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Educational Assessment, Evaluation, and Research

University of Nebraska - Lincoln

1987

Articles 1 - 16 of 16

Full-Text Articles in Education

8. New Perspectives In The Analysis Of Abilities, John B. Carroll Jan 1987

8. New Perspectives In The Analysis Of Abilities, John B. Carroll

The Influence of Cognitive Psychology on Testing

INTRODUCTION

One can understandably be skeptical when a "new perspective" is offered on a topic that has been under scientific examination for a very long time. I am not sure that I have any truly new perspectives , but I entertain the notion that my perspectives have the kind of novelty that will last long enough to permit taking a fresh look at some very old problems and getting new insights into their solution . I'm concerned with several such problems: First, what is an " ability"? How can an ability be defined? This is a problem that I believe has never ...


Author Index- The Influence Of Cognitive Psychology On Testing Jan 1987

Author Index- The Influence Of Cognitive Psychology On Testing

The Influence of Cognitive Psychology on Testing

Author Index- 8 pages

A-Z

A

Abrahamsen, A. A., 234, 236, 237, 262, 265
Ackerman, P. L., 29, 37
Agrawal, N., 103, 136
Ahern, S., 121, 136
Ananda, S. M., 135, 136
Anastasi, A., 2, 8, 176, 184
Anderson, J. A., 19,38, 256, 263
Anderson, J. H., 44, 83
Anderson, J. R., 31, 36, 37, 44, 82, 154, 184, 195, 223, 230, 256, 263
Anderson, R., 54, 82
Arabie, P., 230, 231, 232, 241, 242, 245, 246, 247, 251, 253, 263, 264, 266
Arnkoff, D. B., 172, 184
Arnold, J. B., 234, 253, 262, 263
Atkinson, R. c., 135 ...


7. Structure And Process In Cognitive Psychology Using Multidimensional Scaling And Related Techniques, Edward J. Shoben, Brian H. Ross Jan 1987

7. Structure And Process In Cognitive Psychology Using Multidimensional Scaling And Related Techniques, Edward J. Shoben, Brian H. Ross

The Influence of Cognitive Psychology on Testing

INTRODUCTION

The goal of cognitive psychology is to provide a general understanding of human cognitive processes through the development of general, formal models of cognition. Although it is clearly true that some areas (such as memory) have been more highly developed than others, it is undeniable that cognitive psychology has witnessed a proliferation of models in the past decade. Perhaps researchers are finding it increasingly difficult to discriminate among competing memory models because the constraints are so weak. One possibility that will be explored in this chapter is the prospect of using multidimensional scaling (MDS) and related procedures as a ...


Subject Index- The Influence Of Cognitive Psychology On Testing Jan 1987

Subject Index- The Influence Of Cognitive Psychology On Testing

The Influence of Cognitive Psychology on Testing

Subject Index- 10 pages

A-Z

A

Ability, see also specific type classes of, Cattell-Horn model and, 15 definition of, 268- 274 exceptional, acquired skill vs., 216-221 fluid and crystallized, correlation of, 96- 97 measurement of, 87-88, 267- 283 cognitive ability factors and, 280- 282 definition s and, 268-274 person characteristic function and, 275-279 task difficulty and, 279-280
Academic abilities, 145-183 cognitive strategies and, 150-152 control processes and, 149-150 declarative knowledge and, 146- 148 factors in, 146 in mathematics, 175-179 metacognition and, 152- 153 procedural knowledge and, 148-149 in reading, 153-162, see also Reading in science, 179- 182 in writing, 163-175 ...


Complete Work- The Influence Of Cognitive Psychology On Testing, Royce R. Ronning, John A. Glover, Jane C. Conoley, Joseph C. Witt Jan 1987

Complete Work- The Influence Of Cognitive Psychology On Testing, Royce R. Ronning, John A. Glover, Jane C. Conoley, Joseph C. Witt

The Influence of Cognitive Psychology on Testing

The Influence of Cognitive Psychology on Testing

Contents

Foreword ........................ix

1. Introduction: The Implications of Cognitive Psychology for Testing...........1

PART I: THE COGNITIVE-PSYCHOMETRIC CONNECTION

2. Science, Technology, and Intelligence...................11

3. Toward a Cognitive Theory for the Measurement of Achievement ...................41

4. The g Beyond Factor Analysis.........................87

PART II: COGNITIVE APPROACHES TO PSYCHOMETRIC ISSUES: APPLICATIONS

5. The Assessment of Cognitive Factors in Academic Abilities...................145

6. Theoretical Implications from Protocol Analysis on Testing and Measurement...191

PART III: METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES

7. Structure and Process in Cognitive Psychology Using Multidimensional Scaling and Related Techniques..................229

8. New Perspectives in ...


Title Page And Contents- The Influence Of Cognitive Psychology On Testing, Jane Close Conoley, Royce R. Ronning, John A. Glover, Joseph C. Witt Jan 1987

Title Page And Contents- The Influence Of Cognitive Psychology On Testing, Jane Close Conoley, Royce R. Ronning, John A. Glover, Joseph C. Witt

The Influence of Cognitive Psychology on Testing

The Influence of Cognitive Psychology on Testing

Contents

Foreword ix

1. Introduction: The Implications of Cognitive Psychology for Testing...........1

PART I: THE COGNITIVE-PSYCHOMETRIC CONNECTION

2. Science, Technology, and Intelligence...................11

3. Toward a Cognitive Theory for the Measurement of Achievement ...................41

4. The g Beyond Factor Analysis.........................87

PART II: COGNITIVE APPROACHES TO PSYCHOMETRIC ISSUES: APPLICATIONS

5. The Assessment of Cognitive Factors in Academic Abilities...................145

6. Theoretical Implications from Protocol Analysis on Testing and Measurement...191

PART III: METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES

7. Structure and Process in Cognitive Psychology Using Multidimensional Scaling and Related Techniques..................229

8. New Perspectives in ...


Foreword- The Influence Of Cognitive Psychology On Testing, James V. Mitchell Jr. Jan 1987

Foreword- The Influence Of Cognitive Psychology On Testing, James V. Mitchell Jr.

The Influence of Cognitive Psychology on Testing

For over 40 years Oscar K. Buros was Director of the Buros Institute of Mental Measurements and Editor of the Mental Measurements Yearbooks. He was a crusader, and he devoted his entire career to his crusade. He was a crusader for better tests and the more effective selection and use of tests, and he used the Mental Measurements Yearbooks as the principal instrument in this crusade. Buros passed away in 1978, and his widow, Luella Buros, worked tirelessly to find a new home for the Institute. As a result of her efforts the Institute was relocated at the University of ...


1. Introduction: The Implications Of Cognitive Psychology For Testing, Royce R. Ronning, Jane C. Conoley, John G. Glover Jan 1987

1. Introduction: The Implications Of Cognitive Psychology For Testing, Royce R. Ronning, Jane C. Conoley, John G. Glover

The Influence of Cognitive Psychology on Testing

The 1985 Buros-Nebraska Symposium was developed to address the broad issue of the influence of cognitive psychology on testing and measurement. In the planning process, four topics were formulated that we asked contributors to address. The following four issues provided the focus for the Symposium and hence for the present volume. We explore:

1. Cognitive psychology as a basis for questioning some of our assumptions about the nature of mental abilities;
2. The influence of cognitive psychology on test development;
3. Cognitive psychology influences on test validity;
4. Cognitive psychology as a means to provide a linkage between testing and ...


Section I- The Cognitive Psychometric Connection Jan 1987

Section I- The Cognitive Psychometric Connection

The Influence of Cognitive Psychology on Testing

Section I- The Cognitive Psychometric Connection


2. Science, Technology, And Intelligence, Earl Hunt Jan 1987

2. Science, Technology, And Intelligence, Earl Hunt

The Influence of Cognitive Psychology on Testing

The intelligence test has been cited as psychology's most important technological contribution to society. Whether this is good or ill can be debated (Eysenck, 1979; Gould, 1981; Herrnstein, 1971; Kamin, 1974). Certain facts are not really subject to debate . Psychologists can and have developed "standardized interviews" that, on a population basis, provide a cost effective technique for personnel classification in industrial, military, and some government settings. However, the tests are very far from perfect indicators. Validity coefficients between tests and performance ratings typically range in the .3 to .5 range (i.e. , from 10 to 25% of the variance ...


4. The G Beyond Factor Analysis, Arthur R. Jensen Jan 1987

4. The G Beyond Factor Analysis, Arthur R. Jensen

The Influence of Cognitive Psychology on Testing

The problem of g, essentially , concerns two very fundamental questions: (1) Why are scores on various mental ability tests positively correlated? and (2) Why do people differ in performance on such tests?

SOME DEFINITIONS

To insure that we are talking the same language, we must review a few definitions. Clarity, explicitness, and avoidance of excess meaning or connotative overtones are virtues of a definition. Aside from these properties, a definition per se affords nothing to argue about. It has nothing to do with truth or reality; it is a formality needed for communication.

A mental ability test consists of a ...


Section Ii- Cognitive Approaches To Psychometric Issues: Applications Jan 1987

Section Ii- Cognitive Approaches To Psychometric Issues: Applications

The Influence of Cognitive Psychology on Testing

Section II- COGNITIVE APPROACHES TO PSYCHOMETRIC ISSUES: APPLICATIONS


6. Theoretical Implications From Protocol Analysis On Testing And Measurement, K. Anders Ericsson Jan 1987

6. Theoretical Implications From Protocol Analysis On Testing And Measurement, K. Anders Ericsson

The Influence of Cognitive Psychology on Testing

One of the goals of psychology has always been to describe, understand, and measure individual differences. The diversity of human behavior makes it particularly challenging to seek to identify general and stable underlying elements that correspond to systematic individual differences . A major problem in the efforts to identify such elements is that the elements cannot be observed directly. The primary method has been to use the current psychological theory to develop procedures to measure such hypothetical elements. In this chapter I present a new theoretic framework, based on verbal reports from subjects, for identifying and measuring individual differences. I argue ...


Section Iii- Methodological Issues Jan 1987

Section Iii- Methodological Issues

The Influence of Cognitive Psychology on Testing

Section III- METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES


5. The Assessment Of Cognitive Factors In Academic Abilities, Stephen L. Benton, Kenneth A. Kiewra Jan 1987

5. The Assessment Of Cognitive Factors In Academic Abilities, Stephen L. Benton, Kenneth A. Kiewra

The Influence of Cognitive Psychology on Testing

Nearly 30 years ago, Lee Cronbach (1957) distinguished between the two disciplines of correlational psychology, which investigated naturally occurring individual variance in behavior, and experimental psychology, which examined the effectiveness of certain treatments on behavior. Essentially, correlational psychology examined individual differences using factor analytic techniques; whereas experimental psychology attempted to eliminate individual differences using appropriate interventions. Cronbach believed that these two disciplines should join together to promote aptitude-treatment interaction (A Tl) research that would identify effective treatments for certain types of individuals. With this combined approach, different treatments could be prescribed for skilled and less skilled individuals.

The A Tl ...


3. Toward A Cognitive Theory For The Measu Rement Of Achievement, Robert Glaser, Alan Lesgold, Susanne Lajoie Jan 1987

3. Toward A Cognitive Theory For The Measu Rement Of Achievement, Robert Glaser, Alan Lesgold, Susanne Lajoie

The Influence of Cognitive Psychology on Testing

INTRODUCTION

Given the demands for higher levels of learning in our schools and the press for education in the skilled trades, the professions, and the sciences, we must develop more powerful and specific methods for assessing achievement. We need forms of assessment that educators can use to improve educational practice and to diagnose individual progress by monitoring the outcomes of learning and training. Compared to the well-developed technology for aptitude measurement and selection testing, however, the measurement of achievement and diagnosis of learning problems is underdeveloped. This is because the correlational models that support prediction are insufficient for the task ...