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Full-Text Articles in Education

World War Ii And Its Impact On Education, Samuel J. Smith Dec 2018

World War Ii And Its Impact On Education, Samuel J. Smith

Samuel James Smith

A cost rarely considered in the study of war is its impact on education.  Government budgets shift funding from schools to armies.  Parents and teachers go off to war or modify their own activities to support the cause.  Older students prepare to fight while younger ones are evacuated or kept safe at home.  Educational experiences are certainly different for students in war-torn countries than for those in countries far from battle.  Nevertheless, war impacts education in a number of ways, and there are many examples of how World War II certainly did this.       


Educational Reformer & Christian Soldier: General Oliver Otis Howard, Samuel J. Smith Dec 2018

Educational Reformer & Christian Soldier: General Oliver Otis Howard, Samuel J. Smith

Samuel James Smith

Contemporaries of Oliver Otis Howard and historians alike have disagreed on the degree of his success as a Civil War general and as commissioner of the Freedmen’s Bureau.  Some describe his performance as inept and others as skillful.  Some laud his Christian example while others believe that he allowed his religious and political beliefs to diminish his efforts.  Whatever one’s perspective, evidence indicates that Howard’s political and religious beliefs influenced his actions as Civil War general and as Freedmen’s Bureau commissioner, and—although he experienced some failure in both arenas—his leadership is exemplified by what ...