Lee

Danae Dinkel

The purpose of this study was to explore 1) perceptions of preschool-8th grade teachers' in regard to classroom physical activity (PA) and 2) multiple levels of factors impacting preschool-8th grade teachers' ability to implement PA into the classroom. Sixty preschool-8th grade teachers from five school districts participated in semi-structured interviews following a guide developed from constructs of the social ecological model. All teachers implemented classroom PA but had varied levels of confidence for implementation. Teachers identified barriers to implementation and requested additional classroom PA resources. Furthermore, they identified collaboration with other teachers as an underutilized resource for promotion of classroom ...


The Factors Affecting Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tears In Female Athletes A Synthesis Of The Research Literature, Courtney L. Szczesniak Mar 2019

The Factors Affecting Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tears In Female Athletes A Synthesis Of The Research Literature, Courtney L. Szczesniak

Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education Synthesis Projects

Research has shown that female athletes are more likely to injure their anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) than male athletes (Elliot, Goldberg, & Kuehl, 2010). Although female athletic opportunities have increased over the past few decades, this increased risk for ACL injuries may deter some individuals from participating in sport, especially those that involve quick movements where knee injuries are more prevalent (e.g., soccer, basketball). Thus, the purpose of this synthesis is to identify risk factors specific to female athletes that contribute to their increased ACL vulnerability. A search procedure utilizing SPORTDiscus, Academic Search Complete, and Physical Education Index was conducted ...


Cardiorespiratory Responses To Shallow Water Exercise: A Sex Comparison, Mitchell Garant Fisher, Laura Jean Miller, Jerusalem Tesfaye, Karen Roemer, Debra Mary D'Acquisto, Leo Joseph D'Acquisto Mar 2019

Cardiorespiratory Responses To Shallow Water Exercise: A Sex Comparison, Mitchell Garant Fisher, Laura Jean Miller, Jerusalem Tesfaye, Karen Roemer, Debra Mary D'Acquisto, Leo Joseph D'Acquisto

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

This investigation examined physiological responses to shallow water exercise (SWE) and to a high-intensity interval SWE workout (HIISWE) in males (M, n=9) and females (F, n=9). Participants performed 5 X 5 min. SWE bouts (bts.) at ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) 9, 11, 13, 15 and 17 (Borg scale) and a maximal bout of SWE with metabolic, heart rate (HR), and blood lactate (BLa) responses monitored. The same measurements were performed during HIISWE (4 X 4-min bts., alternating 20-s “all-out” and 10-s rest). Peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2) and BLa were greater in M (3.6 ± 0 ...


Validation Of A New Incremental Swim Test As A Tool For Maximum Oxygen Uptake Analysis In Lifeguards, Brais Ruibal-Lista, José Palacios-Aguilar, José Antonio Prieto, Sergio López-García, José Antonio Cecchini-Estrada, Miguel Santiago-Alonso, Cristian Abelairas-Gómez Mar 2019

Validation Of A New Incremental Swim Test As A Tool For Maximum Oxygen Uptake Analysis In Lifeguards, Brais Ruibal-Lista, José Palacios-Aguilar, José Antonio Prieto, Sergio López-García, José Antonio Cecchini-Estrada, Miguel Santiago-Alonso, Cristian Abelairas-Gómez

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

This study was designed to validate an incremental test predicting maximum oxygen uptake for lifeguards. A maximum incremental test was performed in the laboratory (i.e., treadmill run) and in the pool (i.e., swim) by 10 certified lifeguards. The values of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2Max), maximum heart rate (HRMax), and lactate (LaMax) achieved during both tests were analyzed. The VO2Max (0.87, p =.001), HRmax (0.85, p = .002) and LaMax (0.67, p


Unintentional Bathtub Drowning Deaths Among Those Aged 65 Years And Older In Australia, Amy E. Peden, Richard C. Franklin, John H. Pearn M.D., Alison J. Mahony Feb 2019

Unintentional Bathtub Drowning Deaths Among Those Aged 65 Years And Older In Australia, Amy E. Peden, Richard C. Franklin, John H. Pearn M.D., Alison J. Mahony

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

When compared with other age groups, fatal drowning rates among seniors have stayed static. This study identifies causal factors in unintentional bathtub drowning deaths among people aged 65 years and over. This study is a 10-year (2003-2012) total population retrospective survey of all unintentional bathtub (baths, spa baths and showers) drowning deaths afflicting people aged 65 years and over. Data were sourced from the Australian National Coronial Information System. Risk factors and circumstantial variables were analysed including sex, age, activity prior to drowning, alcohol, drugs, pre-existing medical conditions, living circumstances, time until found, and performance of cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR). There ...


Self-Agency And Swimming: Letting Babies Be Your Teachers, Stephen J. Langendorfer Ph.D. Feb 2019

Self-Agency And Swimming: Letting Babies Be Your Teachers, Stephen J. Langendorfer Ph.D.

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

Young children learning to swim should be afforded the freedom to choose for themselves whether they submerge, float, or have their arms and legs manipulated.


Can You Float? Part 2 - Perceptions And Practice Of Lifejacket Use Among Young Adults, Kevin Moran Ph.D. Feb 2019

Can You Float? Part 2 - Perceptions And Practice Of Lifejacket Use Among Young Adults, Kevin Moran Ph.D.

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

Personal flotation devices (PFDs), commonly referred to as lifejackets, have been identified as an extremely effective form of drowning prevention and was identified as a critical distinct water competency by Stallman and colleagues (2017). In this second phase of the Can You Float? study, perceptions and practice of a range of lifejacket tasks among students (N = 40) with known water proficiency were examined. Participants estimated exertion levels before and after practical testing of six simulated survival tasks when wearing lifejackets. All participants completed a 25m sprint swim, 5-minute endurance swim, 5-minute float, and 25m partner assist but many failed to ...


An Investigation Of Youth Swimming Skills And Method Of Instruction, Carol C. Irwin, Jennifer R. Pharr, Todd E. Layne, Richard L. Irwin Feb 2019

An Investigation Of Youth Swimming Skills And Method Of Instruction, Carol C. Irwin, Jennifer R. Pharr, Todd E. Layne, Richard L. Irwin

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

Drowning is a leading cause of death for US children. Teaching youth to swim in a formal setting from certified instructors is a consistent drowning prevention recommendation. Purposes for this investigation was to examine type of swimming instruction and ability to swim and compare to attitudes toward swimming among US youth. Methods were similar to previous USA Swimming studies in 2008 and 2010. YMCA associations in five cities were used to recruit adolescent survey respondents (n=600) aged 12-18 years. Results showed African American youth had the lowest rate of formal swimming instruction (29%) compared to White (32%) and Hispanic ...


An Examination Of The Severity Of Aquatic Incidents, Lyndsey K. Lanagan-Leitzel Feb 2019

An Examination Of The Severity Of Aquatic Incidents, Lyndsey K. Lanagan-Leitzel

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

Lanagan-Leitzel (2012) found that lifeguards do not consistently report incidents when free-viewing aquatic scenes and miss some incidents that should be considered critical. This could have been because they did not know what incidents were critical to monitor or because they were busy monitoring other incidents. In the current study, lifeguards and non-lifeguards were presented with video clips of isolated incidents and rated the severity of each on a scale of 0 – 7. The lifeguards reported greater mean and maximum incident severity than non-lifeguards. Further analyses of lifeguard responses revealed that severity ratings were only moderately correlated to the report ...


Triennial Scientific Review: Assisting Drowning Victims: Effective Water Rescue Equipment For Lay-Responders, Angela K. Beale-Tawfeeq, American Red Cross Scientific Advisory Council Feb 2019

Triennial Scientific Review: Assisting Drowning Victims: Effective Water Rescue Equipment For Lay-Responders, Angela K. Beale-Tawfeeq, American Red Cross Scientific Advisory Council

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

The original question addressed in the scientific review was What is the most effective piece of rescue equipment for a lay responder to throw to a person in trouble in water? and the modified question was rephrased as What are the most effective types of aquatic rescue equipment for a layperson/bystander to use to rescue a drowning person? To thoroughly analyze the main question, the following sub-questions were examined: What are the most accurate and buoyant types of devices? What specific equipment is best for quick rescues? What specific equipment can be grasped most easily by drowning victims? This ...


Revised Scientific Review: Minimum Age For Swim Lessons, Stephen J. Langendorfer Ph.D., American Red Cross Scientific Advisory Council Jan 2019

Revised Scientific Review: Minimum Age For Swim Lessons, Stephen J. Langendorfer Ph.D., American Red Cross Scientific Advisory Council

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

The question addressed in the original scientific review (2009) was rephrased as Does sufficient scientific evidence exist to support setting a minimum age for swimming lessons? for this triennial review. Addressing the research question is significant because strong differences of opinion about the appropriate age(s) for initiating learn-to-swim lessons have existed among the pediatric medical profession, aquatic professionals and agencies, and proprietary programs and swim schools for over four decades. The question has implications for the appropriate purposes, pedagogies, and outcomes associated with swimming experiences for infants and young children that will be addressed in a subsequent review. The ...


Risk Factors For Boating Incidents In Inuvik, Northwest Territories, Canada, Catherine Tr Glass, Audrey R. Giles Jan 2019

Risk Factors For Boating Incidents In Inuvik, Northwest Territories, Canada, Catherine Tr Glass, Audrey R. Giles

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

Injury prevention programs that focus on boating and water safety in the Northwest Territories (NWT) have existed for decades; however, rates of boating incidents are much higher in the NWT than southern Canada. To better understand this health disparity, we engaged in community-based participatory research informed by postcolonial feminist theory to examine Aboriginal men’s understandings of the risk factors that contribute to boating incidents in Inuvik, NWT. Participants identified four main risk factors for boating incidents in Inuvik: 1) Gender, 2) age, 3) place, and 4) lack of boating safety education. As a result of these findings and the ...


Editorial: Born To Swim?, Stephen J. Langendorfer Ph.D. Jan 2019

Editorial: Born To Swim?, Stephen J. Langendorfer Ph.D.

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

Can a child's eventual swim kick and stroke preference be predicted shortly after birth? Read this editorial....


Examining The Perceived Impacts Of Recreational Swimming Lessons For Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Erin Kraft M.A. Ed. Jan 2019

Examining The Perceived Impacts Of Recreational Swimming Lessons For Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Erin Kraft M.A. Ed.

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

The purpose of this study was to examine the perceived impacts of recreational swimming lesson participation for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Although swimming lessons are a suitable form of physical activity for children with ASD, minimal research has examined the impacts of these lessons. The author conducted semi-structured interviews with an Applied Behaviour Analysis (ABA) certified therapist and a swim instructor, each with experience working with children with ASD in swimming lessons. The participants suggested that swimming lessons encouraged children with ASD to socialise. Both participants agreed that distractions in swimming lessons and barriers in communication created challenges ...


Can You Float? Part I - Perceptions And Practice Of Unsupported Flotation Competency Among Young Adults, Kevin Moran Ph.D. Jan 2019

Can You Float? Part I - Perceptions And Practice Of Unsupported Flotation Competency Among Young Adults, Kevin Moran Ph.D.

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

The capacity to maintain the airway through buoyancy control when immersed in water is critical in preventing drowning (Stallman, Moran, Quan & Langendorfer, 2017). In this first phase of the Can you Float? study, perceived and real unsupported flotation competency of a group of students (n=37) with known water proficiency was examined. Using a modified version of Borgs Rating of Perceived exertion (RPE), participants were asked to estimate exertion levels before and after a practical test of five stationary floating tasks of increasing difficulty ranging from treading water to motionless floating. Most participants (82%) were able to tread water for ...


The Effect Of Team Sports On Mental Health In Adolescents, Jhon Guarin Dec 2018

The Effect Of Team Sports On Mental Health In Adolescents, Jhon Guarin

Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education Synthesis Projects

There is research that shows the impact of physical activity and sport on the health of individuals participating. However, there is an area of research that is lacking regards to the impact of team sports on mental health, specifically amongst youth. Therefore, the purpose of this synthesis was to review the literature on the effects of team sports on mental health in youth and adolescents. Research has shown that there is a positive correlation between participation in a team sport and overall mental health in youth. Despite the amount of evidence, there still needs to be additional research conducted.


Media Coverage For Female Sports: A Review Of Literature, Hsu Zen Lim Dec 2018

Media Coverage For Female Sports: A Review Of Literature, Hsu Zen Lim

Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education Synthesis Projects

Ever since Title IX were introduced in 1972, it has allowed equal play time for both male and female athletes on the court. Although Title IX helped to establish more equity for women in sport participation, media coverage did not parallel the growth of women’s participation. The purpose of this synthesis was to review the literature on media coverage of female athletes. Media coverage included a review of newspaper and magazine print as well as visual and social media. In addition, a review of the portrayal of women in the media was also presented. Results indicated women sports were ...


Coaching Behaviors And Their Impact On Burnout Of High School Athletes, Zachary Monell Dec 2018

Coaching Behaviors And Their Impact On Burnout Of High School Athletes, Zachary Monell

Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education Synthesis Projects

Through sport activity, coaches can impact, effect, and influence their athletes in many ways. The purpose of this synthesis was to review the literature on coaching behaviors and their impact on burnout of high school athletes. There is an association between controlling coaching behaviors and athletes’ negative experiences in their respective sports. Negative experiences, such as emotional abuse, is a key issue that was brought up in youth sport that can have long term effects on athletes. Coaches may not know the impact that they have on athletes. Coaches may think that they are motivating the athletes, but in fact ...


Environmental Factors That Influence Physical Activity Participation In Children And Youth: A Synthesis Of The Literature, Jarrod Nash Dec 2018

Environmental Factors That Influence Physical Activity Participation In Children And Youth: A Synthesis Of The Literature, Jarrod Nash

Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education Synthesis Projects

Physical activity participation in children and youth is widely regarded as important to ensure proper health. There are many environmental factors that contribute to children and youth being able to participate in physical activity on a daily basis. This synthesis reviewed literature regarding environmental factors that influence physical activity participation in children and youth. Data was collected using the EBSCOHOST search engine, found on The College at Brockport’s Drake Memorial Library online research website. Key words in SPORTDiscus and Academic Search Complete databases were combined to obtain 10 studies that focused on this synthesis’s purpose and research questions ...


Sport Participation And Academic Achievement In High School Athletes, Meg Stucko Dec 2018

Sport Participation And Academic Achievement In High School Athletes, Meg Stucko

Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education Synthesis Projects

The purpose of this synthesis was to identify sport participation as a motivational influence and driving factor behind the increased academic success in high school student-athletes. An extensive examination of literature was conducted in order to review and research the effects on academic achievement in high school students, in relation to their participation status on a school-organized sports team. Higher grade point averages (GPA), graduation rates, ACT scores, along with lower dropout rates are all prominent among student-athletes as well (Lumpkin & Favor, 2012). There are many positive benefits that come along with sport participation, yet some feel it has the ...


College Intervention Programs And Their Effects On The Physical Health Of College Students, Tanner E. Mosher Dec 2018

College Intervention Programs And Their Effects On The Physical Health Of College Students, Tanner E. Mosher

Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education Synthesis Projects

Obesity and poor health rates in this country have been a problem for years and there has been much research to show how physical activity can be a solution for this problem. Much research has been done on physical activity programs and their benefits to different populations, but specifically not much has been done in the question of college students. During these years' adolescents are vulnerable to weight gain and negative health outcomes. Therefore, the purpose of this synthesis was to review the literature on college physical activity programs and the – physical health benefits for college students. Research has shown ...


Psychological Effects And Treatment Of An Injury On An Athlete: Suggested Treatment Plan For Athletic Trainers And Physical Therapist, Odell Miller Dec 2018

Psychological Effects And Treatment Of An Injury On An Athlete: Suggested Treatment Plan For Athletic Trainers And Physical Therapist, Odell Miller

Honors Theses

Injuries that force athletes to lose participation in their sport and or training have a tremendous impact on their mental health. Mental health issues can be detrimental, but often times go unnoticed. For example in 2010, Kenny McKinley, a wide receiver for the Denver Broncos, was found dead after killing himself with a gun. After suffering a knee injury, he had become progressively depressed. Investigators reported that there are statements saying that McKinley didn’t know what he would do without football. According to NCAA’s Sports Science Institute (2017), the psychological response to injury can trigger mental health issues ...


The Role Of Social Media In Intercollegiate Athletics: A Synthesis Of The Research Literature, William B. Burns Iii Dec 2018

The Role Of Social Media In Intercollegiate Athletics: A Synthesis Of The Research Literature, William B. Burns Iii

Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education Synthesis Projects

Abstract

The purpose of this synthesis was to examine social media use in intercollegiate athletic departments, and the effect that social media has on colleges and student-athletes. Previous research shows that social media has not been a large presence in intercollegiate athletics until 2008 when schools started to realize that is can be a powerful tool to help with marketing strategies. Common themes that emerged through the critical mass were social media best practices at the intercollegiate level, the most commonly used platforms, the benefits of using social media for colleges and student-athletes, and the problems and potential problems of ...


Key Factors To Consider In Sport Specialization For Youth: A Review Of The Literature, Corey Craig Dec 2018

Key Factors To Consider In Sport Specialization For Youth: A Review Of The Literature, Corey Craig

Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education Synthesis Projects

Youth sport provides a valuable environment in which children can develop their motor and psychosocial skills, learn how to be “coached”, and become part of a team (Goodway & Robinson, 2015). This topic is important because decisions to specialize too young can impact the lives of young athletes in terms of their physiological and psychological health. The purpose of this synthesis was to explore the factors that go into the decision to specialize in one sport when children are young. Ten articles were reviewed and synthesized to answer five research questions. Results indicate that so-called “specializers” may be at a greater ...