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Educational Psychology

Theses/Dissertations

2014

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Full-Text Articles in Education

Using Worked-Out Examples Of Written Explanation For Writing-To-Learn In Evolutionary Biology, Amy M. Yu Dec 2014

Using Worked-Out Examples Of Written Explanation For Writing-To-Learn In Evolutionary Biology, Amy M. Yu

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Content learning can be enhanced through writing-to-learn. Research into cognitive load theory suggests that the use of backwards faded, worked-out examples increases schema acquisition and concept transfer. However, these effects have not yet been demonstrated for writing-to-learn, particularly for the conceptual understanding of evolution. The effects of two writing conditions were investigated in a pre-test post-test quasi-experimental design. Groups in two conditions wrote explanations of evolution using six Darwinian principles: students in the completion condition completed backwards faded, worked-out examples of explanations; students in the problem solving condition wrote full explanations, thought to require means-end problem solving. The dependent variables ...


Successful Approaches To Encourage Family Involvement In A School Division Located In Southeastern Virginia With Varying Income Levels, Katelyn Elizabeth Montague Dec 2014

Successful Approaches To Encourage Family Involvement In A School Division Located In Southeastern Virginia With Varying Income Levels, Katelyn Elizabeth Montague

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-2019

The purpose of this project was to identify successful approaches that teachers use to encourage involvement of all families. Following a review of professional and research literature, a survey of Pre-kindergarten through fifth grade teachers was distributed in a school division located in southeastern Virginia with varying income levels.

The findings in this survey suggested that participating teachers encouraged family involvement by inviting families into the classroom and explaining to them how they could help their children at home. The teachers utilized weekly communication in various forms such as printed material, electronic formats, and classroom websites. Teachers were also flexible ...


Predicting Outcome At Posttreatment For Adolescent Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder In A Residential Treatment Setting, Heather M. Jones Dec 2014

Predicting Outcome At Posttreatment For Adolescent Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder In A Residential Treatment Setting, Heather M. Jones

Theses and Dissertations

Exposure and response prevention (ERP) paired with psychopharmacological interventions are considered first line treatments for pediatric obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Recent literature has emphasized the importance of investigating effectiveness and treatment outcomes for difficult-to-treat cases of pediatric OCD who do not respond to outpatient treatment. Effectiveness studies have found that adolescent patients treated in residential settings have demonstrated gains comparable to those patients included in published outpatient outcomes studies (Bjorgvinsson et al., 2008; Leonard et al., 2014). Current research efforts are needed to 1) better predict gains in real-world clinical settings and 2) identify risk factors for difficult-to-treat patients who ...


Dissecting The Impact Of Dif/Dbf On Ability Estimation And Person Fit, Kevin Cappaert Dec 2014

Dissecting The Impact Of Dif/Dbf On Ability Estimation And Person Fit, Kevin Cappaert

Theses and Dissertations

Prior research has shown that differential item functioning (DIF) and differential bundle functioning (DBF) can influence ability estimation in unidimensional item repose theory (IRT); however, the relationship between ability estimation and uniform and non-uniform DIF/DBF has not been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, a simulation study was conducted to more thoroughly investigate how DIF/DBF and other related factors influence ability estimation in IRT. The factors examined included bundle size, the sum of uniform DIF in a bundle, magnitude of non-uniform DIF in each item in a bundle, balance of reference and focal group examinees, test length, and impact. Results indicated ...


The Relationship Between Hope And Self-Directed Learning In The Workplace, Vicki Martin Dieffenderfer Dec 2014

The Relationship Between Hope And Self-Directed Learning In The Workplace, Vicki Martin Dieffenderfer

Doctoral Dissertations

This study investigated the relationship between self-directed learning and hope in the workplace. Participants completed two self-directed learning instruments, the Survey of Adult Learning Traits (SALT) (Hogg, 2008) and the Learner Self-directedness in the Workplace Scale (LSWS) (De Bruin & De Bruin, 2011), along with two hope scales, the Hope Trait Scale (Snyder et al., 1991) and the author-generated Workplace Learning Hope Scale. Correlation, ANOVA, and multiple regressions were used to test the relationship and differences between self-directed learning and hope, specifically within the domain of workplace learning. All instruments utilized in this study displayed sound internal consistency reliability. The author-generated ...


Anesthesia Clinical Core Competencies And High Fidelity Human Simulation, Jeffrey Colby James Dec 2014

Anesthesia Clinical Core Competencies And High Fidelity Human Simulation, Jeffrey Colby James

Doctoral Dissertations

The purpose of the study was to identify anesthesia clinical core competencies that are appropriate for evaluating proficiency utilizing High Fidelity Human Simulation (HFHS). This purpose was achieved by identifying the perceptions of nurse anesthesia educational program administrators and faculty regarding the anesthesia clinical core competencies that are appropriate for evaluating proficiency utilizing HFHS. Participants completed a 50-item web-based survey instrument and demographic questionnaire (Anesthesia Core Competency and Simulation Survey). High fidelity human simulation (HFHS) based evaluation of anesthesia clinical core competency proficiency can be a valuable tool for assessing anesthesia trainees, certifying nurse anesthetists, and recertifying nurse anesthetists. Evidence ...


The Benefits Of Ffa Membership As Part Of The Three-Circle Model In Agricultural Education, Chelsea Brooke Rose Dec 2014

The Benefits Of Ffa Membership As Part Of The Three-Circle Model In Agricultural Education, Chelsea Brooke Rose

Masters Theses

The purpose of this study was to understand the benefits of membership in the Future Farmers of America (FFA) student leadership organization among Tennessee FFA members by surveying members attending Camp Clements FFA Leadership Training Camp. The study focused on the fulfillment of FFA members’ basic human needs as defined by Abraham Maslow (1943). The three needs on which this study focused are: love and belonging, self-esteem, and self-actualization (1943). The study found that a majority of FFA members’ three basic human needs are met due to their involvement in career development events, leadership positions, and other FFA activities. Of ...


Transfer And The Commodification Of Practice., Kenneth Andrew Smith Dec 2014

Transfer And The Commodification Of Practice., Kenneth Andrew Smith

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation engages in a close reading of the research in composition on transfer, a concept that refers to how the practices learned in one situation influence what a person can do in a future situation. In the studies that have appeared over the last two decades, the results have indicated that not much transfers between writing courses and future contexts, whether they be disciplinary courses or professional workplaces. Yet, despite the increasing prominence of transfer research, little time has been spent discussing the uses and limitations of the concept. To better understand its growing popularity among researchers, I examine ...


Does Video Game Use Exacerbate The Relation Between Neurophysiological Deficits And Adhd Symptoms In Children And Adolescents?, James Kenneth Goodlad Iii Dec 2014

Does Video Game Use Exacerbate The Relation Between Neurophysiological Deficits And Adhd Symptoms In Children And Adolescents?, James Kenneth Goodlad Iii

Dissertations

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is diagnosed based on behavioral symptoms but is thought to have a significant heritable neurological basis, and several brain structures have been implicated. Recent research has focused on the role of environmental factors that may influence the behavioral expression of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity in children and teens, particularly when a biological predisposition exists. This study sought to broaden the literature base by examining the extent to which one environmental factor—video game use—moderated the relation between neuropsychological deficits in attention and inhibition and the behavioral symptoms of ADHD. It was hypothesized that gaming frequency and ...


The Effects Of Language Complexity On Natural And Emotion Concept Formation In Early Language Learners, Stephanie Eileen Jett Dec 2014

The Effects Of Language Complexity On Natural And Emotion Concept Formation In Early Language Learners, Stephanie Eileen Jett

Dissertations

The present study investigated the role of language complexity in natural and emotion concept formation ability in young children (two- to five-year-olds). Language complexity was measured by selections from the Brigance Diagnostic Inventory of Early Childhood Development II, and concept formation was assessed at three levels of abstraction. The natural concepts were presented as two alternative discriminations on a touch-screen computer, as follows: subordinate level (lions versus tigers), basic level (cats versus dogs), and superordinate level (animals versus nonanimals). The following emotion categories were discriminated: subordinate level (anger versus sadness), basic level (positive [happiness and positive surprise] versus negative [anger ...


Teachers' Making Meaning Of Reduced Class Sizes: A Phenomenology, Brenda Ludy Snow Dec 2014

Teachers' Making Meaning Of Reduced Class Sizes: A Phenomenology, Brenda Ludy Snow

Dissertations

It is every teacher’s dream to have a classroom full of students who come to class each and every day highly motivated to learn. However, in all reality teachers know that this is not always the case. Researchers continue to search for reasonable alternatives to improve students’ learning. As children enter school a good start is imperative if they are to succeed in school, (Achilles & Finn, 2000). Class size reduction is a strong alternative and should be considered as part of a reasonable plan for student learning.

For this qualitative study, I examined and described the experiences of 12 teachers who participated in a reduced class size (RCS) program, each with a minimum of three years’ participation in two elementary schools in one school district located in the eastern part of the state of Michigan. Specifically, I examined how the teachers described and interpreted their lived experiences during their years in the reduced class size program. Teachers were interviewed face to face, and the data gathered were inductively analyzed as described by Foss and Waters, (2007). Through the data analysis process, I developed seven themes from the research questions: (a) organization of the classroom, (b) building trust, (c) discipline and management, (d) teacher effectiveness, (e) changes in test scores, (f) challenges and mandates, and (g) factors influencing opportunities and successes. My study affirmed some of the research and added to some research on reduced class size programs. The major findings of this study were: (a) new teachers struggle at the beginning of their careers regardless of smaller class sizes; (b) teachers constantly engaged in self reflections, which they believed made them more effective; (c) veteran teachers in the RCS program had no challenges or concerns while in the program; (d) the RCS allowed ...


The Utility Of The Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire In Identifying Stably Peer-Victimized Children, Freddie Aníbal Pastrana Rivera Dec 2014

The Utility Of The Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire In Identifying Stably Peer-Victimized Children, Freddie Aníbal Pastrana Rivera

Theses and Dissertations

I evaluated the utility of using the Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire (OBVQ) in identifying stably peer-victimized children. Participants were 676 fourth grade students from 37 classrooms in ten public schools. Stable peer victims were identified as children who met elevated levels of peer victimization at both fall and late spring assessments from at least one source (i.e., self, peer, teacher). Four potential screeners using the OBVQ were evaluated. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify how well a recommended cutoff point from the global item of the OBVQ (i.e., being bullied 2 or 3 times a month) identified ...


La Educación En La Lengua Materna: Una Mirada A La Escuela De Verano En Pacheco Elementary, Elizabeth Tjepkema Dec 2014

La Educación En La Lengua Materna: Una Mirada A La Escuela De Verano En Pacheco Elementary, Elizabeth Tjepkema

World Languages and Cultures

This project focuses on dual immersion elementary education and the importance of native language literacy by observing summer school at Pacheco Elementary. Native language literacy for Spanish-speakers is the foundation for successful second language acquisition and literacy. By having a solid foundation in Spanish literacy, elementary students are able to explore what it means to be fully literate in their own language before moving on to learning English in school. Through the observation of the processes of learning how to read and write in Spanish, I will gain a better understanding of the importance of Spanish literacy for Spanish-speaking children ...


The Effects Of Book Format On Parent-Child Interaction During Joint Book Reading, Jennifer Lynn Bowman Dec 2014

The Effects Of Book Format On Parent-Child Interaction During Joint Book Reading, Jennifer Lynn Bowman

Theses and Dissertations

Technology is a part of our society and is ever changing. Therefore, it is important to examine the effects that such innovations have on parent-child interactions, especially those that have been shown to promote children's early literacy learning and future school success. This study was conducted in the context of a larger project, The Family Reading Project, which investigated parent-child engagement in joint reading activities using mobile devices. This research compared parent and child behaviors when reading traditional books versus reading e-books to determine if book format had any effect on parent-child interaction. The results of this study were ...


Adult Attachment, Emotional Intelligence, And Resilience As Correlates Of Social Engagement, Academic Engagement, And Confidence Of Persistence In College Students, Yacob Tewolde Tekie Dec 2014

Adult Attachment, Emotional Intelligence, And Resilience As Correlates Of Social Engagement, Academic Engagement, And Confidence Of Persistence In College Students, Yacob Tewolde Tekie

Masters Theses

The current study investigated freshmen university students (N = 210) to examine the role of attachment style (anxiety, avoidance), emotional intelligence (repair, attention, clarity) and resilience in predicting student adaptation to college (academic, social, personal and academic engagement). Four multiple regression analyses were conducted for each subscale of adaptation to college. The results indicated that; a) emotional intelligence (attention, clarity) and resilience significantly predicted student academic adjustment; b) emotional inelligence (repair) predicted student social adjustment; c) emotional inteligence (clarity), resilience, and adult attachment (anxiety) significantly predicted student personal adjustment; and d) emotional intelligence (repair, clarity) and resilience, significantly predicted student academic ...


Validation Of A Personality Scale: A Factor Analytic Approach, Leslie Forbush Dec 2014

Validation Of A Personality Scale: A Factor Analytic Approach, Leslie Forbush

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Researchers and clinicians alike make use of various assessment instruments to investigate variables of interest. These instruments include affective assessments, which require individuals to make judgments about themselves. To make these judgments individuals reflect upon their attitudes, interests, values, and personality traits and choose the corresponding response option that they feel best represents their current status with regards to the variable of interest for each question. The optimal number of response options to be included in such affective measurement scales has been greatly debated over the past several decades (Cox, 1980; Foddy, 1993; Jacoby & Matell, 1971; Jones & Loe, 2013; Maydeu-Olivares, et al., 2009).

The ...


A Movement Tool Kit For The Divergent And Convergent Cps Guidelines: Instruction Cards And Activity Floor Mats, Adela Vangelisti Dec 2014

A Movement Tool Kit For The Divergent And Convergent Cps Guidelines: Instruction Cards And Activity Floor Mats, Adela Vangelisti

Creative Studies Graduate Student Master's Projects

A Movement Tool Kit for the Divergent and Convergent CPS Guidelines:

Instruction Cards and Activity Floor Mats

Movement is as natural to humans as breathing is, and, yet, passivity starts early in schools. We are taught to sit still and in silence for long periods of time. By the time we reach adulthood and enter the workforce, we have almost forgotten our sense of embodiment. This lack of movement is counter-productive, not only to learning but to the development of creativity as well. For this project, I designed a tool to recapture the joy and playfulness of movement. Furthermore, the ...


The Phenomenon Of Abstract Cognition Among Scholastic Chess Participants: A Case Study, Brent C. Laws Dec 2014

The Phenomenon Of Abstract Cognition Among Scholastic Chess Participants: A Case Study, Brent C. Laws

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A qualitative investigation was conducted to explore the phenomenon of abstract cognition among a purposive sample of 5 secondary scholastic chess club participants. The case study enabled the researcher to explore the faculties of abstract cognition among students of contrasting skills and abilities in playing chess. The study also allowed for the consideration of potential visual-spatial, logical, academic, social competency and life benefits of chess play. Through analysis of interviews, chess simulations, blindfold chess play, and narration of chess lines and sequences, the investigator was able to extract meaning and code schemata into a holistic understanding of the phenomenon of ...


Comprehending Male And Female Levels Of Engagement In Subsets Of The National Survey Of Student Engagement: Explicating The Dynamics Of Gender Role Conflict As A Mediating Factor For Males, Jacob Glen Arndt Dec 2014

Comprehending Male And Female Levels Of Engagement In Subsets Of The National Survey Of Student Engagement: Explicating The Dynamics Of Gender Role Conflict As A Mediating Factor For Males, Jacob Glen Arndt

Dissertations

Male enrollment and graduate rates in higher education have paled in comparison to female achievement since the early 1980’s, and explanations as to the reasons behind why males are falling behind have not been fruitful in addressing these issues. One area that has received very little attention in the literature is the role that gender role conflict may play in male student performance.

The purpose of this research is to explore male and female engagement levels, while attempting to understand if levels of male gender role conflict are a mediating factor of engagement for men. This study utilized the ...


To Tell Or Not To Tell : Disclosing Mental Health Diagnoses To Children, Allison Leigh Allmon Dec 2014

To Tell Or Not To Tell : Disclosing Mental Health Diagnoses To Children, Allison Leigh Allmon

Theses and Dissertations

This online analogue study examined psychologists' current mental health diagnoses disclosure practices to children. Specifically, this dissertation investigated participants' self reported likelihood to disclose mental health diagnoses in relation to both psychologist (i.e., clinical services provided and years of clinical service) and client (culture, age, cognitive ability) characteristics. Forty-seven certified American Board of Professional Psychology (ABPP) Psychologists were recruited via email listserv for this research. Participants rated their likelihood to disclose mental health diagnoses to vignettes depicting children with varying demographic characteristics: culture, age, and cognitive ability. Participants also responded to open-ended questions exploring their current mental health diagnosis ...


Teacher Attributions, Expectations, And Referrals For Students Involved In The Child Welfare And Juvenile Justice Systems, Stephanie Nichole Anthony Dec 2014

Teacher Attributions, Expectations, And Referrals For Students Involved In The Child Welfare And Juvenile Justice Systems, Stephanie Nichole Anthony

Theses and Dissertations

The primary purpose of this study was to examine differences in the attributions teachers make toward students in the child welfare and juvenile justice systems. The study utilized vignettes and asked teachers to attribute the responsibility for declines in behavior and academic performance to one of five sources (the student, the parents, the teacher, the court system, or the student's friends). The study further asked teachers to identify the extent to which the changes were due to the student's internal traits and external factors, the likelihood of changes in behavior and academic performance with and without intervention, the ...


Model Selection For Irt Equating Of Testlet-Based Tests In The Random Groups Design, Juan Chen Dec 2014

Model Selection For Irt Equating Of Testlet-Based Tests In The Random Groups Design, Juan Chen

Theses and Dissertations

The use of testlets in a test can cause multidimensionality and local item dependence (LID), which can result in inaccurate estimation of item parameters, and in turn compromise the quality of item response theory (IRT) true and observed score equating of testlet-based tests. Both unidimensional and multidimensional IRT models have been developed to control local item dependence caused by testlets. The purposes of the current study were to (1) investigate how different levels of LID can affect IRT true and observed score equating of testlet-based tests when the traditional three parameter logistic (3PL) IRT model was used for calibration, and ...


Effectiveness Of Hypnosis Interventions In A Spine Rehabilitation Program, Courtney Racquel Cornick Dec 2014

Effectiveness Of Hypnosis Interventions In A Spine Rehabilitation Program, Courtney Racquel Cornick

Theses and Dissertations

Chronic back pain has a profound impact on an individual and society. Over the past two decades individuals have become increasingly interested in Complimentary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) as a treatment for medical conditions. One of the most common uses of CAM is to treat back pain. There are a variety of CAM interventions to treat pain, and clinical hypnosis is one treatment that serves to help individuals to better manage their symptoms of chronic pain. In many cases, clinical hypnosis is used as an adjunct to treatment rather than a treatment alternative. Additionally, clinical hypnosis is included as part ...


The Effects Of Value-Added Modeling Decisions On Estimates Of Teacher Effectiveness, Paula Lynn Cunningham Dec 2014

The Effects Of Value-Added Modeling Decisions On Estimates Of Teacher Effectiveness, Paula Lynn Cunningham

Theses and Dissertations

This study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of modeling decisions made by those charged with implementing teacher evaluation systems that incorporate student achievement data; such choices include how growth is to be modeled, whether student characteristics are to be controlled for, how many years of data are to be used, and which test subject is to be selected. Using a three-cohort longitudinal data set from a school district in which reading and mathematics test scores from a vertically-scaled assessment allowed determination of growth in grades three, four, and five, estimated teacher effects were derived from five value-added models, and ...


Homeless Men : Exploring The Experience Of Shame, Kevin L. Fall Dec 2014

Homeless Men : Exploring The Experience Of Shame, Kevin L. Fall

Theses and Dissertations

Research literature on homelessness makes frequent reference to shame, but with little inquiry into the role shame may play in the lives of homeless men. This study used Consensual Qualitative Research methodology (Hill, Thompson, & Williams, 1997) to interview 24 men in a small Midwestern city to explore how homeless men experience shame. The results from this study indicate that shame is experienced as a "painful sense of worthlessness and failure" whereby men attribute their homelessness to their own perceived characterological flaws. To avoid the painful experience of shame and stigma, homeless men appear to develop and use defense strategies. While ...


Growth And The College Readiness Of Iowa Students : A Longitudinal Study Linking Growth To College Outcomes, Anthony Fina Dec 2014

Growth And The College Readiness Of Iowa Students : A Longitudinal Study Linking Growth To College Outcomes, Anthony Fina

Theses and Dissertations

As current educational policies continue to emphasize the importance of college readiness and growth, it is essential to understand the degree to which test scores collected throughout middle school and high school can provide information to make valid inferences about students' college readiness. This thesis sought to summarize the college readiness of Iowa students, describe the nature of student growth, and clarify the relationship between student growth and college readiness. Together, the results support the validity argument that scores from a general achievement test can be used for measuring student growth and making on-track interpretations about college readiness.

Results of ...


An Evaluation Of The Impact Of The Dsm-Iv-Tr Diagnostic Group And Cognitive Ability On The Presentation Of Autism Spectrum Disorder Symptoms, Zachary Wroe Sussman Dec 2014

An Evaluation Of The Impact Of The Dsm-Iv-Tr Diagnostic Group And Cognitive Ability On The Presentation Of Autism Spectrum Disorder Symptoms, Zachary Wroe Sussman

Theses and Dissertations

Autism Spectrum Disorder (Autism Spectrum Disorder) is a neurodevelopmental syndrome characterized by impairment to social communication adjoined by the presence of rigidity, restricted interests, and/or repetitive behaviors. Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder recently shifted from a series of pervasive developmental disorders recognized in the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) to a single, comprehensive diagnosis in the 5th edition of the same manual (DSM-5; APA, 2013). To evaluate the appropriateness in this shift in diagnostic practice, the current study evaluates the consistency in symptom presentation amongst the previous DSM-IV-TR ...


A Qualitative Analysis Of Parental Experiences In Family-Based Treatment For Anorexia Nervosa, Joanna Elise Wiese Dec 2014

A Qualitative Analysis Of Parental Experiences In Family-Based Treatment For Anorexia Nervosa, Joanna Elise Wiese

Theses and Dissertations

Family-based treatment for anorexia nervosa is a relatively recent form of therapy that is commonly used with families of child and adolescent patients. While current efficacy research of this treatment is promising, little research has been conducted on families' experiences of this treatment. This qualitative study investigates the experiences of parents who have participated in family-based treatment for a child or adolescent (ages 10-21) diagnosed with anorexia nervosa. Analytic induction (AI) methodology was used in this qualitative study to examine the various factors contributing the effectiveness of family-based treatment for families. Purposeful sampling was employed to obtain a wide variety ...


Being Transformed By Being A Peer Mentor: An Examination Of High-Impact And Transformative Peer Mentor Experience, Bryce D. Bunting Dec 2014

Being Transformed By Being A Peer Mentor: An Examination Of High-Impact And Transformative Peer Mentor Experience, Bryce D. Bunting

Theses and Dissertations

This multi-article dissertation explores the potential for the undergraduate peer mentoring experience to contribute to transformative learning for those who serve in peer mentoring or peer leadership roles. While past research has established that peer mentors experience a variety of positive outcomes associated with their leadership experience, there are gaps in the literature with regard to how the peer mentor experience can be intentionally designed as a high-impact practice for student leaders. Through three qualitative studies, as well as a comprehensive literature review, this dissertation addresses this gap by exploring what peer mentors report learning through their mentoring experiences (Article ...


Institutional Adoption Of Blended Learning In Higher Education, Wendy Woodfield Porter Dec 2014

Institutional Adoption Of Blended Learning In Higher Education, Wendy Woodfield Porter

Theses and Dissertations

Relatively little research on blended learning (BL) addresses institutional adoption in higher education. Graham, Woodfield, and Harrison (2012) proposed a framework for institutional BL adoption, identifying three stages: (a) awareness/exploration, (b) adoption/early implementation, and (c) mature implementation/growth. The framework also identified key strategy, structure, and support issues universities may address at each stage. In this series of articles, the authors applied that framework to institutions of higher education implementing BL. In the first article, the authors applied the framework to 11 Next Generation Learning Challenge (NGLC) grant recipients transitioning from Stage 1 to Stage 2 of BL ...