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Full-Text Articles in Education

The Credentialed Workforce: Examining Success Rates Across Short-Term Noncredit Training Programs Aligned With Industry Credentials, Rochelle Fisher May 2019

The Credentialed Workforce: Examining Success Rates Across Short-Term Noncredit Training Programs Aligned With Industry Credentials, Rochelle Fisher

Masters Theses

A new grant program implemented to provide subsidized training costs for students enrolling in short-term noncredit programs aligned with high-demand industry credentials leading to middle-skill jobs was implemented in July 2016. The grant program follows a pay-for-performance model where students are given a two-thirds discount on tuition but required to pay back an additional one-third if they do not successfully complete their short-term noncredit training. An exploratory study was conducted to provide training program completion and credential attainment rates for the overall program and by student demographic groups (age, race, and gender). Results showed little variation among training program completion ...


Test Emotions, Value, And Self-Efficacy: A Longitudinal Model Predicting Examinee Effort And Performance On A Low-Stakes Test, Paulius Satkus May 2019

Test Emotions, Value, And Self-Efficacy: A Longitudinal Model Predicting Examinee Effort And Performance On A Low-Stakes Test, Paulius Satkus

Masters Theses

The validity of scores from low-stakes tests may be compromised by examinee motivation. Expectancy-Value theory (EV) has been used to frame the antecedents of examinee motivation in low-stakes testing contexts. According to EV theory, the perceived value of the test and the expectancy to succeed on the test directly affect examinee effort, which then affects test performance. Cross-sectional research studies in low-stakes testing contexts offer some support of EV theory. Control-Value theory (CV) serves as another theory to understand motivation toward a task. CV theory encompasses the constructs of expectancy and value from EV theory, but incorporates test emotions as ...


Urban Biodiversity Experience And Exposure: Intervention And Inequality At The Local And Global Scale, Evan Kuras Jan 2019

Urban Biodiversity Experience And Exposure: Intervention And Inequality At The Local And Global Scale, Evan Kuras

Masters Theses

As cities expand globally, researchers must clarify how human activities and institutions shape biodiversity and conversely, how ecological processes shape human outcomes. Two features of contemporary cities motivate this thesis. First, urban residents, and especially children, are spending less time in nature and consequently, miss out on healthy and formative experiences with biodiversity. Second, residents with the least access to biodiversity tend to be those with the lowest socioeconomic status (SES). Together, these patterns convey a multi-layered environmental injustice: not only might urbanites become increasingly estranged from biodiversity, disinterested from its conservation, and disconnected from its benefits, but these outcomes ...


Juxtaposing Primary- And Intermediate-Elementary Trade Books’ Historical Representation Of Amelia Earhart, Rachael A. Burkhardt Jan 2019

Juxtaposing Primary- And Intermediate-Elementary Trade Books’ Historical Representation Of Amelia Earhart, Rachael A. Burkhardt

Masters Theses

Amelia Earhart can be used in the classroom not only to interest students but can also be used to cover Common Core State Standards (CCSS), National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) framework, and Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). When teaching Amelia Earhart, textbooks, trade books, and primary sources can be used, however one must be careful with the misrepresentations each resource can portray. To look at what is misrepresented, omitted, and included within primary and intermediate grade level trade books, 32 books were scrutinized. The trade books being analyzed were found to have some historically representative and misrepresentative elements ...


Exploratory Factor Analysis Of The Canadian Wechsler Intelligence Scale For Children-Fifth Edition For A Sample Of First Nations Students, Jessica Hanson Jan 2019

Exploratory Factor Analysis Of The Canadian Wechsler Intelligence Scale For Children-Fifth Edition For A Sample Of First Nations Students, Jessica Hanson

Masters Theses

Native Americans and First Nation students are overrepresented in special education and underrepresented in structural bias research of the intelligence measures that place them there. There are several empirical studies of test bias on the Wechsler scales due to their popularity within the school system, however there is little exploratory factor analysis research on these scales with the Native American Indian population. Further, the Native American Indian and First Nation population is a relatively small minority group compared to other racial and ethnic groups in North America and this group is underrepresented in government statistics and overlooked in funding for ...


Middle School Mathematics Teachers' Perceptions Of Opportunities And Challenges, Shelby Eversole Jan 2019

Middle School Mathematics Teachers' Perceptions Of Opportunities And Challenges, Shelby Eversole

Masters Theses

This study investigates the perspectives of opportunities and challenges of middle school mathematics’ teachers. To gain these perspectives, an ethnographic study was conducted by interviewing four middle school mathematics teachers in central Illinois. The results of this study imply that teachers of different backgrounds and teaching environments have varying perspectives about challenges and opportunities in the classroom. Limitations of this study include but are not limited to, the researcher having one year to conduct the research, only four teachers from two schools being interviewed, interviewees teaching different grade levels, no rural setting involvement, one educator having little teaching experience, teachers ...


The Art Curriculum As A Model Approach For Cultivating Higher Order Thinking Skills, Nicole Ross May 2018

The Art Curriculum As A Model Approach For Cultivating Higher Order Thinking Skills, Nicole Ross

Masters Theses

As a life-long learner, I am fascinated by the abyss of knowledge that characterizes and composes a life of consciousness. As a teacher and mentor, I am committed to igniting this quest for knowledge in others and developing effective practices in doing so. The curriculum functions as an invitation to knowledge—or what can be seen as the crux of an education. The question I am most interested in answering is: “how can we most effectively approach curriculum in a way that inspires higher order thinking?” Throughout this study, I examined the factors that go into the formation of curriculum ...


Posterior Predictive Model Checking Of Local Misfit For Bayesian Confirmatory Factor Analysis, Chi Hang Au May 2018

Posterior Predictive Model Checking Of Local Misfit For Bayesian Confirmatory Factor Analysis, Chi Hang Au

Masters Theses

Posterior predictive model checks (PPMC) are one Bayesian model-data fit approach. Thus far, PPMC for Confirmatory Factor Analytic applications focused primarily on global fit evaluation, ignoring the nuanced information in local misfit diagnostics. This study developed a PPMC approach for local misfit and applied it to a test-taking motivation scale. If the PPMC approach is effective, fit conclusions derived from the PPMC approach should be congruent with the fit conclusions derived from the Frequentist approach. Number of item-pairs flagged as misfitting and number of disagreements were computed to evaluate congruence. Congruence is achieved if the number of item-pairs flagged as ...


Retrospective Versus Prospective Measurement Of Examinee Motivation In Low-Stakes Testing Contexts: A Moderated Mediation Model, Aaron J. Myers May 2017

Retrospective Versus Prospective Measurement Of Examinee Motivation In Low-Stakes Testing Contexts: A Moderated Mediation Model, Aaron J. Myers

Masters Theses

Expectancy-value theory applied to examinee motivation suggests examinees’ perceived value of a test indirectly affects test performance via examinee effort. This empirically supported indirect effect, however, is often modeled using importance and effort scores measured after test completion, which does not align with their theoretically specified temporal order. Retrospectively measured importance and effort scores may be influenced by examinees’ test performance, impacting the estimate of the indirect effect. To investigate the effect of timing of measurement, first-year college students were randomly assigned to one of three conditions where (1) importance and effort were measured retrospectively; (2) importance was measured prospectively ...


Student Learning Gains In Higher Education: A Longitudinal Analysis With Faculty Discussion, Catherine E. Mathers May 2017

Student Learning Gains In Higher Education: A Longitudinal Analysis With Faculty Discussion, Catherine E. Mathers

Masters Theses

Student learning is the primary desired outcome of a college education. To understand how educational programming and curricula affect students, colleges and universities must collect evidence of student learning gain. In this study, a longitudinal design was employed to investigate how a math and science general education curriculum impacted college students’ quantitative and scientific reasoning. Quantitative and scientific reasoning gain scores were computed and predicted from personal (i.e., prior knowledge, gender) and curriculum (i.e., number of completed courses in the domain) characteristics to uncover what factors relate to learning gain. Collapsing across personal and curriculum variables, gain scores ...


Teachers' Perspectives Of The Common Core State Standards And Computer-Based Standardized Testing, Lisa Flynn Jan 2017

Teachers' Perspectives Of The Common Core State Standards And Computer-Based Standardized Testing, Lisa Flynn

Masters Theses

Theorist Jean Piaget in the 1920's abandoned standardized testing which he viewed as, "forcing children to respond into artificial channels of set questions and answers" (as cited in Crain, 2011, p. 119). Piaget decided to create a different type of assessment which included an open-ended interview, "which encourages the flow of spontaneous tendencies" (as cited in Crain, 2011, p. 119). John Locke (2003), believed that an individual learns through experiences. Jean Rousseau (2003), believed more in the natural child-centered, and experience-based learning. Pestalozzi (2003), believed that children learn by doing, and that children should be educated physically, emotionally, and ...


Warrior Health: A Study Of Female Veterans With Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Who Engage In Outdoor Adventure Recreation, Julia Smith Nov 2016

Warrior Health: A Study Of Female Veterans With Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Who Engage In Outdoor Adventure Recreation, Julia Smith

Masters Theses

The purpose of this study was to show the impact of outdoor adventure recreation on female veterans who have experienced post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The study followed a phenomenological approach in order to gain an overall view of what the veterans experienced, using observation and interviews in order to gather information. Conclusions showed female veterans desire female-veteran-only activities; desire relationships with fellow female veterans; and enjoy outdoor adventure recreation that includes teamwork, planned activities, and relaxation. In order to ensure the best possible avenue for PTSD health in female veterans, future research may include a focus on the impact of ...


Case Study: Provider For Program To Prevent The Revictimization Of Persons Trafficked For Sex, Janis G. Arlow May 2016

Case Study: Provider For Program To Prevent The Revictimization Of Persons Trafficked For Sex, Janis G. Arlow

Masters Theses

This case study seeks to identify behavior, skills, and attitudes of a professional providing an effective reintegration program for persons trafficked for sex. New demands on medical and social services were created over the past two decades by legislative changes. Initial research focuses on rescue and unmet primary needs. The service program selected for this study has stepped beyond awareness and rescue efforts to the rehabilitation and prevention of revictimization of trafficked persons. A literature review covers the history of sex trafficking in the United States; the recovery environment; materials, trainings and programs available for professionals seeking knowledge to serve ...


Advisory Councils In School-Based Agricultural Education Programs In Tennessee, Samantha Renee Ogle May 2016

Advisory Councils In School-Based Agricultural Education Programs In Tennessee, Samantha Renee Ogle

Masters Theses

Advisory councils are essential to successful, working relationships among school-based agricultural education programs and the surrounding community. The purpose of this study was to describe how school-based agricultural education programs implement and utilize advisory councils in Tennessee and to determine agricultural education teachers’ perceptions of program advisory councils. Findings indicated 76.5% of program respondents had an active advisory council. The results indicated a positive perception of advisory councils; however, most teachers felt they could better utilize their advisory council. The belief that the agricultural education teacher is the leader of the program’s advisory councils was also implied. Future ...


Examination Of The Internal Structure Of The Learning-To-Learn Scales (Ltls) In A Primary And Secondary Education Sample, Michelle Restko Jan 2016

Examination Of The Internal Structure Of The Learning-To-Learn Scales (Ltls) In A Primary And Secondary Education Sample, Michelle Restko

Masters Theses

Assessment of children’s learning behaviors is a method to inform academic skills development and create successful interventions (DiPerna, Volpe, & Elliott, 2001; Malecki & Elliott, 2002; Schaefer & McDermott, 1999). Learning behaviors are motivational and behavioral mechanisms that children use in order to be successful when engaging in learning tasks (McDermott et al., 2011). Learning behaviors are an research to address noncognitive factors of academic achievement. It is necessary that constructs a scale proposes to measure such skills is known. The present study investigated the factor structure of the Learning-to-Learn Scale (LTLS; McDermott et al., 2011). Analyses included item based exploratory factor analyses (higher-order EFA with Schmid-Leiman transformation; Schmid & Leiman, 1957) of item polychoric correlations for subjects with complete data (N = 277), and omega reliability estimates (Reise, 2012). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) identified an oblique (correlated) four-factor model. However, through item association, the three-factor model was the most reasonable association. A second-order EFA was completed on the three-factor model along with a Schmid-Leiman transformation and found the majority of the ...


Idealism, Pragmatism, And Student Motivation: Implementing Grading Systems, Practices, And Policies In Context, Kaleigh Mcroberts Jan 2016

Idealism, Pragmatism, And Student Motivation: Implementing Grading Systems, Practices, And Policies In Context, Kaleigh Mcroberts

Masters Theses

This thesis argues for the implementation of contextually-appropriate policies and practices that not only clarify the meaning of grades for teachers, parents, and students, but also give students more autonomy and improve their intrinsic motivation to learn. The literature about motivation reveals that the conventional wisdom—the use of contingent rewards—works when students are asked to complete simple, algorithmic tasks such as turning in assignments on time, but not when they're asked to complete complex, heuristic tasks such as those articulated by the Common Core State Standards. The literature about grading and grading systems reveals similarly misleading conventional ...


Caseload/Workload Study Of Speech Language Pathologists In Missouri Public Schools, Jinyu Du Jan 2016

Caseload/Workload Study Of Speech Language Pathologists In Missouri Public Schools, Jinyu Du

Masters Theses

"A survey was distributed to speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in Missouri public schools to obtain statewide information regarding caseload number, workload related activities and SLPs' level job satisfaction on various aspects of their job. An online questionnaire was sent to school-based SLPs in Missouri to solicit factual information on average monthly caseload numbers, factors that impact caseload assignments and the percentage of time spent on various professional responsibilities and job satisfaction ratings. Results indicated that 24% of the respondents had caseloads that exceeded the maximum state regulated caseload number for SLPs. Respondents were also largely unaware of the maximum caseload regulation ...


Exploring Graduate Student Parent Experiences: How To Better Support And Reduce Attrition In An Underserved Population, Christine R. Leaman May 2015

Exploring Graduate Student Parent Experiences: How To Better Support And Reduce Attrition In An Underserved Population, Christine R. Leaman

Masters Theses

Changes in the global economy, employer expectations, and cultural norms are causing a shift in the demographics of post-baccalaureate students. Out of necessity to support oneself in an increasingly demanding job market, female graduate student enrollment has been on the rise for a number of years. This, in combination with a general increase in the number of individuals enrolling in graduate degree programs while trying to balance the responsibility of raising children presents a growing problem for institutions of higher education. Graduate student parents are a population that requires additional and varying support services than those of the traditional graduate ...


Student Perceptions Of Institutional Crisis Management, Preparedness, And Response: The Case Of The Active Shooter, Jared Allen Grimsley May 2015

Student Perceptions Of Institutional Crisis Management, Preparedness, And Response: The Case Of The Active Shooter, Jared Allen Grimsley

Masters Theses

Institutional crisis management is becoming more relevant with every passing tragedy and crisis event. This study utilized a modified existing survey to collect quantitative data from students attending a large four-year public research institution located in the Southeastern region of the United States. A stratified random sample of commuter students and non-commuter students was analyzed to compare statistical similarities and differences between the groups. The largest group of student respondents were full-time, freshmen, female, involved, and currently live on campus. Students perceived their institutions to be moderately prepared to respond to both general crises and active shooting situations, although a ...


The Impact Of Homework On The Achievement Of Students With Varying Science Aptitudes In High School Physics, Matthew Deets Jan 2015

The Impact Of Homework On The Achievement Of Students With Varying Science Aptitudes In High School Physics, Matthew Deets

Masters Theses

When students in a high school physics class are separated into high, middle, and low aptitude levels, it was discovered that they do not all show the same benefits from completing homework assignments. The focus of this study was to analyze the relationship between the amount of homework that students complete and their performance on quizzes and exams. The results indicate that middle and high aptitude students benefit from completing greater amounts of homework, however, low aptitude students show no improvement by completing a greater number of problems.


Construct Validity Of The Learning Behaviors Scale And The Academic Competence Evaluation Scales, Taryn L. Smith Jan 2015

Construct Validity Of The Learning Behaviors Scale And The Academic Competence Evaluation Scales, Taryn L. Smith

Masters Theses

This research examined the convergent and discriminant validity of the Academic Competence Evaluation Scales (ACES; DiPerna & Elliott, 2000) and the Learning Behaviors Scale (LBS; McDermott, Green, Francis, & Stott, 2001). The Adjustment Scales for Children and Adolescents (ASCA; McDermott, Stott, & Marston, 1993) was compared with the ACES and LBS to examine discriminant validity. Pearson product moment correlations were obtained to examine convergent and discriminant validity. Paired samples t-tests were conducted on the ACES and LBS total and subscale scores to compare the mean scores. The ACES Academic Enabler (ACES-AE) total score was significantly, positively correlated with the LBS total score (r =0.88) and shared 77% variance. Paired samples t-test analyses indicated that the ACES-AE Total T ...


Examination Of The Internal Structure Of The Academic Competence Evaluation Scale - Teacher (Aces-T), Stephanie A. Zegadlo Jan 2015

Examination Of The Internal Structure Of The Academic Competence Evaluation Scale - Teacher (Aces-T), Stephanie A. Zegadlo

Masters Theses

The present study investigated the factor structure of the Academic Competence Evaluation Scale-Teacher Form (ACES-T; DiPerna & Elliott, 2000) Academic Skills (AS) and Academic Enablers (AE) scales with a convenience sample. Analyses included item-based exploratory factor analyses (higher-order EFA with Schmid-Leiman transformation; Schmid & Leiman, 1957) for subjects with complete data (AS N = 433; AE N= 466), and omega reliability estimates (Reise, 2012). For the AS scales, EPA identified an oblique (correlated) three-factor model. A second-order EFA was completed along with a Schmid-Leiman transformation and found the majority of the apportioned variance was associated with the general Academic Skills dimension. These approximate bifactor results were used to estimate latent factor reliability (omega-hierarchical and omega-subscale) and indicated the second-order factor (AS) captured a large portion of true score variance while the subscales (Reading/Language Art, Mathematics, Critical Thinking ...


The Impact Of Acute Bouts Of Two Types Of Physical Activity On Cognition In Elementary School-Aged Children, Aslynn Courtney Halvorson Dec 2014

The Impact Of Acute Bouts Of Two Types Of Physical Activity On Cognition In Elementary School-Aged Children, Aslynn Courtney Halvorson

Masters Theses

Purpose: To determine the effect of acute bouts of two types of physical activity on cognition in elementary school-aged children. Methods: Subjects were 21 6-11 year old children (8.8 ± 1.6 years) who were free of any cognitive or learning disabilities or delays. Children participated in three randomly ordered conditions. The control condition included watching 20 minutes of TV while seated, the cycle condition included 20 minutes of cycling on a pediatric cycle ergometer at 60% of estimated heart rate maximum, and the play condition include 20 minutes of semistructured free play activity. After each condition, the children completed ...


Adult Attachment, Emotional Intelligence, And Resilience As Correlates Of Social Engagement, Academic Engagement, And Confidence Of Persistence In College Students, Yacob Tewolde Tekie Dec 2014

Adult Attachment, Emotional Intelligence, And Resilience As Correlates Of Social Engagement, Academic Engagement, And Confidence Of Persistence In College Students, Yacob Tewolde Tekie

Masters Theses

The current study investigated freshmen university students (N = 210) to examine the role of attachment style (anxiety, avoidance), emotional intelligence (repair, attention, clarity) and resilience in predicting student adaptation to college (academic, social, personal and academic engagement). Four multiple regression analyses were conducted for each subscale of adaptation to college. The results indicated that; a) emotional intelligence (attention, clarity) and resilience significantly predicted student academic adjustment; b) emotional inelligence (repair) predicted student social adjustment; c) emotional inteligence (clarity), resilience, and adult attachment (anxiety) significantly predicted student personal adjustment; and d) emotional intelligence (repair, clarity) and resilience, significantly predicted student academic ...


A Quantitative Analysis Of Collegiate Athletic Involvement And Academic Achievement Among Sport Management Students, Christopher Amos Jun 2013

A Quantitative Analysis Of Collegiate Athletic Involvement And Academic Achievement Among Sport Management Students, Christopher Amos

Masters Theses

Within the last several decades, more attention has been focused on the academic success of college athletes. It has been documented from several studies that high school athletes perform better academically than their non-athlete peers (American Sports Institute, 1995; Brand, 2007; Dilley-Knoles, Burnett, & Peak, 2010; Foltz, 1992; Fox, Barr-Anderson, Neumark-Sztainer, & Wall, 2010; Slear, 2005). However, at the collegiate level, this heightened academic achievement trend among student-athletes is not so clear. Lapchick often releases data regarding graduation rates among a select group of highly achieving teams in certain sports but not much exists in the way of a comparison of academic achievement by using student ...


The Influence Of Organically Managed High Tunnel And Open Field Production Systems On Strawberry (Fragaria X Ananassa) Quality And Yield, Tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum) Yield, And Evaluation Of Plastic Mulch Alternatives, Jeffrey Thomas Martin May 2013

The Influence Of Organically Managed High Tunnel And Open Field Production Systems On Strawberry (Fragaria X Ananassa) Quality And Yield, Tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum) Yield, And Evaluation Of Plastic Mulch Alternatives, Jeffrey Thomas Martin

Masters Theses

High tunnels extend the production season, and increase fruit quality, yield and crop marketability of high-value crops, but have been underutilized in the Southeast. In this study, organically managed variety trials of two high-value crops, strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), were conducted in high tunnel (HT) and open field (OF) production systems to compare yield and quality. Furthermore, specialty crops are commonly grown on black plastic mulch to increase earliness of harvest, fruit quality and yield. However, plastic disposal is time consuming and costly. Degradable mulches reduce removal costs, lessen environmental impacts, and provide functionality during the ...


The Effects Of Merit Awards On District-Level High School Graduation: Evidence From Michigan, Brandon Lee Harrison Aug 2012

The Effects Of Merit Awards On District-Level High School Graduation: Evidence From Michigan, Brandon Lee Harrison

Masters Theses

This paper considers the effects of the Michigan Merit Award, a college scholarship program, on high school graduation rates. Students qualify via a standardized high school proficiency exam. Identification is achieved through difference-in-differences estimation using both a broad set of controls and a stricter set of controls. The effects on graduation rates differ depending on the model specification, as some significant results show a positive correlation between the introduction of the program and graduation rates, while others a negative effect. Where it appears the award increased graduation rates, pinpointing the exact impact of the award on graduation levels is difficult ...


An Analysis Of The Ready, Set, Go! Program On Program Participants And The Ability To Build Community Capacity, Carrera Romanini May 2012

An Analysis Of The Ready, Set, Go! Program On Program Participants And The Ability To Build Community Capacity, Carrera Romanini

Masters Theses

The study examined the impacts of the Ready, Set, Go! training program on its participants. The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of the Ready, Set Go! program on building community capacity in the state of Tennessee. A survey was developed and administered to 110 participants at the conclusion of their training. One hundred percent (100%) of participants responded. Three respondents (2.7%) were military personnel, three (2.7%) were veterans, and twenty-three (20.7%) had a spouse or family member in the military. Survey data was used to determine participation in the training leads to participants ...


Knowledge And Perceptions Of Agriculture In Tennessee Through Fall Agritourism Experiences, Jessica Jarrell Poore Aug 2011

Knowledge And Perceptions Of Agriculture In Tennessee Through Fall Agritourism Experiences, Jessica Jarrell Poore

Masters Theses

The purpose of this study was to identify the key educational components of agritourism in Tennessee. The study strived to identify if knowledge of the agricultural industry increased due to agritourism experiences and if perception of the agriculture industry changed due to the experience. Additionally, the research sought to describe visitor demographics and characteristics.Following a pilot study in 2009, three agritourism venues throughout the state of Tennessee were used to collect surveys to create a pool of respondents and to identify their original knowledge of perceptions of the agriculture industry for the 2010 study. Additional data was gathered through ...


Corporate, Political, And Academic Perspectives On Tennessee Higher Education Accountability Policy, Andrew Quentin Morse May 2011

Corporate, Political, And Academic Perspectives On Tennessee Higher Education Accountability Policy, Andrew Quentin Morse

Masters Theses

The purposes of the research are (1) to identify the similarities and differences among corporate, political, and academic leaders in Tennessee on postsecondary education accountability policy and (2) to investigate ways for improving accountability policy as evidenced by the various stakeholders. The two following research questions will be adapted from the larger, ongoing study by Bogue et al. (2009) on accountability:

· What differences and similarities exist among corporate, political, and academic stakeholders on the issues of collegiate mission and issues of accountability definition and evidence?

· What are the most important steps that institutions of higher education can take to improve ...