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Full-Text Articles in Education

Performance-Based Funding Of Higher Education: Analyses Of Policy Discourse Across Four Case Studies, Mary Ziskin, Karyn E. Rabourn, Donald Hossler Sep 2018

Performance-Based Funding Of Higher Education: Analyses Of Policy Discourse Across Four Case Studies, Mary Ziskin, Karyn E. Rabourn, Donald Hossler

Educational Leadership Faculty Publications

Performance-based funding (PBF) for public colleges and universities is increasingly prevalent worldwide, as a part of a broader pattern of marketisation in public education. This study focused on developing an empirical view of how, and in what contexts, policy makers use the concepts of neoliberal economics to design and support PerformanceBased Funding (PBF) policies in higher education. We analysed 121 policy documents, white papers, evaluation reports, and news items related to PBF policies in four case jurisdictions: Tennessee, Washington, United Kingdom, and Italy. We employed critical discourse analysis methods as framed by Fairclough and colleagues and implemented this approach within ...


Problem-Solving Tips For School Business Officials, David Alan Dolph Feb 2017

Problem-Solving Tips For School Business Officials, David Alan Dolph

Educational Leadership Faculty Publications

School business officials must be able to analyze problems and develop effective solutions. Arriving at solutions involves identifying the relative importance of the problem, what is known additional information is required, who is involved, what’s at risk, and the ultimate goal.

Most problems are easily resolved based on policy, experience, and knowledge of school business. However, some problems are more complex. School business officials don’t always have all the information they need, aren’t familiar with the personnel involved, or are faced with conflicting priorities.

A handbook on data-based decision making (Kowalski 2009) offers a basic format involving ...


School Crisis Plans: Are You Prepared?, David Alan Dolph Dec 2016

School Crisis Plans: Are You Prepared?, David Alan Dolph

Educational Leadership Faculty Publications

The majority of states have statutes requiring school districts to develop school safety plans focused on preventing and responding to crisis situations. Plans may include protocols for disseminating school safety plans to appropriate personnel; mandatory fire, tornado, or active drills; and community involvement.

Although the degree of comprehensiveness of those plans depends on state legislation, all should include the basic elements offered here, focused on creating secure school environments.


Affirmative Action Returns To The Supreme Court, Charles J. Russo Oct 2016

Affirmative Action Returns To The Supreme Court, Charles J. Russo

Educational Leadership Faculty Publications

One of the most hotly contested issues in education during the past-half century is affirmative action, also known as race-based admissions policies. Supporters defend the practice as one designed to take “affirmative” steps to eliminate the present effects of past discrimination. Critics respond that these policies do not address how granting preferences today remedies past harms, especially because individuals who are passed over when affirmative action is applied played no role in creating past inequities.

Insofar as debate over affirmative action has heated up yet again, this column briefly examines the history of Fisher v. University of Texas II (2016 ...


Faculty Views Of “Nontraditional” Students: Aligning Perspectives For Student Success, Desiree D. Zerquera, Mary Ziskin, Vasti Torres Apr 2016

Faculty Views Of “Nontraditional” Students: Aligning Perspectives For Student Success, Desiree D. Zerquera, Mary Ziskin, Vasti Torres

Educational Leadership Faculty Publications

Faculty serve as a primary point of contact for students in college, playing vital roles in students’ retention and attainment. The perceptions and beliefs held by these institutional actors are important for understanding the context that shapes students’ experiences while they are in college and potentially, long after they leave. The purpose of this work is to examine faculty members’ perceptions of nontraditional student experiences. Findings highlight faculty members’ awareness of students’ multiple roles and obligations; perceptions of student academic success, including barriers to succeeding; and the ways faculty connect with students and the types of connections they forge. The ...


Sbos As Leaders Of Change, David Alan Dolph Oct 2015

Sbos As Leaders Of Change, David Alan Dolph

Educational Leadership Faculty Publications

Federal and state education mandates have prompted more changes in PreK–12 education in the past several years than during any other time in American education history. The sheer volume of changes and their complexity have put school business officials to the test as never before.

Among the more challenging issues for school business officials are the budgetary implications of the Affordable Care Act, special-education regulations, new food-service mandates, and safety and environmental regulations.

School business officials and other education leaders must lead the district and the community through the changes brought on by those mandates. How do they do ...


Ceo Impact On Superintendents, Theodore J. Kowalski Feb 2015

Ceo Impact On Superintendents, Theodore J. Kowalski

Educational Leadership Faculty Publications

Noting that collaboration between business executives and superintendents was wide but not deep, a Harvard Business School monograph, "Partial Credit: How America's School Superintendents See Business as a Partner," identified positive findings regarding access. Nearly two-thirds of 1,117 responding superintendents said they had access to business leaders to whom they could turn for advice and support. In urban districts, the figure was 84 percent. However, responses to a question on the AASA's decennial survey suggested otherwise.


Institutional Merit-Based Aid And Student Departure: A Longitudinal Analysis, Jacob P. K. Gross, Don Hossler, Mary B. Ziskin, Matthew S. Berry Jan 2015

Institutional Merit-Based Aid And Student Departure: A Longitudinal Analysis, Jacob P. K. Gross, Don Hossler, Mary B. Ziskin, Matthew S. Berry

Educational Leadership Faculty Publications

The use of merit criteria in awarding institutional aid has grown considerably and, some argue, is supplanting need as the central factor in awarding aid. Concurrently, the accountability movement in higher education has placed greater emphasis on retention and graduation as indicators of institutional success and quality. In this context, this study explores the relationship between institutional merit aid and student departure from a statewide system of higher education. We found that, once we account for self-selection to the extent possible, there was no significant relationship. By contrast, need-based aid was consistently related to decreased odds of departure.


Principal Dispositions Regarding The Ohio Teacher Evaluation System, Theodore J. Kowalski, David Alan Dolph Jan 2015

Principal Dispositions Regarding The Ohio Teacher Evaluation System, Theodore J. Kowalski, David Alan Dolph

Educational Leadership Faculty Publications

The Ohio Teacher Evaluation System (OTES) was first implemented during the 2013-14 school term. This study examined principals’ dispositions at the end of this school term. Findings revealed several major concerns. The most prominent were (a) not having sufficient time to implement the program properly, (b) basing a teacher’s performance heavily on student value-added data, and (c) being required to assist teachers in developing their annual improvement plans. Three independent variables, teaching experience, administrative experience, and level of school assignment, were found to have only a low level of association with principal dispositions. With respect to teacher evaluation generally ...


Professional Qualifications And Gender, Theodore J. Kowalski Nov 2014

Professional Qualifications And Gender, Theodore J. Kowalski

Educational Leadership Faculty Publications

Literature comparing male and female superintendents rather consistently has reported differences in professional qualifications. Most notably, females have higher levels of professional experience, especially as teachers, before becoming a superintendent. Logically, authors studying this topic conclude that females usually must have superior credentials to enter the position. Two findings in AASA's latest decennial study of superintendents, one pertaining to teaching experience and the other to age upon entering the position, suggest the conclusion remains valid. In 2010, 28 percent of males and 13 percent of females had fewer than 6 years of teaching experience. In 2000, those figures were ...


Student Motives For Taking Online Courses In Educational Administration, Theodore J. Kowalski, David Alan Dolph, Ila Phillip Young Sep 2014

Student Motives For Taking Online Courses In Educational Administration, Theodore J. Kowalski, David Alan Dolph, Ila Phillip Young

Educational Leadership Faculty Publications

This study was conducted with students enrolled in a master’s degree program in educational administration at a private research university that offered all required courses in both online and in-class formats. The purposes were to determine (a) the extent to which online courses were selected, (b) the level of importance students placed on four common motives for taking online courses, and (c) levels of association between the importance of values and two demographic variables (employment level and years of teaching experience). The extent to which students took online courses varied considerably. Convenience and flexibility were the most important motives ...


Superintendent Mobility, Theodore J. Kowalski Sep 2014

Superintendent Mobility, Theodore J. Kowalski

Educational Leadership Faculty Publications

A study nearly 50 years ago categorized superintendents as being either career-bound or place-bound. The former consisted of administrators inclined to advance their career by relocating to a new school district or state. The latter group consisted of administrators who sought internal promotions over relocation.

Two findings from AASA:s latest decennial superintendents' study reveal virtually no change in mobility since 2000. This outcome is somewhat surprising in light of the increases in the number of post-retirement individuals continuing to serve in the superintendency by accepting a job covered by another state's pension system.


Perceptions Of State Education Agencies, Theodore J. Kowalski Aug 2014

Perceptions Of State Education Agencies, Theodore J. Kowalski

Educational Leadership Faculty Publications

Relationships between state government and school districts reflect long-standing tensions involving liberty and equity. In states where the former is emphasized, the authority and scope of responsibilities relegated to state agencies are limited, so local boards and superintendents have considerable leeway to make decisions. In states that exercise centralized controls to provide reasonably equal educational opportunities, localities have less flexibility. Consequently, superintendent survey ratings should be considered in light of such dissimilarities across state education departments.

An AASA superintendency study indicated superintendents held widely differing views of their state education agencies. In general, district enrollment, with one exception, was not ...


Working Students’ Perceptions Of Paying For College: Understanding The Connections Between Financial Aid And Work, Mary Ziskin, Mary Ann Fischer, Vasti Torres, Beth Pellicciotti, Jacquelyn Player-Sanders Jul 2014

Working Students’ Perceptions Of Paying For College: Understanding The Connections Between Financial Aid And Work, Mary Ziskin, Mary Ann Fischer, Vasti Torres, Beth Pellicciotti, Jacquelyn Player-Sanders

Educational Leadership Faculty Publications

For many students at urban commuter colleges, the process of financial aid is unknown or mysterious; and so they work—often many hours a week—to pay expenses that financial aid might have covered. Missteps, unforeseen events, and limited resources can have severe consequences for the academic progress of these students. The broader study, of which this paper is a part, represents an effort to explore and describe students’ college-going, working, family responsibilities, and academic success at three commuter institutions in a metropolitan region in the Midwest. The encompassing project aims to introduce new qualitative data and situated description into ...


Superintendent Search Assistance, Theodore J. Kowalski Feb 2014

Superintendent Search Assistance, Theodore J. Kowalski

Educational Leadership Faculty Publications

About 46 percent of school boards conducted their most recent superintendent search without a professional consultant. In 2000, some 54 percent went it alone on their search, according to AASI!(s decennial superintendency surveys. During the past decade, the percentage of districts hiring private help to fill their CEO vacancy increased from about 18 percent to 24 percent. School districts retaining the state school boards association for this purpose increased from 19 percent in 2000 to 22 percent in 2010.


International Perspectives On Education, Religion And Law, Charles J. Russo Jan 2014

International Perspectives On Education, Religion And Law, Charles J. Russo

Educational Leadership Faculty Publications

From publisher: This volume examines the legal status of religion in education, both public and non-public, in the United States and seven other nations. It will stimulate further interest, research, and debate on comparative analyses on the role of religion in schools at a time when the place of religion is of vital interest in most parts of the world. This interdisciplinary volume includes chapters by leading academicians and is designed to serve as a resource for researchers and educational practitioners, providing readers with an enhanced awareness of strategies for addressing the role of religion in rapidly diversifying educational settings ...


The School District Superintendent In The United States Of America, Lars G. Björk, Theodore J. Kowalski, Tricia Browne-Ferrigno Jan 2014

The School District Superintendent In The United States Of America, Lars G. Björk, Theodore J. Kowalski, Tricia Browne-Ferrigno

Educational Leadership Faculty Publications

Public education is one of the main forces that make a healthy and democratic society. It strives to educate and to provide the younger generation knowledge and skills that allow children to become contributing citizens in their society. Public education is considered highly significant in consolidating the society and establishing its cultural and economic strength. For those reasons, governments choose to invest a significant portion of the state’s national resources in public schooling.

Taking into account the costs and political significance attributed to public education, it is not surprising that governments establish some formal mechanism responsible for the monitoring ...


Making Room At The Inn: Implications Of 'Christian Legal Society V. Martinez' For Public University Housing Professionals, Michael D. Waggoner, Charles J. Russo Jan 2014

Making Room At The Inn: Implications Of 'Christian Legal Society V. Martinez' For Public University Housing Professionals, Michael D. Waggoner, Charles J. Russo

Educational Leadership Faculty Publications

The Supreme Court ruling in Christian Legal Society v. Martinez, its most important case to date on student associational activities, upheld a policy at a public law school in California that required recognized student organizations (or clubs) to admit "all-comers" even if they disagreed with organizational goals and values, rather than retracing the work of Moran and her colleagues, who examined related issues such as religious expression in public areas of residence halls, this article analyzes the potential impact of CLS, since membership in campus organizations clearly overlaps with the kinds of issues that students and housing professionals deal with ...


Teacher Evaluations And Merit Pay: An Uneasy Mix, David Alan Dolph Dec 2013

Teacher Evaluations And Merit Pay: An Uneasy Mix, David Alan Dolph

Educational Leadership Faculty Publications

Teacher evaluations are undergoing significant changes in response to demands for school reform and higher accountability. States are now including value-added data in teacher evaluations, experimenting with merit pay based on evaluations, or both. Colorado, Florida, New Jersey, New York, and Texas are but a few states that have altered the way teachers are evaluated or that are incorporating value-added data.

Changes in evaluation practice will likely mean significant modifications in how building-level administrators evaluate teachers. Moreover, approaches to teacher salary systems are just as likely to be altered if merit pay is introduced. School business officials (SBOs) are typically ...


Preferred Professional Development, Theodore J. Kowalski Dec 2013

Preferred Professional Development, Theodore J. Kowalski

Educational Leadership Faculty Publications

As younger superintendents replace retirees, professional development needs have increased to meet new forms of accountability, teacher/ principal evaluation and rigorous curriculum reform. In a survey of New York state superintendents, more than half expressed a preference for local, high-quality professional development workshops so they did not have to travel from their districts. The superintendents also preferred professional development involving systemic change and best practices.


Rehired After Retired, Theodore J. Kowalski Nov 2013

Rehired After Retired, Theodore J. Kowalski

Educational Leadership Faculty Publications

Slightly more than one in 10 superintendents participating in the "2012 AASA Superintendents Salary and Benefits Study" indicated they have been rehired as a superintendent after retiring from one state or another. This contrasts with a finding in AASP


Update: The Supreme Court And Affirmative Action, Charles J. Russo Nov 2013

Update: The Supreme Court And Affirmative Action, Charles J. Russo

Educational Leadership Faculty Publications

Few issues in education have generated more ongoing controversy during the last half-century than affirmative action. Supporters view it as a positive step to eliminate the effects of past discrimination. Conversely, critics speak of race-conscious policies that they maintain create greater problems by failing to address how granting preferences today remedies past inequities.

Although typically more contentious in higher education, affirmative action is the centerpiece of this column because of the impact that race-conscious policies can have on K–12 schools.


Publicizing Job Evaluations, Theodore J. Kowalski Oct 2013

Publicizing Job Evaluations, Theodore J. Kowalski

Educational Leadership Faculty Publications

More than 50 percent of superintendents in a nationwide survey indicate their performance evaluations are not made public, while slightly more than a third say their evaluation results are released publicly. The findings were contained in AASA’s 2012 salary and benefits study. State-specific public records laws govern the release of such information. These laws are evolving as state legislatures and courts decide if superintendents are public officials. AASA’s decennial study of the superintendency in 2010 pointed to increased frequency of formal evaluations along with expanded use of performance measures leading to merit awards. Link this with the call ...


Hesitancy About The Job, Theodore J. Kowalski Sep 2013

Hesitancy About The Job, Theodore J. Kowalski

Educational Leadership Faculty Publications

Potential candidates hesitate to apply for their first superintendency for several, reasons. Foremost among them are the job's broad scope and their own school-age children.


Pay By Gender And District Size, Theodore J. Kowalski Aug 2013

Pay By Gender And District Size, Theodore J. Kowalski

Educational Leadership Faculty Publications

Superintendents nationwide experienced small growth in median salaries from 2011-12 to 2012-13, according to a new study by AASA. As expected, salaries for the top district leaders generally increased with district enrollment. In four of the five categories across the size of school districts, the median salaries paid to female superintendents slightly exceeded those paid to their male colleagues. In drawing conclusions from these data, one must consider the relatively small number of respondents in the smallest and largest groupings of student enrollment in the school districts.


Examining Variability In Superintendent Community Involvement, Theodore J. Kowalski, Ila Phillip Young, George J. Petersen Jul 2013

Examining Variability In Superintendent Community Involvement, Theodore J. Kowalski, Ila Phillip Young, George J. Petersen

Educational Leadership Faculty Publications

This study examined the extent to which four independent variables (age, gender, education level, and district type) accounted for variability in superintendent community involvement. Two covariates associated with levels of community involvement (disposition toward community involvement and district enrollment) were infused to assess the impact of the independent variables. Analysis revealed that the model accounted for 8% of the variance as indicated both by R2 and by adjusted R2. Given the number of respondents (1,867), this is considered a medium effect having practical implications in the applied setting. Among the four independent variables, only a single main effect (district ...


District Diversity And Superintendents Of Color, Theodore J. Kowalski Jun 2013

District Diversity And Superintendents Of Color, Theodore J. Kowalski

Educational Leadership Faculty Publications

While the number of superintendents of color increased from 5 percent to 6 percent during the past decade, their representation remains well below their numbers in the general population. Data from the most recent AASA superintendency study show that the greater the levels of minority students and minority residents, the greater the likelihood the district has a superintendent of color. However, an inverse association existed between the percentage of the district's minority employees and a superintendent of color.


Superintendent Ratings Of Academic Preparation, Theodore J. Kowalski May 2013

Superintendent Ratings Of Academic Preparation, Theodore J. Kowalski

Educational Leadership Faculty Publications

Groups seeking to rescind or weaken state licensing requirements to be a superintendent have disparaged academic studies in administration as an inconsequential requirement. Their claim has rarely been supported by empirical evidence. Findings from the last three AASA-sponsored decennial studies (1992, 2000, and 2011) of the superintendency suggest policymakers and members of the profession should be cautious about radically altering licensing requirements. A high percentage (ranging from 74 percent in 1992 to 79 percent in 2011) rated their universitybased academic preparation as being excellent or good.


Female Superintendents By Locale, Theodore J. Kowalski Apr 2013

Female Superintendents By Locale, Theodore J. Kowalski

Educational Leadership Faculty Publications

The most recent AASA decennial study of the superintendency reveals the growing presence of female superintendents (24.1 percent nationwide) has not been affected by either district enrollment or the level of a school district's racial or ethnic diversity. Across four district enrollment categories, the range of female representation was 20.4 percent (in the largest districts) to 29.8 percent (in the smallest districts). By comparison, females accounted for 17.7 percent of very small-district superintendents and just 5.4 percent of the largest-district superintendents a decade earlier. Across five district diversity categories, the range of representation was ...


Is The School Board Evaluated Formally?, Theodore J. Kowalski Mar 2013

Is The School Board Evaluated Formally?, Theodore J. Kowalski

Educational Leadership Faculty Publications

Little progress has been made with respect to evaluating the performance of local boards of education, according to the most recent decennial, nationwide study of superintendents. Seven in 10 boards do not receive any form of formal evaluation, and among the 30 percent that do, almost all engage only in self-evaluation.