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Full-Text Articles in Education

Teachers' Work Practices In Kazakhstan: Some Comparative Insights From Timms 2011 To Guide Curriculum Implementation, Alan Ruby, Colleen Mclaughlin Mar 2018

Teachers' Work Practices In Kazakhstan: Some Comparative Insights From Timms 2011 To Guide Curriculum Implementation, Alan Ruby, Colleen Mclaughlin

GSE Publications

This paper looks at the different norms of practice between mathematics teachers in two countries, Kazakhstan and England. These differences pose challenges and opportunities for the implementation of a new secondary curriculum in Kazakhstan; a curriculum that has been shaped by and is grounded in prevailing practice in English educational system. The paper draws on survey data from the 2011 TIMSS exercise and relates it to our observations of classrooms in Kazakhstan over the last 5 years. The analy­sis draws on various cross­national studies of teachers’ work and studies of subject departments. The paper concludes with a discussion ...


Ethnography Of Language Planning And Policy, Nancy H. Hornberger, Aldo A. Tapia, David H. Hanks, Frances K. Dueñas Mar 2018

Ethnography Of Language Planning And Policy, Nancy H. Hornberger, Aldo A. Tapia, David H. Hanks, Frances K. Dueñas

GSE Publications

A decade ago, Hornberger & Johnson proposed that the ethnography of language planning and policy (ELPP) offers a useful way to understand how people create, interpret, and at times resist language policy and planning (LPP). They envisioned ethnographic investigation of layered LPP ideological and implementational spaces, taking up Hornberger's plea five years earlier for language users, educators, and researchers to fill up and wedge open ideological and implementational spaces for multiple languages, literacies, identities, and practices to flourish and grow rather than dwindle and disappear. With roots going back to the 1980s and 1990s, ethnographic research in LPP had been ...


Driven To Perform: Tennessee's Higher Education Policies & Outcomes: A Case Study, Joni E. Finney, Elaine W. Leigh, Roman Ruiz, Wendy Castillo, Edward Smith, Daniel C. Kent Apr 2017

Driven To Perform: Tennessee's Higher Education Policies & Outcomes: A Case Study, Joni E. Finney, Elaine W. Leigh, Roman Ruiz, Wendy Castillo, Edward Smith, Daniel C. Kent

GSE Publications

This report presents a picture of how multiple converging state policies affect higher educaton performance in Tennessee as the state pursues an aggressive plan to improve the educational attainment of its residents. Policy is a powerful lever for advancing—or hindering—a state's higher education attainment agenda. By taking into account Tennessee's particular state context, we can better understand the factors influencing the content, formation, implementation, and ultimate success of higher education policy intended to improve performance and meet state attainment goals (Perna & Finney, 2014).


Language And Voice, Nancy H. Hornberger Apr 2016

Language And Voice, Nancy H. Hornberger

GSE Publications

These resources cannot be neglected much longer without lasting negative effects. While we have introdu ed here the idea of a “resource-­language” to talk about cultural and linguistic maintenance, we must see the differences between these and material resources like coal and oil. We can leave the oil in the ground and it will still be there to use in a hundred years; the more we use it, and the more we use it unwisely, the less we have of it later. Just the opposite is true of language and culture. The more we use these, the more we ...


In Search Of Terra Firma: Administrative Records On Teachers’ Positional Instability Across Subjects, Grades, And Schools And The Implications For Deploying Randomized Controlled Trials, Robert Boruch, F. Joseph Merlino, Jill Bowdon, John Baker, Jessica Chao, Ji Eun Park, Michael Frisone, Tianpeng Ye, Tom Hooks, Andrew C. Porter Jan 2016

In Search Of Terra Firma: Administrative Records On Teachers’ Positional Instability Across Subjects, Grades, And Schools And The Implications For Deploying Randomized Controlled Trials, Robert Boruch, F. Joseph Merlino, Jill Bowdon, John Baker, Jessica Chao, Ji Eun Park, Michael Frisone, Tianpeng Ye, Tom Hooks, Andrew C. Porter

GSE Publications

No abstract provided.


Revisiting Orientations In Language Planning: Problem, Right, And Resource As An Analytical Heuristic, Francis M. Hult, Nancy H. Hornberger Jan 2016

Revisiting Orientations In Language Planning: Problem, Right, And Resource As An Analytical Heuristic, Francis M. Hult, Nancy H. Hornberger

GSE Publications

In 1984, Richard Ruiz set forth three orientations to language planning: language as problem, language as right, and language as resource. Since that time, the orientations have only become more powerful, rising to the level of paradigm in the field of language policy and planning (LPP). In this paper, we revisit Ruiz’s orientations. By drawing upon Ruiz’s own work as well as the work of other scholars who have been inspired by him, we unpack the ideas aligned with each orientation in order to reflect upon the application of the three orientations as a heuristic for LPP. In ...


Technology: The Solution To Higher Education's Pressing Problems?, Laura W. Perna, Roman Ruiz Jan 2016

Technology: The Solution To Higher Education's Pressing Problems?, Laura W. Perna, Roman Ruiz

GSE Publications

No book designed to inform understanding of how higher education is influenced by and responds to societal changes, demands, and progress would be complete without a chapter on technology. Defined as "the application of scientific knowledge to the practical aims of human life," technology is a fundamental element of any society.1 Technology is more than cutting-edge, advanced, "high-tech" innovations and is not limited to "technology sectors" like aerospace, nanotechnology, and robotics. Rather, the term "technology" refers to the tools that are available in the society in which we live and work, and that may be applied and leveraged to ...


Throwing Down The Gauntlet: Ten Ways To Ensure That Higher Education Research Continues To Matter, Laura W. Perna Jan 2016

Throwing Down The Gauntlet: Ten Ways To Ensure That Higher Education Research Continues To Matter, Laura W. Perna

GSE Publications

Imagine what a keynote address at the very first meeting of what has become the Association for the Study of Higher Education (ASHE) would have forecast about ASHE in the year 2015. Would the conveners of the first ASHE conference have guessed that:

∙ The number of ASHE members would grow sevenfold, rising from 300 in 1977 (Kellams, 1977) to more than 2,200 in 2015?

∙ The conference would no longer be held over two days in March, immediately preceding or following the annual American Association for Higher Education (AAHE) meeting, but instead would be a standalone conference held over four ...


Are There Metrics For Moocs From Social Media?, Alan Ruby, Laura W. Perna, Robert Boruch, Nicole Wang Dec 2015

Are There Metrics For Moocs From Social Media?, Alan Ruby, Laura W. Perna, Robert Boruch, Nicole Wang

GSE Publications

Since "the year of the MOOC" in 2012, the effectiveness of massive open online course (MOOCs) has been widely debated. Some argue that MOOCs are not an effective mode of instructional delivery because of low completion rates. In the interest of developing alternative indicators of performance this study draws from recent efforts to measure engagement in social media, as well as from research on indicators of student engagement in traditional college courses. Using data from 16 Coursera MOOCs offered by the University of Pennsylvania we calculate standardized access rates for lectures and assessments. While these indicators have clear limitations as ...


Taken Out Of Context: Defending Civic Education From The Situationist Critique, Sigal R. Ben-Porath, Gideon Dishon Jan 2015

Taken Out Of Context: Defending Civic Education From The Situationist Critique, Sigal R. Ben-Porath, Gideon Dishon

GSE Publications

Situationists have suggested that educational efforts to improve character and instill virtues should be abandoned, as individuals’ behavior is predicted by contexts and situations rather than by character traits. More recently it has been suggested that civic education and especially the effort to cultivate civic virtues are ineffective for similar reasons and should be replaced by the introduction of desirable social norms and institutions. After surveying the debate on this topic in the first part of the essay, we suggest that in fact virtues should not be judged as existing within one person and absent from another based on their ...


Conflicting Ideologies Of Mexican Immigrant English Across Levels Of Schooling, Sarah Gallo, Holly Link, Elaine Allard, Stanton Wortham, Katherin Mortimer Apr 2014

Conflicting Ideologies Of Mexican Immigrant English Across Levels Of Schooling, Sarah Gallo, Holly Link, Elaine Allard, Stanton Wortham, Katherin Mortimer

GSE Publications

This article explores how language ideologies—beliefs about immigrant students’ language use—carry conflicting images of Spanish speakers in one New Latino Diaspora town. We describe how teachers and students encounter, negotiate, and appropriate divergent ideologies about immigrant students’ language use during routine schooling practices, and we show how these ideologies convey different messages about belonging to the community and to the nation. Although the concept of language ideology often assumes stable macrolevel beliefs, our data indicate that ideologies can vary dramatically in one town. Elementary educators and students had a positive, “bilinguals-in-the-making” ideology about Spanish-speaking students, while secondary educators ...


What Might We Learn From Research About Traditional Colleges And Universities, Laura W. Perna Mar 2014

What Might We Learn From Research About Traditional Colleges And Universities, Laura W. Perna

GSE Publications

This conference seeks to establish the foundations of a research agenda for determining the performance of tax-paying colleges and universities and the contributions of these institutions to societal goals. This paper advances this agenda by considering lessons learned from research on “traditional” (that is, public and private not-for-profit) colleges and universities. The paper first identifies the societal purposes of higher education and then considers what we know from research about how well traditional higher education institutions achieve these societal purposes. The paper concludes with recommendations drawn from research on traditional colleges and universities that may help guide the establishment of ...


Lessons Learned About Student Learning: Eight Test Cases, Peter D. Eckel Jan 2014

Lessons Learned About Student Learning: Eight Test Cases, Peter D. Eckel

GSE Publications

Takeaways

The progress—and setbacks—of eight institutions that served as test cases have yielded a set of lessons about board oversight of educational quality from which others can benefit:

1 Ensure a sufficient institutional-assessment capacity.

2 Start with what you already have.

3 Make academic quality a priority of the boad and institutional leaders.

4 Attach the effort to other activities.

5 Educate the board on education.

6 Find the right focus.

7 Allow for targeted deeper dives.

8 Develop new board processes and use time differently.

9 Deepen the engagement of the board with faculty.


Promoting Workforce Readiness For Urban Growth, Laura W. Perna Jan 2014

Promoting Workforce Readiness For Urban Growth, Laura W. Perna

GSE Publications

Between 2003 and 2009, the gap between the educational attainment of the population and the educational demands of available jobs (that is, "structural unemployment") increased in all but four of the nation's hundred largest metropolitan areas (Rothwell and Berube 2011). Given that a larger education gap between the demand and supply of educated workers is associated with a higher unemployment rate in the metropolitan area (2011), these data demonstrate the need to imporve educational attainment in all metropolitan areas.


Introduction To Preparing Today's Students For Tomorrow's Jobs In Metropolitan America, Laura W. Perna Jan 2013

Introduction To Preparing Today's Students For Tomorrow's Jobs In Metropolitan America, Laura W. Perna

GSE Publications

Although disagreeing about how much of an increase is requred, most scholars agree that the United States must raise the educational attainment of its population in order to meet the knowledge requirements of future jobs (see Zumeta 2010 for a discussion of this debate). In Help Wanted: Projections of Jobs and Education Requirements through 2018, Anthony Carnevale, Nicole Smith, and Jeff Strohl (2010) attempt to quantify this need. They project that, by 2018, about two-thirds (63 percent) of all jobs (including both new and replacement jobs) will require at least some postsecondary education or training, up from 59 percent in ...


Éire Higher Education: What American Can Learn From Ireland, Joni E. Finney, Laura W. Perna Dec 2012

Éire Higher Education: What American Can Learn From Ireland, Joni E. Finney, Laura W. Perna

GSE Publications

In July 2012, the executive doctoral class of 2013 from the University of Pennsylvania’s Higher Education Management Program in the Graduate School of Education conducted an in-depth comparative study of higher education in Ireland. The international study, an important component of the executive doctoral program, was structured to model research that we completed on the relationship between public policy and performance in five U.S. states: Georgia, Illinois, Maryland, Texas and Washington (http://www.gse.upenn.edu/irhe/srp). This research provided the foundation for the students’ research. Students examined four performance areas related to Irish higher education: 1 ...


Prescriptions For Change: Can Ideas From Health Care Cure Higher Education's Ills?, Peter D. Eckel Jul 2012

Prescriptions For Change: Can Ideas From Health Care Cure Higher Education's Ills?, Peter D. Eckel

GSE Publications

Takeaways

Higher education shares some important characteristics with the health-care sector. Both are dominated by large cadres of highly educated staff, have complex bottom lines, are market-driven and strongly influenced by public policy, and are made up of value-driven organizations.

Health care appears to be one or two decades ahead of higher education in its transformation into an industry that is more outcomes-based, cost- and price-sensitive, and responsive to customer needs.

Some of the insights that higher education can gain from health care include: Flawed systems generate flawed results; the focus should be on needs, costs, and undervalued services; wisdom ...


A Story Of Decline: Performance And Policy In Illinois Higher Education, Laura W. Perna, Joni E. Finney, Patrick Callan Nov 2011

A Story Of Decline: Performance And Policy In Illinois Higher Education, Laura W. Perna, Joni E. Finney, Patrick Callan

GSE Publications

In the mid-and late-1990s, Illinois was a top-performing state in preparing students for college, enrolling residents in college, and keeping college affordable:

• Compared with residents of other states, large percentages of Illinoisans earned a high school diploma or a General Education Development (GED) diploma by age 24; earned high scores on college entrance exams; and enrolled in college immediately after high school.

• Illinois led the nation in the proportion of young adults (ages 18 to 24) and working-age adults (ages 25 to 44) who were enrolled in college.

• Illinoiswas a leader in keeping higher education affordable for families, as measured ...


Using Student Achievement Data To Support Instructional Decision Making, Laura Hamilton, Richard Halverson, Sharnell S. Jackson, Ellen Mandinach, Jonathan A. Supovitz, Jeffrey C. Wayman, Cassandra Pickens, Emma Sama Martin, Jennifer L. Steele Sep 2009

Using Student Achievement Data To Support Instructional Decision Making, Laura Hamilton, Richard Halverson, Sharnell S. Jackson, Ellen Mandinach, Jonathan A. Supovitz, Jeffrey C. Wayman, Cassandra Pickens, Emma Sama Martin, Jennifer L. Steele

GSE Publications

As educators face increasing pressure from federal, state, and local accountability policies to improve student achievement, the use of data has become more central to how many educators evaluate their practices and monitor students’ academic progress (Knapp et al., 2006). Despite this trend, questions about how educators should use data to make instructional decisions remain mostly unanswered. In response, this guide provides a framework for using student achievement data to support instructional decision making. These decisions include, but are not limited to, how to adapt lessons or assignments in response to students’ needs, alter classroom goals or objectives, or modify ...


A Unique Visual And Literary Art Form: Recent Research On Picturebooks, Carol Driggs Wolfenbarger, Lawrence Sipe Jan 2007

A Unique Visual And Literary Art Form: Recent Research On Picturebooks, Carol Driggs Wolfenbarger, Lawrence Sipe

GSE Publications

Picturebooks represent a unique visual and literary art form that engages young readers and older readers in many levels of learning and pleasure. This form, however, is changing rapidly and in turn generating new possibilities for teaching and research. Knowledge of recent developments in picturebooks, ways of reading these books, and bridging picturebook forms and innovations with reader response will enable practitioners to initiate fruitful conversations about the importance of picturebooks in the curriculum and inspire new directions in research.


Counsel On Program Elimination, Peter D. Eckel Jan 2003

Counsel On Program Elimination, Peter D. Eckel

GSE Publications

This book has provided case illustrations and discussed the costs and savings of program elimination, the role of leadership, the ability of shared governance to make hard decisions, and the use of criteria. The concluding chapter brings together the findings to provide counsel on program elimination. It presents rationale for why decisions must be defensible; discusses the tradeoffs regarding savings, tenure, and program elimination; and makes suggestions both for campus leaders seeking to eliminate programs and for those seeking to fight off program closures. Additionally, it suggests empirically based modifications to the Association of American University Professors (AAUP) policies concerning ...


Afterword: Ecology And Ideology In Multilingual Classrooms, Nancy H. Hornberger Jan 2003

Afterword: Ecology And Ideology In Multilingual Classrooms, Nancy H. Hornberger

GSE Publications

No abstract provided.


From Multiple Choice To Multiple Choices, Jonathan A. Supovitz Nov 1997

From Multiple Choice To Multiple Choices, Jonathan A. Supovitz

GSE Publications

Are standardized tests an equitable way to measure the achievement of America's children? A fresh, four-year study by the Educational Testing Service of the gender gap on standardized tests concludes that differences in performance between boys and girls are real, but not large, and cut both ways. ("ETS Disputes Charges of Gender Bias," May 14, 1997.) Still, critics of standardized testing, like the National Center for Fair & Open Testing, blast the ETS study as "a smoke screen designed to divert attention from the ongoing problems with the exams they publish."