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A Comparison Of Fixed Item Parameter Calibration Methods And Reporting Score Scales In The Development Of An Item Pool, Keyu Chen Aug 2019

A Comparison Of Fixed Item Parameter Calibration Methods And Reporting Score Scales In The Development Of An Item Pool, Keyu Chen

Theses and Dissertations

The purposes of the study were to compare the relative performances of three fixed item parameter calibration methods (FIPC) in item and ability parameter estimation and to examine how the ability estimates obtained from these different methods affect interpretations using reported scales of different lengths.

Through a simulation design, the study was divided into two stages. The first stage was the calibration stage, where the parameters of pretest items were estimated. This stage investigated the accuracy of item parameter estimates and the recovery of the underlying ability distributions for different sample sizes, different numbers of pretest items, and different types ...


Cyberbullying And The Workplace: An Analysis Of Job Satisfaction And Social Self-Efficacy, Andrew S Jones Aug 2019

Cyberbullying And The Workplace: An Analysis Of Job Satisfaction And Social Self-Efficacy, Andrew S Jones

Theses and Dissertations

Relatively little research has been devoted to understanding the implications of adult cyberbullying on workers. However, recent research focused on how cyberbullying affects adults has indicated cyberbullying has negative implications for job satisfaction of workers. The purpose of this study was to use Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT) as a framework to investigate the impact of cyberbullying in the workplace by examining the relationship between cyberbullying and both job satisfaction and social self-efficacy. The results of this study indicate that among individuals who are cyberbullied, higher rates of cyberbullying has a significant negative relationship with social self-efficacy, and social self-efficacy ...


Development And Validation Of Thai Versions Of Big Five Measures From The International Personality Item Pool, Chakadee Waiyavutti Aug 2019

Development And Validation Of Thai Versions Of Big Five Measures From The International Personality Item Pool, Chakadee Waiyavutti

Theses and Dissertations

The Big-Five is the most popular personality taxonomy used to characterize fundamental personality traits and their individual differences. This model has been well replicated across English speaking samples, several other languages, and different item formats, thereby begging the question of its universality. However, two key issues have challenged the validity of the cultural group comparisons using Big Five measures of personality. The first is methodology for translation and adaptation, and the second is construct equivalence across cultures. The International Personality Item Pool (IPIP; Goldberg, 1992) has been used to create several non-commercial versions of Big Five measures (IPIP-BFMs), with a ...


Optimizing Design Of Incorporating Off-Grade Items For Constrained Computerized Adaptive Testing In K-12 Assessment, Xiangdong Liu Aug 2019

Optimizing Design Of Incorporating Off-Grade Items For Constrained Computerized Adaptive Testing In K-12 Assessment, Xiangdong Liu

Theses and Dissertations

Incorporating off-grade items within an on-grade item pool is often seen in K-12 testing programs. Incorporating off-grade items may provide improvements in measurement precision, test length, and content blueprint fulfillment, especially for high- and low-performing examinees, but it may also identify some concerns when using too many off-grade items on tests that are primarily designed to measure grade-level standards. This dissertation investigates how practical constraints such as the number of on-grade items, the proportion, and range of off-grade items, and the stopping rules affect item pool characteristics and item pool performance in adaptive testing.

This study includes simulation conditions with ...


Cigarette Smoking, Depressive Symptoms, And Social Cognitions: An Examination Of Their Intercorrelationships Among High School Students, Wilbeth Lugo-Morales Aug 2019

Cigarette Smoking, Depressive Symptoms, And Social Cognitions: An Examination Of Their Intercorrelationships Among High School Students, Wilbeth Lugo-Morales

Theses and Dissertations

Cigarette smoking and depressive symptoms are two problems that affect adolescents’ health. Although it has been well-documented that a relationship exists between these two concerns, most researchers have used self-report methods to study smoking behaviors. While adolescents are typically accurate when reporting depressive symptoms, they tend to be less accurate reporting smoking. Moreover, research supporting the Prototype Willingness Model (PWM) has shown that the social cognitions of willingness to smoke, and the prototypes or images of smokers are predictors of smoking in adolescents. Little is known about the association between social cognitions and depressive symptoms in adolescence.

In this study ...


Beta Observed Score And True Score Equating Methods, Shichao Wang Aug 2019

Beta Observed Score And True Score Equating Methods, Shichao Wang

Theses and Dissertations

Equating is a statistical process that is used to adjust scores on test forms so that scores on the forms can be used interchangeably. This dissertation offered intensive investigation of beta true and observed score methods by comparing them to existing traditional and IRT equating methods under multiple designs and various conditions using real data, pseudo-test data and simulated data. Weighted and conditional bias, standard error of equating and root mean squared error were used to evaluate the accuracy of equating results obtained from the pseudo data and simulated data analyses. The single group equipercentile equating based on large sample ...


Boxing, Masculinity, And Help-Seeking: How A Boxing-Based Exercise Program Impacts The Relationship Between Masculine Norm Adherence And Help-Seeking, Adam M Gallenberg Aug 2019

Boxing, Masculinity, And Help-Seeking: How A Boxing-Based Exercise Program Impacts The Relationship Between Masculine Norm Adherence And Help-Seeking, Adam M Gallenberg

Theses and Dissertations

Masculinity research suggests help-seeking attitudes towards mental health concerns conflict with socialized masculine norms such as emotional control and self-reliance (Addis & Mahalik, 2003; Heath, Brenner, Vogel, Lannin, & Strass, 2017). As psychologists continue to find ways to reach out to men, exercise intervention may be the catalyst for men to seek out psychological services. More specifically, boxing training has been shown to increase the sense of self-confidence and character development (Shultz, Stoner, Lambrick, & Lane, 2014; Sokol, 2004). In this study, 24 men engaged in a six-session boxing training program to examine the impact high-intensity exercise has on psychological help-seeking attitudes and psychological distress. Participants reported lower psychological distress, an increase in health behaviors, and high levels of exercise self-efficacy throughout the intervention. Additionally, participants who reported greater adherence to traditional masculine norms endorsed greater psychological distress compared to participants reporting lower adherence to masculine norms. Help-seeking attitudes towards psychological services ...


Orthorexia Nervosa: The Role Of Social Media #Cleaneating, Lianne Gann Aug 2019

Orthorexia Nervosa: The Role Of Social Media #Cleaneating, Lianne Gann

Theses and Dissertations

Social media use represents an emerging area of interest in relation to body image and disordered eating. Previous research has demonstrated social media use may be related to eating disorder risk, an increase in body image concerns, bulimic symptoms, and restricted eating. Orthorexia Nervosa (ON), a disordered eating pattern focused on the purity/quality of food, needs further investigation within the social media context. The current study examined whether young adult women’s social media use was associated with objectified body consciousness and orthorexia nervosa symptoms. Social media use, both active and passive, was significantly correlated with body consciousness (body ...


The Use Of Crowdsourcing In The Development Of Measurement Instruments, Emily Michelle Wetherell May 2019

The Use Of Crowdsourcing In The Development Of Measurement Instruments, Emily Michelle Wetherell

Theses and Dissertations

Crowdsourcing has gained favor among many social scientists as a method for collecting data because this method is both time- and resource-efficient. The present study uses a within-subject test-retest design to evaluate the psychometric characteristics of crowdsource samples for developing and field testing measurement instruments. As evidenced by similar patterns of psychometric characteristics across time, strong test-retest reliability, and low failure rates of attention check items, the results of this study provide evidence that Amazon Mechanical Turk might represent a fruitful platform for field testing to support the development of a variety of measures. These findings, in turn, have significant ...


The Impact Of Collateral Information On Ability Estimation In An Adaptive Test Battery, Qing Xie May 2019

The Impact Of Collateral Information On Ability Estimation In An Adaptive Test Battery, Qing Xie

Theses and Dissertations

The advantages of administering an adaptive test battery, a collection of multiple adaptive subtests that are specifically tailored to examinees’ abilities, include shortening the subtest length and maintaining the accuracy of individual subtest scores. The test battery can incorporate a range of subjects, though this study focused primarily on Math and Reading.

This study compared different ways of incorporating collateral information (CI), supplementary information beyond examinees’ current test performance, under two frameworks (Unidimensional and Multidimensional computerized adaptive testing). It also investigated the impact of subtest intercorrelations (the relationship between an examinee’s test scores), as well as the sequences of ...


Teacher Autonomy With Reading Interventions In An Rti Model, Erin L. Witek May 2019

Teacher Autonomy With Reading Interventions In An Rti Model, Erin L. Witek

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to investigate teachers’ level of autonomy in a Response-to-Intervention (RTI) model school system and with delivering a Tier 2 reading intervention, as well as, to understand teachers’ perception of student response to the adapted reading materials. Qualitative data collection involved individual teacher interview, observations, post-intervention survey, and a focus group. Teachers selected reading materials that focused on sight word learning to adapt to fit student need and then delivered the intervention for six weeks. Quantitative data were the students’ progress monitoring scores of sight words learned and overall oral reading fluency rate. Results showed ...


The Impact And Implications Of Two Or More Children Identifying As Lesbian, Gay, Or Bisexual (Lgb) Within The Family System, Casey Michael Gamboni Jan 2019

The Impact And Implications Of Two Or More Children Identifying As Lesbian, Gay, Or Bisexual (Lgb) Within The Family System, Casey Michael Gamboni

Theses and Dissertations

Coming out as a sexual minority can be a challenging process (D’amico, Julien, Tremblay, & Chartrand, 2015) and having supportive allies and advocates within the family makes that process less strenuous (Luke & Goodrich, 2015). The sibling relationship has been shown to play a significant supportive role in the lives of LGB people while coming out as sexual minorities (Haxhe, Cerezo, Bergfeld, & Walloch, 2017). Scholars have found that when a second child within the family system comes out as LGB, it gives the parents a chance to improve aspects of their parenting compared to the first child who came out to ...


Referral Source, Employment, And The Recovery Of Underserved Substance Use Treatment Clients, Ethan Sahker Jan 2019

Referral Source, Employment, And The Recovery Of Underserved Substance Use Treatment Clients, Ethan Sahker

Theses and Dissertations

Substance use disorders (SUDs) are a serious public health concern contributing to health risks for individuals and communities. Recovery capital are client strengths associated with SUD recovery. Employment represents recovery capital associated with positive SUD treatment outcomes. However, the relationship between employment mechanisms and SUDs are not well understood. The present study investigates how specific employment variables at SUD treatment intake predict (a) successful treatment completion, (b) abstinence at six-month treatment follow-up, (c) reduced use at six-month treatment follow-up. Additionally, employment variable change is explored. A retrospective, cross-sectional investigation with logistic regression modeling to predict substance use at six-months post ...


Evaluating Mode Comparability In Early Elementary Grades, Ye Lin Dec 2018

Evaluating Mode Comparability In Early Elementary Grades, Ye Lin

Theses and Dissertations

With the widespread use of technology in the assessment field, many testing programs use both computer-based tests (CBTs) and paper-and-pencil tests (PPTs). Both the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing (AERA, APA, & NCME, 2014) and the International Guidelines on Computer-Based and Internet Delivered Testing (International Test Commission, 2005) have called for studies on the equivalence of scores from different modes to support the uses and interpretations of scores across modes. Studies of administration mode effects, however, are quite limited and have found mixed results in the early childhood literature. In addition, little research has focused on both construct comparability and ...


Learning On The Open Road: Examining The Effect Of Non-Sequential User Choice On Learning From Oers, Ethan Philip Valentine Dec 2018

Learning On The Open Road: Examining The Effect Of Non-Sequential User Choice On Learning From Oers, Ethan Philip Valentine

Theses and Dissertations

In recent decades, open, online learning environments have become progressively more popular and well-funded. An integral aspect of this open learning movement is the transition of a substantial amount of control of the learning process from designers and instructors to the users engaging with the environment. With heavy investments coming from both the public and private sectors, and an ever-growing market of online learners, it is crucial that we better understand how the provision of user control over the learning process affects the quality of that learning process.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of one ...


Ethical Considerations For The Information Age: A Qualitative Study Of Doctoral Psychology Trainees' Preparation And Decision Making For Technology Use, Samuel David Lustgarten Aug 2018

Ethical Considerations For The Information Age: A Qualitative Study Of Doctoral Psychology Trainees' Preparation And Decision Making For Technology Use, Samuel David Lustgarten

Theses and Dissertations

Psychologists now use and interact with a mélange of technology for client care, including (but not limited to) email (Delsignore et al., 2016; Eysenbach, 2000), text messaging (Bradley & Hendricks, 2009; Elhai & Frueh, 2016), electronic medical records (Harrison & Palacio, 2006; Steinfeld & Keyes, 2011), telemental health/televideo (Richardson, Frueh, Grubaugh, Egede, & Elhai, 2012), and digital assessments (Jellins, 2015; Pearson Education Inc., 2015b). Amidst this technological revolution, threats to ethical obligations and regulations exist that might hinder effective client care (Elhai & Hall, 2016b; Lustgarten, 2015; Lustgarten & Colbow, 2017). Literature suggests that individuals, organizations, companies, and government actors have targeted individuals and nations for their data (Elhai & Hall, 2016b; Greenwald, 2014; Lustgarten, 2015). Despite concerns for protecting client information, little is known about the education and training opportunities present in APA-accredited clinical and/or counseling psychology doctoral programs around technology competence. Researchers have recommended trainees receive technology training for use within psychotherapy (Colbow, 2013 ...


Prescribing Mediplaytion For Pain: The Relationship Between Digital Media And Distraction Coaching During Needle Pokes, Benjamin Jay Miller Aug 2018

Prescribing Mediplaytion For Pain: The Relationship Between Digital Media And Distraction Coaching During Needle Pokes, Benjamin Jay Miller

Theses and Dissertations

This research aims to compare how adults use handheld and widescreen digital devices to distract children during painful medical procedures. Levels of pain and distress are compared to assess the effectiveness of each device medium. The behaviors of the adults using these devices were also examined in order to determine the quality of the distraction provided. Additionally, the observed behaviors of the adults are documented and analyzed to determine if the rates of specific action types are predictors of pain, distress, and quality of distraction provided.

The results of this work show that children reported less pain when distracted by ...


The Development And Initial Validation Of The Cognitive Response Bias Scale For The Personality Assessment Inventory, Owen J. Gaasedelen Aug 2018

The Development And Initial Validation Of The Cognitive Response Bias Scale For The Personality Assessment Inventory, Owen J. Gaasedelen

Theses and Dissertations

The Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) is a commonly used instrument in neuropsychological assessment; however, it lacks a symptom validity test (SVT) that is sensitive to cognitive response bias (also referred to as non-credible responding), as defined by performance on cognitive performance validity tests (PVT). Therefore the purpose of the present study was to derive from the PAI item pool a new SVT, named the Cognitive Response Bias Scale (CRBS), that is sensitive to non-credible responding, and to provide initial validation evidence supporting the use of the CRBS in a clinical setting. The current study utilized an existing neuropsychological outpatient clinical ...


An Examination Of The Help Seeking Behaviors Of African American Women With Adverse Childhood Experiences, Laneisha Waller Aug 2018

An Examination Of The Help Seeking Behaviors Of African American Women With Adverse Childhood Experiences, Laneisha Waller

Theses and Dissertations

Within the United States, African Americans account for 13% of the entire population, making them the second largest minority group. A notable concern is the rate at which African Americans fail to utilize both medical and mental health services. Researchers have long examined possible factors, such as stigmas, barriers, and accessibility, as reasons why African Americans underutilize psychological help. Overlooked is the potential influence of adverse childhood experiences (ACE). The term ACE encompasses ten major domains, ranging from emotional abuse to parental divorce/separation, all of which have been found to negatively influence individuals’ well-being. As such, this study examined ...


An Investigation Of Early College Entrants’ Social Development, Jiaju Wu Aug 2018

An Investigation Of Early College Entrants’ Social Development, Jiaju Wu

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this dissertation was to investigate gifted students’ perceptions of the effects of their early college entrance program on their development, especially peer acceptance. Participants in the National Academy of Arts, Sciences, and Engineering (NAASE) program, a program designed to facilitate learning among early college entrants, completed a 64-item survey examining early entrants’ college experiences.

Findings indicated that early college entrants believed that their program positively influenced their development. Their reported positive peer acceptance, though not related to gender and socioeconomic status. This study contributes to the existing literature on early college entrants’ overall development and their peer ...


Examining The Effectiveness Of An Online Suicide Prevention Gatekeeper Training, Kevin Joseph Yeates Aug 2018

Examining The Effectiveness Of An Online Suicide Prevention Gatekeeper Training, Kevin Joseph Yeates

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of the study was to identify the effectiveness of an online suicide prevention gatekeeper training at the University of Iowa compared to previous research, other gatekeeper trainings, and to assess differences between faculty and staff trainees. Participants were faculty, staff, and students at the University of Iowa that completed the Kognito College Students or the Kognito Faculty and Staff module. To determine the effectiveness, participants completed program evaluation surveys at pre-training, immediate post-training, and six-months after completion of the training. The surveys assessed four gatekeeper appraisal scales: Gatekeeper Knowledge and Beliefs, Gatekeeper Reluctance, Gatekeeper Self-Efficacy, and Gatekeeper Experiences ...


Investigating Friendship Qualities In High Ability Or Achieving, Typically-Developing, Adhd, And Twice-Exceptional Youth, Staci Fosenburg Aug 2018

Investigating Friendship Qualities In High Ability Or Achieving, Typically-Developing, Adhd, And Twice-Exceptional Youth, Staci Fosenburg

Theses and Dissertations

Current gaps in knowledge about twice-exceptional youth relative to those with only one exceptionality (e.g., high ability or ADHD) include how twice-exceptional students perceive their friendships (Foley Nicpon et al., 2010). Some researchers have found friendship qualities to be less positive for youth with ADHD (Humphrey et al., 2007), yet others have found friendships to be rated more positively by gifted youth (Field et al., 1998). The current investigation sought to determine how friendships are perceived by twice-exceptional youth compared to peers with ADHD or high ability or achievement, and those with average ability or achievement and no diagnosis ...


Psychopathy: Correlates Of The Mmpi-2-Rf And The Three-Factor Model Of Psychopathy, Katherine Achsah Lisa Hall Aug 2018

Psychopathy: Correlates Of The Mmpi-2-Rf And The Three-Factor Model Of Psychopathy, Katherine Achsah Lisa Hall

Theses and Dissertations

Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by antisocial deviance in the context of interpersonal and emotional detachment. The study of psychopathy in non-forensic samples is an area of growing interest, but one that is limited by the fact that most large-scale epidemiological studies, which collect a wealth of data that could further elucidate the phenotypic correlates, constructs, assessments, and etiologic mechanisms in psychopathy, typically do not include direct assessment of psychopathy construct or measurements. However, if facets of psychopathy could be predicted from other measures, such as broadband inventories of normal personality that are often administered in large-scale investigations, data ...


Simple Structure Mirt Equating For Multidimensional Tests, Stella Yun Kim May 2018

Simple Structure Mirt Equating For Multidimensional Tests, Stella Yun Kim

Theses and Dissertations

Equating is a statistical process used to accomplish score comparability so that the scores from the different test forms can be used interchangeably. One of the most widely used equating procedures is unidimensional item response theory (UIRT) equating, which requires a set of assumptions about the data structure. In particular, the essence of UIRT rests on the unidimensionality assumption, which requires that a test measures only a single ability. However, this assumption is not likely to be fulfilled for many real data such as mixed-format tests or tests composed of several content subdomains: failure to satisfy the assumption threatens the ...


The Development And Validation Of The Postgraduate School Application Self-Efficacy (Psase) Scale, Meaghan Kathleen Rowe-Johnson Jan 2018

The Development And Validation Of The Postgraduate School Application Self-Efficacy (Psase) Scale, Meaghan Kathleen Rowe-Johnson

Theses and Dissertations

The vast underrepresentation of minority, first-generation, and low-income students in postgraduate programs is cause for serious concern in the growing workforce. Despite the increase of college enrollment among underrepresented first-generation, low-income (UFGLI) students over the last decade, there are still a disproportionately small percentage of UFGLI students in postgraduate education, such as doctoral, professional, and masters-level programs. These educational disparities significantly affect opportunity for societal advancement and power. Findings from previous literature reveal that UFGLI college students often lack access to resources that provide assistance in the pursuit of postgraduate studies and that UFGLI students encounter additional barriers during the ...


Examining The Association Between Therapeutic Factors And Outcomes Of Academic Enhancement Seminars, Kristin G Wurster Jan 2018

Examining The Association Between Therapeutic Factors And Outcomes Of Academic Enhancement Seminars, Kristin G Wurster

Theses and Dissertations

Many colleges have devoted institutional resources to retention initiatives, particularly those targeting students who have been placed on academic probation, but assessment of academic enhancement courses for students on academic probation has generally been limited to correlational studies in which the entire intervention serves as the independent variable. This study, guided by that of Kivlighan et al. (2018), applied knowledge of therapeutic factors related to positive outcomes in group psychotherapy to academic enhancement seminars in order to determine whether the same factors might also be associated with positive outcomes, as measured by semester grade point average (GPA) and participants’ reported ...


Instructional Gesture And Early Shape Learning: An Advantage For Seeing And Doing, Nicole M. Hendrix Jan 2018

Instructional Gesture And Early Shape Learning: An Advantage For Seeing And Doing, Nicole M. Hendrix

Theses and Dissertations

Discrepancies in math knowledge emerge as early as four years of age, demonstrating need for effective early math interventions. Early math curricula and targeted instructional strategies have been shown to increase geometric knowledge in early childhood, particularly as that relates to shape learning. Existing educational research has not examined the specific role hand gesture embedded in instruction may have on early geometric learning, although in the psychological literature, effects of gesture on mathematical and spatial learning are well-documented.

One hundred and twenty-one preschoolers and kindergarteners, divided among three instructional conditions—no observed gesture, seeing gesture, and seeing and doing gesture ...


The Influence Of Perfectionism On Mental Health In Gifted And Twice-Exceptional Students, Margaret Mary Candler Dec 2017

The Influence Of Perfectionism On Mental Health In Gifted And Twice-Exceptional Students, Margaret Mary Candler

Theses and Dissertations

Although a long-standing interest in the abilities of gifted students exists, researchers and clinicians have only recently focused on specific factors that may impact the likelihood of mental health diagnoses, such as anxiety and depression, within this population. This is especially true for gifted students with co-existing disabilities, or twice-exceptional students, who may have unique experiences that differ from those of gifted students without disabilities. Perfectionism is one factor that may be important to consider when examining factors that impact the development of anxiety and depression within these populations.

The current study examined how perfectionism differs within gifted and twice-exceptional ...


Ability Parameter Recovery Of A Computerized Adaptive Test Based On Rasch Testlet Models, Seohong Pak Dec 2017

Ability Parameter Recovery Of A Computerized Adaptive Test Based On Rasch Testlet Models, Seohong Pak

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of various testlet characteristics in terms of an ability parameter recovery under the modality of computerized adaptive test (CAT). Given the popularity of using CATs and the high frequency of emerging testlets into exams as either mixed format or not, it was important to evaluate the various conditions in a testlet-based CAT fitted testlet response theory models. The manipulated factors of this study were testlet size, testlet effect size, testlet composition, and exam format. The performance of each condition was compared with the true thetas which were 81 equally spaced ...


Utility Of An Electronic Data Collection Modality For Supporting School Professionals In The Implementation Of Behavioral Treatments, Jennifer Kathleen Andersen Aug 2017

Utility Of An Electronic Data Collection Modality For Supporting School Professionals In The Implementation Of Behavioral Treatments, Jennifer Kathleen Andersen

Theses and Dissertations

Function-based experimental evaluation in the development of interventions and treatment plans continue to be under-utilized within the school setting (Hanley, Iwata, & McCord, 2003) despite federal mandates to use functional behavioral assessments and positive behavioral interventions with students with disabilities (IDEIA, 2004). Gann, Ferro, Umbreit, & Liaupsin, (2014) found that teachers prefer function-based interventions based in Applied Behavior Analytic principles when implemented effectively and with fidelity, over traditional classroom practices. As such, data collection and data analysis is critical to promote valid, reliable, and socially acceptable behavior change. Some researchers have advocated for the use of advanced technological or computerized tools to streamline and systematize data collection for wider-spread use (Vollmer, Sloman & Pipken, 2008; Kahng & Iwata, 1998), but there is little in the literature to suggest what might be the most beneficial data collection modalities and methods for school professionals who work with students who exhibit challenging behaviors. A few studies have shown positive effects of using electronic technology to collect behavioral data by researchers collecting direct observation data (Graylee et al, 2006), and measures of social skills development (Sarkar et.al, 2006) as well as teachers implementing discrete trial training (Tarbox et al, 2010). Hunter (2003) found that teachers were more likely to use interventions that they liked and that were subjectively time-efficient; often, convenience and experience factors played a role in resistance to implementing evidence-based interventions (Hunter, 2003).

The purpose of Study One was to better understand the current data collection practices and needs of school professionals who frequently treat students with challenging behaviors in the classroom. The purpose of Study Two was to compare the efficiency of graphing using an iPad application, Catalyst®, to paper and pencil data collection with behavioral specialists (school professionals and behavioral clinicians), and to ...