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Full-Text Articles in Education

Resourcesmart Schools And Wellbeing. Main Study, Katherine Dix Jun 2020

Resourcesmart Schools And Wellbeing. Main Study, Katherine Dix

Wellbeing

This report presents the findings of a study into the wellbeing impacts of the ResourceSmart Schools (RSS) program in Victoria, Australia. The findings are based on a literature review and a state-wide survey of program schools to inform the development of the ResourceSmart Schools wellbeing evaluation framework, as a first step in the ongoing monitoring of the program’s wellbeing impacts in RSS schools.


Government Mini Lesson - The Executive Branch, Juliana Schwab May 2020

Government Mini Lesson - The Executive Branch, Juliana Schwab

Lesson Plans

This mini-lesson outlines the presentation of materials to students regarding the Executive Branch of government. It includes a facilitator's guide, a list of materials, student/parent guide, and student performance. See the additional file for the student activity packet.


Government Mini Lesson - The Judicial Branch, Juliana Schwab May 2020

Government Mini Lesson - The Judicial Branch, Juliana Schwab

Lesson Plans

This mini-lesson outlines the presentation of materials to students regarding the Judicial Branch of government. It includes a facilitator's guide, a list of materials, student/parent guide, and student performance. See the additional file for the student activity packet.


Government Mini Lesson -The Legislative Branch, Juliana Schwab May 2020

Government Mini Lesson -The Legislative Branch, Juliana Schwab

Lesson Plans

This mini-lesson outlines the presentation of materials to students regarding the Legislative Branch of government. It includes a facilitator's guide, a list of materials, student/parent guide, and student performance. See the additional file for the student activity packet.


Additional Documents, Elizabeth Martinez May 2020

Additional Documents, Elizabeth Martinez

Model NGSS Lessons: Kindergarten - 3rd Grade

No abstract provided.


Engineering, Technology, And Applications Of Science - Build A Nest: Changing The Environment, Elizabeth Martinez May 2020

Engineering, Technology, And Applications Of Science - Build A Nest: Changing The Environment, Elizabeth Martinez

Model NGSS Lessons: Kindergarten - 3rd Grade

Both plants and animals are dependent upon their environments for survival. However, in order to get the sustenance, they need, organisms often must alter their environment to meet their needs. Some animals gather and store food for a season due to times of extreme temperatures, ground conditions, and availability. Many bury food in the ground, while others store food in plants. Usually, the limbs or hollowed out sections of the trunks of trees are used, though some animals do store their food in densely populated areas of low plants. http://www.discoverwildlife.com/british-wildlife/how-identify-animal- food-stores provides a detailed list ...


Life Science - Time To Eat: Patterns In Survival, Elizabeth Martinez May 2020

Life Science - Time To Eat: Patterns In Survival, Elizabeth Martinez

Model NGSS Lessons: Kindergarten - 3rd Grade

Both plants and animals are dependent upon their environments for survival. However, in order to get the sustenance they need, organisms often must alter their environment to meet their needs. Some animals gather and store food for a season due to times of extreme temperatures, ground conditions, and availability. Many bury food in the ground, while others store food in plants. Usually, the limbs or hollowed out sections of the trunks of trees are used, though some animals do store their food in densely populated areas of low plants.


Earth And Space Science - What's The Weather?: Patterns, Elizabeth Martinez, Patrick Young May 2020

Earth And Space Science - What's The Weather?: Patterns, Elizabeth Martinez, Patrick Young

Model NGSS Lessons: Kindergarten - 3rd Grade

Students in kindergarten develop the understandings of basic needs, weather patterns and severe weather. Through identification of patterns, determination of cause and effect, investigation of structure and function, as well as systems and system models students begin to make sense of the natural world. Developmentally appropriate use of science and engineering practices prepares students for more complex phenomenon. December through February comprise the winter season in the Northern hemisphere. Changes in temperatures, forms of precipitation, types of storms, and preparedness plans occur during winter. Average daily temperatures in the Chicago area range from a high of 36°F to 18 ...


Engineering, Technology, And Applications Of Science - Winter Clothing Challenge: Engineering, Elizabeth Martinez May 2020

Engineering, Technology, And Applications Of Science - Winter Clothing Challenge: Engineering, Elizabeth Martinez

Model NGSS Lessons: Kindergarten - 3rd Grade

Students in kindergarten develop the understandings of basic needs, weather patterns, the concepts of push and pull, engineering, and the applications of science. Through identification of patterns, determination of cause and effect, investigation of structure and function, as well as systems and system models students begin to make sense of the natural world. Developmentally appropriate use of science and engineering practices prepares students for more complex phenomenon. December through February comprise the winter season in the Northern hemisphere. Changes in temperatures, forms of precipitation, types of storms, and preparedness plans occur during winter. Average daily temperatures in the Chicago area ...


Life Science - Life Cycle Modeling: Plant And Animal, Elizabeth Martinez May 2020

Life Science - Life Cycle Modeling: Plant And Animal, Elizabeth Martinez

Model NGSS Lessons: Kindergarten - 3rd Grade

All living organisms go through life cycles, which consist of stages from birth to death. While these stages are similar, the appearance of organisms in different stages varies. An awareness of child development is important to consider while teaching life cycles. Some research indicates that when a student is in second grade, there is a shift in his or her understanding of organisms, from representations based on perceptual and behavioral features to representations that are more scientific. Children may begin to understand death as the cessation of life processes at about 9 or 10. People of all ages have a ...


Physical Science - Patterns And Predictions: Forces And Motion, Elizabeth Martinez May 2020

Physical Science - Patterns And Predictions: Forces And Motion, Elizabeth Martinez

Model NGSS Lessons: Kindergarten - 3rd Grade

A push or a pull, a force, is needed to set an object in motion. This requires objects to interact with one another. Types of interactions may be grouped into two broad categories. Direct contact between and among objects, such as friction, is one group. Interactions may also occur across a distance. Magnetic and gravitational forces are included in this category. Results of these forces are observable. Careful observations can lead to prediction of future results of interactions. The use of qualitative and quantitative observations assists in the development of predictions.


Life Science - Animal Coats: Seasonal Change, Elizabeth Martinez May 2020

Life Science - Animal Coats: Seasonal Change, Elizabeth Martinez

Model NGSS Lessons: Kindergarten - 3rd Grade

Animals and plants may be affected by winter. Many survival techniques enable the organisms to survive this season. Hibernation is a survival technique for some animals. Body systems, such as respiration and heart rate, are slowed and body temperature is lowered until conditions are supportive of coming out of hibernation. Other strategies for winter survival include dormancy, living at the bottom of a body of water, burrowing into the ground, migrating, and changing of body coloring to blend in with the snowy landscape. Other animals may change colors to better blend in with the winter landscapes.


Physical Science - Which Shovel? Engineering Challenge, Elizabeth Martinez May 2020

Physical Science - Which Shovel? Engineering Challenge, Elizabeth Martinez

Model NGSS Lessons: Kindergarten - 3rd Grade

Shoveling snow and sledding often are winter activities in the Midwest. Both require a force to occur. Pushing or pulling on the item will have different effects on the movement of that item. In the case of sledding, a greater force may result in a faster speed or a greater distance covered by the sled. Applying a force in a different direction may result in a change of direction of the object. Shoveling is more successful when the shovel is pushed rather than pulled.


Earth And Space Science - Map It!: Geographical Features, Elizabeth Martinez May 2020

Earth And Space Science - Map It!: Geographical Features, Elizabeth Martinez

Model NGSS Lessons: Kindergarten - 3rd Grade

There are many geographical features on the Earth, each with its own traits. These landforms may have been formed by plate tectonics. If tectonic plates move toward each other, and collide. The land is pushed upward resulting in hills and mountains. Sometimes plates move toward each other and one plate is forced downward into the earth creating deep trenches.

The formation of new crust and volcanoes are just two features caused by moving plates. As plates move away from one another, water may accumulate resulting in lakes, streams, and rivers. As these water shapes expand, they may change into features ...


Additional Documents, Elizabeth Martinez May 2020

Additional Documents, Elizabeth Martinez

Model NGSS Lessons: Kindergarten - 3rd Grade

No abstract provided.


Earth And Space Science - Weather And Climate: Graphical Displays, Elizabeth Martinez May 2020

Earth And Space Science - Weather And Climate: Graphical Displays, Elizabeth Martinez

Model NGSS Lessons: Kindergarten - 3rd Grade

Weather and climate are related to one another. Current conditions and seasonal descriptions are considered weather, which include precipitation, temperature, wind speed and direction, cloud cover, and barometric pressure to name a few. Each season has its unique features based on weather and amount of daylight. Thirty years’ worth of weather pattern data are analyzed to determine climates.

Annual and monthly temperatures, as well as precipitation data are the basis for climate zones. Landforms, proximity to oceans, and sea level also contribute the traits of the zones.

Latitude is used to geographically delineate climate zones. The higher the latitude, the ...


Physical Science - Heating, Cooling, And Reversibility: Changes, Patrick Young May 2020

Physical Science - Heating, Cooling, And Reversibility: Changes, Patrick Young

Model NGSS Lessons: Kindergarten - 3rd Grade

Heating or cooling an object will always change its temperature and may alter other properties as well. The temperature change is reversible, but changes to other properties might be irreversible. Heating, in particular, often causes chemical changes in which atoms alter their bonding to form new substances. Cooking an egg changes the egg in ways that cannot be undone. It cannot be “uncooked” into a raw egg.

Phase changes are generally reversible. Water can be frozen, melted back into liquid, boiled into vapor, and then condensed back into its original liquid form. When considering a manufactured object, however, phase changes ...


Life Science - Look At That: Pollinators, Elizabeth Martinez May 2020

Life Science - Look At That: Pollinators, Elizabeth Martinez

Model NGSS Lessons: Kindergarten - 3rd Grade

Pollinators are responsible for moving pollen from one flower to another flower of the same species or from one part of a flower to another part of the same flower. Moving the pollen from the stamen, male part of the flower, to the stigma, the female part of the flower, completes pollination, and results in the fertilization of a plant so that seeds may be produced to ensure reproduction.

Pollination involves animals such as butterflies, bees, wasps, insects, spiders, hummingbirds, and bats. These animals may deliberately visit a flower to gather pollen or accidently collect pollen while seeking nectar or ...


Life Science - Plant And Animal Traits: Young And Old, Elizabeth Martinez May 2020

Life Science - Plant And Animal Traits: Young And Old, Elizabeth Martinez

Model NGSS Lessons: Kindergarten - 3rd Grade

Living organisms reproduce offspring and go through life cycles. Some offspring may look similar to their parents, while others look very dissimilar to theirs. Immature organisms that look similar to their parents will share some, but not all traits with their parents. This may be observed in many types of plants and animals. Examining the similarities and differences assists in identification, grouping, and classification.


Physical Science - Can You See It? Light And Its Properties, Elizabeth Martinez May 2020

Physical Science - Can You See It? Light And Its Properties, Elizabeth Martinez

Model NGSS Lessons: Kindergarten - 3rd Grade

Light is needed for humans to see. Light may also be used to communicate. As with sound, the type of medium used for passing the light through will be determined by the function of the communication. For example materials used in stoplights, stained glass windows, flashlights, and frosted glass all affect the output of light. When light strikes an object, many actions may occur. Two factors involved in this interaction are the type of light and the object itself. The light may bounce or reflect off of an object or pass through it. The quality of light transmission may determine ...


Physical Science - What's That Sound? How Sounds Are Generated, Elizabeth Martinez May 2020

Physical Science - What's That Sound? How Sounds Are Generated, Elizabeth Martinez

Model NGSS Lessons: Kindergarten - 3rd Grade

Many organisms have the ability to communicate with sound. Sound allows organisms to learn more about their surroundings. Sirens, ringing of phones, musical instruments, animal sounds, and the human voice are a few examples of using sound to communicate. Sound is produced when an object vibrates. As demonstrated in the diagram below, the vibrations cause the medium’s particles, usually air, to move and allow the sound to travel in a singular direction. This longitudinal movement dictates the volume in which sound is heard; standing in the path of the longitudinal wave increases the probability, thus the volume, of hearing ...


Physical Science - Gravity On Earth: Gravitational Force, Patrick Young May 2020

Physical Science - Gravity On Earth: Gravitational Force, Patrick Young

Model NGSS Lessons: 4th - 5th Grade

Gravity is a curious property of our universe. Gravity causes objects to attract each other with a force. The strength of this force depends on the masses of the objects and their distance apart. The direction of the force is from the center of one object toward the center of the other. Although the force is invisible, we can observe its direction by watching how objects move in response to the force.


Physical And Life Science - Food And Energy: Animal And Plant Energy, Cassandra Armstrong May 2020

Physical And Life Science - Food And Energy: Animal And Plant Energy, Cassandra Armstrong

Model NGSS Lessons: 4th - 5th Grade

Energy exists in many forms and is constantly being transferred between forms. All energy types can be sorted into two main categories: potential and kinetic. Potential energy is stored energy. Chemical energy, nuclear energy, stored mechanical energy, and gravitational energy are all examples of potential energy. Kinetic energy is the energy of motion. Radiant (light) energy, thermal energy, sound energy, and electrical energy are all examples of kinetic energy. Energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transferred between the types of energy. Most energy we use on Earth stems from the nuclear energy from within the sun.


Earth Science - Oil Spills And Dust Bowls: Earth's Systems, Cassandra Armstrong, Peg Steffen, Elizabeth Martinez May 2020

Earth Science - Oil Spills And Dust Bowls: Earth's Systems, Cassandra Armstrong, Peg Steffen, Elizabeth Martinez

Model NGSS Lessons: 4th - 5th Grade

Earth is comprised of four interconnected systems: geosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere. All of Earth’s processes are due to energy and matter cycling within and among these four systems. Because these systems are so connected, it is important to understand both individual characteristics of each system independently as well as features of their interactions with each other.


Earth/Space Science - Water, Water: Water Resources, Cassandra Armstrong, Peg Steffen, Elizabeth Martinez May 2020

Earth/Space Science - Water, Water: Water Resources, Cassandra Armstrong, Peg Steffen, Elizabeth Martinez

Model NGSS Lessons: 4th - 5th Grade

Water is one of the most important substances on earth and all living things depend on water to survive. In humans, water makes up 60% of adult bodies and without water humans cannot survive longer than a few days depending on activity and environmental conditions. Because water is such a vital resource we need to understand where it comes from and how to make sure we will have enough drinkable water in the future.


Earth/Space Science - But The Crust Is The Best Part: Earth Features, Elizabeth Martinez May 2020

Earth/Space Science - But The Crust Is The Best Part: Earth Features, Elizabeth Martinez

Model NGSS Lessons: 4th - 5th Grade

The Earth’s crust is broken into pieces that are called tectonic plates. Seven major plates exist. Plates move in three ways; they may slide by one another (transform plate boundaries), run into each other (convergent plate boundaries), or move apart from one another (divergent boundaries). Movement of these plates is responsible for landforms and natural events such as earthquakes and volcanoes. Volcanoes and mountains tend to be the result of convergent plate boundaries. Earthquakes are likely to occur at transform plate boundaries. New crust is made where divergent plate boundaries exist. These actions occur on the ocean floor as ...


Life Science - Structure And Function: Internal And External, Patrick Young, Nicole Ross May 2020

Life Science - Structure And Function: Internal And External, Patrick Young, Nicole Ross

Model NGSS Lessons: 4th - 5th Grade

Plants and animals evolve to survive and reproduce in their environments. Both their internal and external structures will be well suited to support survival, growth, behavior and reproduction.

All animals have a mouth. Its function is to take in food, without which it could not survive to reproduce. The type of mouth, however, will vary between animals, depending on what they have evolved to eat. Internal organs of the digestive system will likewise vary depending on an animal’s diet. All parts of the system for eating and digesting food must work together.

Plants also have internal systems for processing ...


Additional Documents, Elizabeth Martinez May 2020

Additional Documents, Elizabeth Martinez

Model NGSS Lessons: 4th - 5th Grade

No abstract provided.


Physical Science - Railroad Rescue: Energy Conversion, Patrick Young May 2020

Physical Science - Railroad Rescue: Energy Conversion, Patrick Young

Model NGSS Lessons: 4th - 5th Grade

In January of 1952, the Sierra Nevada mountains of California were stuck by a record-breaking blizzard. Railroad tracks through the mountain passes were being blocked by avalanches and snowdrifts. The tracks were generally kept clear by powerful rotary snowplows, but this blizzard was like nothing the Southern Pacific Railroad had ever seen before.


Physical Science - Energy Transfer: Heat And Light, Patrick Young, Peg Steffen May 2020

Physical Science - Energy Transfer: Heat And Light, Patrick Young, Peg Steffen

Model NGSS Lessons: 4th - 5th Grade

Energy is the ability to do work. Energy can be thought of as a currency which is universally accepted as the way to make things happen. Energy can be stored in many ways and transferred from place to place in many ways.

Some of the most frequently recognized types of energy are heat and light. These, along with others, can be classified as a phenomenon known as electromagnetic radiation (EM). Radiation is energy that travels and spreads out as it goes. The visible light that comes from a lamp in your house and the radio waves that come from a ...