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Inactivation Of The Medial-Prefrontal Cortex Impairs Interval Timing Precision, But Not Timing Accuracy Or Scalar Timing In A Peak-Interval Procedure In Rats, Catalin V. Buhusi, Marcelo B. Reyes, Cody-Aaron Gathers, Sorinel A. Oprisan, Mona Buhusi Jun 2018

Inactivation Of The Medial-Prefrontal Cortex Impairs Interval Timing Precision, But Not Timing Accuracy Or Scalar Timing In A Peak-Interval Procedure In Rats, Catalin V. Buhusi, Marcelo B. Reyes, Cody-Aaron Gathers, Sorinel A. Oprisan, Mona Buhusi

Psychology Faculty Publications

Motor sequence learning, planning and execution of goal-directed behaviors, and decision making rely on accurate time estimation and production of durations in the seconds-to-minutes range. The pathways involved in planning and execution of goal-directed behaviors include cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuitry modulated by dopaminergic inputs. A critical feature of interval timing is its scalar property, by which the precision of timing is proportional to the timed duration. We examined the role of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in timing by evaluating the effect of its reversible inactivation on timing accuracy, timing precision and scalar timing. Rats were trained to time two durations in a ...


Adding Acceptance And Commitment Therapy To Exposure And Response Prevention For Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial, Michael P. Twohig, Jonathan S. Abramowitz, Brooke M. Smith, Laura E. Fabricant, Ryan J. Jacoby, Kate L. Morrison, Ellen J. Bluett, Lillian Reuman, Shannon M. Blakey, Thomas Ledermann Jun 2018

Adding Acceptance And Commitment Therapy To Exposure And Response Prevention For Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial, Michael P. Twohig, Jonathan S. Abramowitz, Brooke M. Smith, Laura E. Fabricant, Ryan J. Jacoby, Kate L. Morrison, Ellen J. Bluett, Lillian Reuman, Shannon M. Blakey, Thomas Ledermann

Psychology Faculty Publications

The objective of this study was to test whether treatment acceptability, exposure engagement, and completion rates could be increased by integrating acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) with traditional exposure and response prevention (ERP). 58 adults (68% female) diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD; M age = 27, 80% white) engaged in a multisite randomized controlled trial of 16 individual twice-weekly sessions of either ERP or ACT + ERP. Assessors unaware of treatment condition administered assessments of OCD, depression, psychological flexibility, and obsessional beliefs at pretreatment, posttreatment, and six-month follow-up. Treatment acceptability, credibility/expectancy, and exposure engagement were also assessed. Exposure engagement was high ...


The Influence Of A Personal Values Intervention On Cold Pressor-Induced Distress Tolerance, Brooke M. Smith, Jennifer L. Villatte, Clarissa W. Ong, Grayson M. Butcher, Michael P. Twohig, Michael Levin, S. C. Hayes Jun 2018

The Influence Of A Personal Values Intervention On Cold Pressor-Induced Distress Tolerance, Brooke M. Smith, Jennifer L. Villatte, Clarissa W. Ong, Grayson M. Butcher, Michael P. Twohig, Michael Levin, S. C. Hayes

Psychology Faculty Publications

Research has demonstrated that values and acceptance interventions can increase distress tolerance, but the individual contribution of each remains unclear. The current study examined the isolated effect of a values intervention on immersion time in a cold pressor. Participants randomized to Values (n = 18) and Control (n = 14) conditions completed two cold pressor tasks, separated by a 30-minute values or control intervention. Immersion time increased 51.06 seconds for participants in the Values condition and decreased by 10.79 seconds for those in the Control condition. Increases in self-reported pain and distress predicted decreases in immersion time for Control, but ...


Commentary: Are Groups More Or Less Than The Sum Of Their Members? The Moderating Role Of Individual Identification, Zhonglu Zhang, Christopher M. Warren, Yi Lei, Qiang Xing, Hong Li Jun 2018

Commentary: Are Groups More Or Less Than The Sum Of Their Members? The Moderating Role Of Individual Identification, Zhonglu Zhang, Christopher M. Warren, Yi Lei, Qiang Xing, Hong Li

Psychology Faculty Publications

Baumeister et al. (2016) proposed that people perform better in groups only “when members of the group are individually identified and responsible” (p. 2), and conversely, that people perform worse in groups when they “are not publicly identified or rewarded” (p. 2). In other words, they emphasized how individual responsibility contributes to group success. However, we argue that shared identity, whereby group members share a common responsibility, can also facilitate group success in many circumstances, and thus should not be discounted. Several authors have shared the same view in the open peer commentary published in Behavioral and Brain Sciences about ...


Linking The Medical And Educational Home To Support Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Practice Recommendations, Jeffrey D. Shahidullah, Gazi Azad, Katherine R. Mezher, Maryellen Brunson Mcclain, Laura Lee Mcintyre May 2018

Linking The Medical And Educational Home To Support Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Practice Recommendations, Jeffrey D. Shahidullah, Gazi Azad, Katherine R. Mezher, Maryellen Brunson Mcclain, Laura Lee Mcintyre

Psychology Faculty Publications

Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) present with complex medical problems that are often exacerbated by a range of other intellectual and psychiatric comorbidities. These children receive care for their physical and mental health from a range of providers within numerous child-serving systems, including their primary care clinic, school, and the home and community. Given the longitudinal nature in which care is provided for this chronic disorder, it is particularly necessary for services and providers to coordinate their care to ensure optimal efficiency and effectiveness. There are 2 primary venues that serve as a “home” for coordination of service provision ...


Impulsive Choice And Pre-Exposure To Delays: Iv. Effects Of Delay- And Immediacy-Exposure Training Relative To Maturational Changes In Impulsivity, C. Renee Renda, Jillian M. Rung, Jay E. Hinnenkamp, Stephanie N. Lenzini, Gregory J. Madden Apr 2018

Impulsive Choice And Pre-Exposure To Delays: Iv. Effects Of Delay- And Immediacy-Exposure Training Relative To Maturational Changes In Impulsivity, C. Renee Renda, Jillian M. Rung, Jay E. Hinnenkamp, Stephanie N. Lenzini, Gregory J. Madden

Psychology Faculty Publications

Impulsive choice describes preference for smaller, sooner rewards over larger, later rewards. Excessive delay discounting (i.e., rapid devaluation of delayed rewards) underlies some impulsive choices, and is observed in many maladaptive behaviors (e.g., substance abuse, gambling). Interventions designed to reduce delay discounting may provide therapeutic gains. One such intervention provides rats with extended training with delayed reinforcers. When compared to a group given extended training with immediate reinforcers, delay-exposed rats make significantly fewer impulsive choices. To what extent is this difference due to delay-exposure training shifting preference toward self-control or immediacy-exposure training (the putative control group) shifting preference ...


Speech-Material And Talker Effects In Speech Band Importance, Sarah E. Yoho, Eric W. Healy, Carla L. Youngdahl, Tyson S. Barrett, Frédéric Apoux Mar 2018

Speech-Material And Talker Effects In Speech Band Importance, Sarah E. Yoho, Eric W. Healy, Carla L. Youngdahl, Tyson S. Barrett, Frédéric Apoux

Psychology Faculty Publications

Band-importance functions created using the compound method [Apoux and Healy (2012). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 132, 1078–1087] provide more detail than those generated using the ANSI technique, necessitating and allowing a re-examination of the influences of speech material and talker on the shape of the band-importance function. More specifically, the detailed functions may reflect, to a larger extent, acoustic idiosyncrasies of the individual talker's voice. Twenty-one band functions were created using standard speech materials and recordings by different talkers. The band-importance functions representing the same speech-material type produced by different talkers were found to be more similar to ...


Does Self-Help Increase Rates Of Help Seeking For Student Mental Health Problems By Minimizing Stigma As A Barrier?, Michael Levin, Jennifer Krafft, Crissa Levin Jan 2018

Does Self-Help Increase Rates Of Help Seeking For Student Mental Health Problems By Minimizing Stigma As A Barrier?, Michael Levin, Jennifer Krafft, Crissa Levin

Psychology Faculty Publications

Objective: This study examined whether self-help (books, websites, mobile apps) increases help seeking for mental health problems among college students by minimizing stigma as a barrier. Participants and Methods: A survey was conducted with 200 college students reporting elevated distress from February to April 2017. Results: Intentions to use self-help were low, but a significant portion of students unwilling to see mental health professionals intended to use self-help. Greater self-stigma related to lower intentions to seek professional help, but was unrelated to seeking self-help. Similarly, students who only used self-help in the past reported higher self-stigma than those who sought ...


Persistence And Relapse Of Reinforced Behavioral Variability, Ann Galizio, Charles C. J. Frye, Jeremy M. Haynes, Jonathan E. Friedel, Brooke M. Smith, Amy L. Odum Jan 2018

Persistence And Relapse Of Reinforced Behavioral Variability, Ann Galizio, Charles C. J. Frye, Jeremy M. Haynes, Jonathan E. Friedel, Brooke M. Smith, Amy L. Odum

Psychology Faculty Publications

The present study examined persistence and relapse of reinforced behavioral variability in pigeons. Pigeons emitted four‐response sequences across two keys. Sequences produced food according to a lag schedule, in which a response sequence was followed by food if it differed from a certain number of previous sequences. In Experiment 1, food was delivered for sequences that satisfied a lag schedule in both components of a multiple schedule. When reinforcement was removed for one component (i.e., extinction), levels of behavioral variability decreased for only that component. In Experiment 2, food was delivered for sequences satisfying a lag schedule in ...


Telepsychotherapy For Trichotillomania: A Randomized Controlled Trial Of Act-Enhanced Behavior Therapy, Eric B. Lee, Jack A. Haeger, Michael E. Levin, Clarissa W. Ong, Michael P. Twohig Jan 2018

Telepsychotherapy For Trichotillomania: A Randomized Controlled Trial Of Act-Enhanced Behavior Therapy, Eric B. Lee, Jack A. Haeger, Michael E. Levin, Clarissa W. Ong, Michael P. Twohig

Psychology Faculty Publications

Despite its prevalence, quality treatment for trichotillomania is often difficult to find. The use of telepsychology has been an effective method for disseminating treatment services for a variety of mental health conditions. However, no research has examined the use of telepsychology to treat trichotillomania. This randomized controlled trial used Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Enhanced Behavior Therapy delivered by way of telepsychology to treat trichotillomania in adults. The study compared an active treatment condition (n = 12) to a delayed treatment waitlist control condition (n = 10). Results showed significant reductions in hair pulling severity from pre- to post-treatment compared to the waitlist ...


Differential Relations Between Delay Discounting And Distress Tolerance As A Function Of Opportunity Cost And Alcohol Use, Jillian M. Rung, Patrick S. Johnson, Gregory J. Madden Jan 2018

Differential Relations Between Delay Discounting And Distress Tolerance As A Function Of Opportunity Cost And Alcohol Use, Jillian M. Rung, Patrick S. Johnson, Gregory J. Madden

Psychology Faculty Publications

Delay discounting refers to one process by which an individual devalues delayed outcomes. Typical discounting tasks provide no information about events during delays to larger-later rewards. Imposing opportunity costs during the delay increases how steeply delayed rewards are discounted (P. S. Johnson, Herrmann, & Johnson, 2015). The present research evaluated whether distress tolerance (i.e., one's ability to tolerate distressing emotions and events) is related to discounting rates when opportunity costs are low, high, or unspecified. In a sample of predominantly female college students, we partially replicated that delay discounting was related to distress tolerance when opportunity costs were unspecified (significant relations confined to particular facets of distress tolerance), but distress tolerance was not related to delay discounting when opportunity costs were specified as low or high. The nature of the relation between distress tolerance and discounting when opportunity costs were unspecified was clarified by a significant interaction between alcohol use and distress tolerance; distress tolerance was unrelated to delay discounting except among participants with problematic alcohol use. Further research is needed to characterize relations between alcohol use, distress tolerance, and delay discounting and inform prevention and treatment efforts in at-risk populations.


Comparing Cognitive Defusion And Cognitive Restructuring Delivered Through A Mobile App For Individuals High In Self-Criticism, Michael E. Levin, Jack Haeger, Woolee An, Michael P. Twohig Jan 2018

Comparing Cognitive Defusion And Cognitive Restructuring Delivered Through A Mobile App For Individuals High In Self-Criticism, Michael E. Levin, Jack Haeger, Woolee An, Michael P. Twohig

Psychology Faculty Publications

There are ongoing questions regarding the similarities and differences in the clinical impact and processes of change for cognitive restructuring and cognitive defusion. This clinical component test compared 87 adults high in self-criticism randomized to a cognitive defusion mobile app, restructuring app, or waitlist condition for two weeks. Equivalent improvements were found from the defusion and restructuring apps relative to the waitlist in self-criticism and distress as well as decentering, self-compassion, and dysfunctional attitudes. However, the defusion condition had a more consistent pattern of improvements relative to waitlist. Improvements in cognitive decentering, self-compassion, and dysfunctional attitudes mediated effects for cognitive ...


Tailoring Acceptance And Commitment Therapy Skill Coaching In-The-Moment Through Smartphones: Results From A Randomized Controlled Trial, Michael E. Levin, Jack Haeger, Rick A. Cruz Jan 2018

Tailoring Acceptance And Commitment Therapy Skill Coaching In-The-Moment Through Smartphones: Results From A Randomized Controlled Trial, Michael E. Levin, Jack Haeger, Rick A. Cruz

Psychology Faculty Publications

There is growing evidence for the efficacy of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) interventions delivered through smartphones, but research has not yet focused on how to optimize such interventions. One benefit of mobile interventions is the ability to adapt content based on in-the-moment variables. The current randomized controlled trial evaluated whether an ACT app that tailored skill coaching based on in-the-moment ecological momentary assessments (EMAs) would be more efficacious than the same app where skill coaching was random or an EMA-only condition. A sample of 69 adults interested in using a self-help app were randomized to one of three app ...


Comparing In-The-Moment Skill Coaching Effects From Tailored Versus Non-Tailored Acceptance And Commitment Therapy Mobile Apps In A Non-Clinical Sample, Michael E. Levin, Cynthia Navarro, Rick A. Cruz, Jack Haeger Jan 2018

Comparing In-The-Moment Skill Coaching Effects From Tailored Versus Non-Tailored Acceptance And Commitment Therapy Mobile Apps In A Non-Clinical Sample, Michael E. Levin, Cynthia Navarro, Rick A. Cruz, Jack Haeger

Psychology Faculty Publications

Mobile apps are promising for teaching how to practice psychological skills in high-risk and in vivo momentary situations, but there has been minimal research on the immediate effects of app-based skill coaching on mental health in-the-moment. This study analyzed the mobile app data in a non-clinical sample of 39 adults participating in a larger randomized controlled trial, with participants randomized to an acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) mobile app that tailors skill coaching based on in-the-moment variables (n = 17) or an app that provides randomly selected skill coaching (n = 22). Data was collected before and after each ACT skill coaching ...


The Acceptance And Action Questionnaire – Ii: An Item Response Theory Analysis, Clarissa W. Ong, Benjamin G. Pierce, Douglas W. Woods, Michael P. Twohig, Michael E. Levin Jan 2018

The Acceptance And Action Questionnaire – Ii: An Item Response Theory Analysis, Clarissa W. Ong, Benjamin G. Pierce, Douglas W. Woods, Michael P. Twohig, Michael E. Levin

Psychology Faculty Publications

Psychological flexibility is the act of being open to internal experiences while pursuing valued life directions and has been implicated in positive mental health. A lack of psychological flexibility has been implicated in a wide range of mental health problems. In most research, assessment of psychological (in)flexibility has been done with the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire – II (AAQ-II), yet researchers have noted that items on the AAQ-II may not adequately discriminate between responses to experiences and the experiences themselves. Furthermore, little research has examined whether items on the AAQ-II function as intended in terms of assessing psychological (in)flexibility ...


Acceptance And Commitment Therapy For A Case Of Scrupulosity-Related Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, Eric B. Lee, Clarissa W. Ong, Woolee An, Michael P. Twohig Jan 2018

Acceptance And Commitment Therapy For A Case Of Scrupulosity-Related Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, Eric B. Lee, Clarissa W. Ong, Woolee An, Michael P. Twohig

Psychology Faculty Publications

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is a modern form of Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) with growing support for treating obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We present a case wherein a client presented with scrupulosity-related OCD. We briefly review scrupulosity, explain the theory behind ACT, and present a case, the treatment process, and desired outcomes. Exposure and response prevention (ERP) is described from an ACT perspective and discussed as an option for people with OCD who may be reluctant to engage in more traditional forms of ERP.


The Role Of Experiential Avoidance In Problematic Pornography Viewing, Michael E. Levin, Eric B. Lee, Michael P. Twohig Jan 2018

The Role Of Experiential Avoidance In Problematic Pornography Viewing, Michael E. Levin, Eric B. Lee, Michael P. Twohig

Psychology Faculty Publications

Research suggests that online pornography use can have harmful consequences for some individuals, but the psychological processes that contribute to problematic viewing are unclear. This study sought to evaluate the role of experiential avoidance in the negative consequences of online pornography viewing in a small cross sectional survey sample of 91 male college students who reported viewing. Results indicated that viewing pornography for experientially avoidant motivations was related to more frequent viewing and predicted self-reported negative consequences of viewing over and above other motivations (e.g., sexual pleasure, curiosity, excitement seeking). Although more frequent viewing was related to more self-reported ...


Scaling Out Evidence-Based Interventions Outside The U.S. Mainland: Social Justice Or Trojan Horse?, Melanie M. Domenech Rodríguez, Ana A. Baumann, Alejandro Vázquez, Nancy G. Amador-Buenabad, Natalie Franceschi Rivera, Nydia Ortiz-Pons, J. Rubén Parra-Cardona Jan 2018

Scaling Out Evidence-Based Interventions Outside The U.S. Mainland: Social Justice Or Trojan Horse?, Melanie M. Domenech Rodríguez, Ana A. Baumann, Alejandro Vázquez, Nancy G. Amador-Buenabad, Natalie Franceschi Rivera, Nydia Ortiz-Pons, J. Rubén Parra-Cardona

Psychology Faculty Publications

Global health disparities continue to widen as professional standards for effectiveness of mental health services provision become more precise and difficult to achieve across varied economic and social contexts. Within the U.S., health disparities are evident in Latinx populations. Globally, the health disparities are also evident in Latin America as compared to the U.S. and other economically affluent nations. The diversification of psychology in content and persons has led to a unique opportunity to build bridges that can help reduce disparities in- and outside of the U.S. mainland. Collaborations can be of great use in addressing health ...


Effects Of Acceptance And Commitment Therapy On Impulsive Decision Making, Kate L. Morrison, Brooke M. Smith, Clarissa W. Ong, Eric B. Lee, Jonathan E. Friedel, Amy Odum, Gregory J. Madden, Thomas Ledermann, Jillian Rung, Michael P. Twohig Jan 2018

Effects Of Acceptance And Commitment Therapy On Impulsive Decision Making, Kate L. Morrison, Brooke M. Smith, Clarissa W. Ong, Eric B. Lee, Jonathan E. Friedel, Amy Odum, Gregory J. Madden, Thomas Ledermann, Jillian Rung, Michael P. Twohig

Psychology Faculty Publications

This study examined the transdiagnostic effect of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) on impulsive decision making in a community sample. Forty adults were randomized to eight individual sessions of ACT or an inactive control. Participants completed pre-, mid-, and post-assessments for psychological symptoms, overall behavior change, valued living, delay discounting, psychological flexibility, and distress tolerance. Data were analyzed with multilevel modeling of growth curves. Significant interaction effects of time and condition were observed for psychological flexibility, distress tolerance, psychological symptoms, and the obstruction subscale of valued living. No significant interaction effect was found for two delay discounting tasks nor the ...


An Examination Of The Transdiagnostic Role Of Delay Discounting In Psychological Inflexibility And Mental Health Problems, Michael Levin, Jack Haeger, Clarissa W. Ong, Michael P. Twohig Jan 2018

An Examination Of The Transdiagnostic Role Of Delay Discounting In Psychological Inflexibility And Mental Health Problems, Michael Levin, Jack Haeger, Clarissa W. Ong, Michael P. Twohig

Psychology Faculty Publications

Delay discounting is a basic behavioral process that has been found to predict addictive behaviors, and more recently, other mental health problems. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), is a transdiagnostic treatment that appears to alter delay discounting, possibly through reducing psychological inflexibility. The current study sought to further bridge research on delay discounting and ACT by examining the relation of delay discounting to a broad range of selfreported mental health problems and measures of psychological inflexibility. A cross sectional online survey was conducted with 389 college students. Small negative correlations ranging between .09 and .15 were statistically significant between delay ...


An Examination Of The Role Of Psychological Inflexibility In Hoarding Using Multiple Mediator Models, Clarissa W. Ong, Jennifer Krafft, Michael Levin, Michael P. Twohig Jan 2018

An Examination Of The Role Of Psychological Inflexibility In Hoarding Using Multiple Mediator Models, Clarissa W. Ong, Jennifer Krafft, Michael Levin, Michael P. Twohig

Psychology Faculty Publications

Hoarding is associated with functional impairment and impacts quality of life. One process that has been theorized to explain how hoarding develops and leads to impairment is psychological inflexibility, in which behavior is rigidly controlled by a perceived need to regulate internal experiences, at the expense of more effective, valued actions. The present study aimed to test the mediational role of psychological inflexibility in the development of hoarding and its impact on life satisfaction with a sample of 489 college students completing an online survey. Results indicated that multiple measures of psychological inflexibility (overall inflexibility, inattention, and values obstruction) mediated ...


A Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Investigation Of Speech Production During Reading, Nick Wan, Allison S. Hancock, Todd K. Moon, Ronald B. Gillam Dec 2017

A Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Investigation Of Speech Production During Reading, Nick Wan, Allison S. Hancock, Todd K. Moon, Ronald B. Gillam

Psychology Faculty Publications

This study was designed to test the extent to which speaking processes related to articulation and voicing influence Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) measures of cortical hemodynamics and functional connectivity. Participants read passages in three conditions (oral reading, silent mouthing, and silent reading) while undergoing fNIRS imaging. Area under the curve (AUC) analyses of the oxygenated and deoxygenated hemodynamic response function concentration values were compared for each task across five regions of interest. There were significant region main effects for both oxy and deoxy AUC analyses, and a significant region x task interaction for deoxy AUC favoring the oral reading ...


Psychological Inflexibility And Stigma: A Meta-Analytic Review, Jennifer Krafft, Jillian Ferrell, Michael E. Levin, Michael P. Twohig Nov 2017

Psychological Inflexibility And Stigma: A Meta-Analytic Review, Jennifer Krafft, Jillian Ferrell, Michael E. Levin, Michael P. Twohig

Psychology Faculty Publications

Stigma is known to have major impacts on the physical and psychological health of many groups. Psychological inflexibility is a psychological process that may help explain the impact of stigma on both self and others. Accordingly, acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), which targets psychological inflexibility, has been researched as a potential treatment for stigma. In order to provide a comprehensive overview of these issues, this paper offers a systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between psychological inflexibility and stigma, as well as a systematic review of ACT interventions for stigma. The results of the meta-analysis showed a positive, medium-to-large ...


Mindfulness And Acceptance-Based Trainings For Fostering Self-Care And Reducing Stress In Mental Health Professionals: A Systematic Review, Myriam Rudaz, Michael P. Twohig, Clarissa W. Ong, Michael E. Levin Oct 2017

Mindfulness And Acceptance-Based Trainings For Fostering Self-Care And Reducing Stress In Mental Health Professionals: A Systematic Review, Myriam Rudaz, Michael P. Twohig, Clarissa W. Ong, Michael E. Levin

Psychology Faculty Publications

This review summarizes the effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT), Mindful Self-Compassion (MSC), and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) to foster self-care and reduce stress in mental health professionals. Twenty-four quantitative articles from PsycInfo and PubMed were identified that focused on mindfulness, self-compassion, psychological flexibility, stress, burnout, or psychological well-being. All MBSR and MBCT studies lacked active control conditions, but some of the ACT studies and one MSC study included an active control. Most studies support evidence that all training programs tend to improve mindfulness and some also self-compassion. In addition, psychological flexibility was measured in ...


Self-Stigma And Weight Loss: The Impact Of Fear Of Being Stigmatized, Jason Lillis, J. G. Thomas, Michael E. Levin, R. R. Wing Oct 2017

Self-Stigma And Weight Loss: The Impact Of Fear Of Being Stigmatized, Jason Lillis, J. G. Thomas, Michael E. Levin, R. R. Wing

Psychology Faculty Publications

The current study sought to examine whether two facets of weight self-stigma (fear of enacted stigma and self-devaluation) were associated with weight change and treatment engagement for 188 individuals participating in a 3-month online weight loss program. Fear of enacted stigma predicted less weight loss 3-months later after controlling for demographics, eating problems, and psychological symptoms. Self-devaluation did not predict weight loss. Neither weight self-stigma variable predicted engagement in the online program. These results add to the literature indicating the negative effects of weight self-stigma while highlighting the central role of fear of being stigmatized by others in this process.


Impaired Latent Inhibition In Gdnf-Deficient Mice Exposed To Chronic Stress, Mona Buhusi, Colten K. Brown, Catalin V. Buhusi Oct 2017

Impaired Latent Inhibition In Gdnf-Deficient Mice Exposed To Chronic Stress, Mona Buhusi, Colten K. Brown, Catalin V. Buhusi

Psychology Faculty Publications

Increased reactivity to stress is maladaptive and linked to abnormal behaviors and psychopathology. Chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) alters catecholaminergic neurotransmission and remodels neuronal circuits involved in learning, attention and decision making. Glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is essential for the physiology and survival of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra and of noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus. Up-regulation of GDNF expression during stress is linked to resilience; on the other hand, the inability to up-regulate GDNF in response to stress, as a result of either genetic or epigenetic modifications, induces behavioral alterations. For example, GDNF-deficient mice exposed to chronic stress exhibit ...


Impaired Latent Inhibition In Gdnf-Deficient Mice Exposed To Chronic Stress, Mona Buhusi, Colten K. Brown, Catalin V. Buhusi Oct 2017

Impaired Latent Inhibition In Gdnf-Deficient Mice Exposed To Chronic Stress, Mona Buhusi, Colten K. Brown, Catalin V. Buhusi

Psychology Faculty Publications

Increased reactivity to stress is maladaptive and linked to abnormal behaviors and psychopathology. Chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) alters catecholaminergic neurotransmission and remodels neuronal circuits involved in learning, attention and decision making. Glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is essential for the physiology and survival of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra and of noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus. Up-regulation of GDNF expression during stress is linked to resilience; on the other hand, the inability to up-regulate GDNF in response to stress, as a result of either genetic or epigenetic modifications, induces behavioral alterations. For example, GDNF-deficient mice exposed to chronic stress exhibit ...


Examining The Feasibility Of Acceptance And Commitment Therapy Self-Help For Problematic Pornography Viewing: Results From A Pilot Open Trial, Michael Levin, Scott T. Heninger, Benjamin G. Pierce, Michael P. Twohig Sep 2017

Examining The Feasibility Of Acceptance And Commitment Therapy Self-Help For Problematic Pornography Viewing: Results From A Pilot Open Trial, Michael Levin, Scott T. Heninger, Benjamin G. Pierce, Michael P. Twohig

Psychology Faculty Publications

This pilot study evaluated the feasibility of an acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) self-help program for problematic pornography viewing (PV). A sample of 19 adults seeking help for problematic PV was recruited in an open trial. Participants reported adequate program acceptability, although only 45% of those completing post-assessment read at least half of the self-help book. Significant improvements on problematic PV and cognitive fusion were found over the 8-week intervention period, with effects sustaining at 8-week follow-up. Participants who read more improved more on PV problems and psychological inflexibility. Overall, an ACT self-help approach appears feasible and potentially efficacious for ...


Examining The Feasibility Of Acceptance And Commitment Therapy Self-Help For Problematic Pornography Viewing: Results From A Pilot Open Trial, Michael E. Levin, Scott T. Heninger, Benjamin G. Pierce, Michael P. Twohig Sep 2017

Examining The Feasibility Of Acceptance And Commitment Therapy Self-Help For Problematic Pornography Viewing: Results From A Pilot Open Trial, Michael E. Levin, Scott T. Heninger, Benjamin G. Pierce, Michael P. Twohig

Psychology Faculty Publications

This pilot study evaluated the feasibility of an acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) self-help program for problematic pornography viewing (PV). A sample of 19 adults seeking help for problematic PV were recruited in an open trial. Participants reported adequate program acceptability, although only 45% of those completing post-assessment read at least half of the self-help book. Significant improvements on problematic PV and cognitive fusion were found over the 8-week intervention period, with effects sustaining at 8-week follow-up. Participants who read more improved more on PV problems and psychological inflexibility. Overall, an ACT self-help approach appears feasible and potentially efficacious for ...


Delay Discounting As An Index Of Sustainable Behavior: Devaluation Of Future Air Quality And Implications For Public Health, Meredith S. Berry, Norma P. Nickerson, Amy L. Odum Sep 2017

Delay Discounting As An Index Of Sustainable Behavior: Devaluation Of Future Air Quality And Implications For Public Health, Meredith S. Berry, Norma P. Nickerson, Amy L. Odum

Psychology Faculty Publications

Poor air quality and resulting annual deaths represent significant public health concerns. Recently, rapid delay discounting (the devaluation of future outcomes) of air quality has been considered a potential barrier for engaging in long term, sustainable behaviors that might help to reduce emissions (e.g., reducing private car use, societal support for clean air initiatives). Delay discounting has been shown to be predictive of real world behavior outside of laboratory settings, and therefore may offer an important framework beyond traditional variables thought to measure sustainable behavior such as importance of an environmental issue, or environmental attitudes/values, although more research ...